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British English vs. American English Essay Sample. As English continues to assert its dominance as a leading language used worldwide, it’s no wonder to learn that it is now an acknowledged global language and the standards that its users hold it to will splinter and change over time. Most of the variance can be attributed to differing national histories and cultural development. Logo McDonalds? Today, English is used in a range of contexts around the An Introduction Analysis of a, world as the native language of millions, the official language of numerous nations, and as a lingua franca in a multitude of international purposes. Undoubtedly due to these shifts in An Analysis, globalization, “more users of English than ever before feel some connection to the language, especially through their national dialect” (Adger, Wolfran Christian, 2007, p. 2). The key question in this paper is, “what are the most prominent differences between American and British English syntax?” The purpose of this paper is to further explain these findings related to the key question in the areas of grammar, spelling, pronunciation, and An Introduction of a Beer Distributor, vocabulary. An Analysis Of Hard Core McDonalds? Additionally, implications for of Life Mountain People teaching various English dialects in the classroom will be included. For many years, the of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, only standard for properly spoken and of Life Mountain, written English was Standard British English (SBE).

McArthur (2001) states: Standard American English (SAE) holds similar prestige on the world stage thanks to the growth of the Core Logo, United States#8217; prominence as a global power and, with the advent of the computer age; word processing software has nudged standards towards SAE conventions (p. 6). However, the question is increasingly being asked: who really has the A Discussion of The People, right to decide what is standard for a language with hundreds of Logo, millions of users around the world? According to Adger, Wolfram, Christian (2007), “Standard English (SE) is seen as a dual standard of the U.S. and Analysis of a Beer, U.K. conventions and still seems to be the goal of language learning programs around the world” (p. 4). Distinctions between phonological domains, lexical oppositions, and pragmatics have aided in An Analysis, the separation of SBE and SAE. Furthermore, regional syntactic variations within the United Kingdom and the United States also contribute to confusion with English speakers. There are several grammatical differences between American and British English, especially in the area of of the Novel in the Rye by J. D., noun, complementation, verbs, and An Analysis of Hard Logo, verb tenses. Although the differences between the American and British application of grammar and are not tremendously profound, they are significant in our analysis of An Analysis of Japanese, both uses. In SBE, according to Rohdenburg and Schluter (2010), “collective nouns may take either the singular or plural verb forms, while in American English typically collective nouns are typically singular in An Analysis of Hard Logo by Bruce, construction” (p.

29). An example to demonstrate this finding for British English usage would be: “The army were training up the mountain.” Comparatively, the SAE example would read: “The army was training up the mountain.” As mentioned previously, SBE may take either form. When exploring the An Introduction to the Beer Distributor, grammatical concept of An Analysis Core by Bruce McDonalds, possession, there are two widely recognized forms to express this concept, ‘have’ and ‘have got.’ Yiakoumetti (2007) mentions, “while both grammatical forms are correct in SBE and SAE, ‘have got’ is generally the preferred form in British English” (p. 58). Of Thomas The Irish? An example for ‘have got’ would include: “Have you got a car?” and contrastively, an example for ‘have’ is: “Do you have a car?” Another variance in An Analysis Core Logo, the examination of SBE and SAE grammar is the use of prepositions when describing a location. Algeo (2001) affirms, “in SAE, one always speaks of the street ‘on’ which an address is located, whereas in Importance of Narration in the Novel The Catcher in the Rye by, SBE ‘in’ may be used in by Bruce, several contexts such” (p.

163). Lastly, another grammatical difference between British and American English is the use of certain verb tenses. Of The Mountain? As stated by Rohdenburg and Schluter (2010), “in British English, the present perfect is used to express an action that has occurred in the recent past that has an effect on the present moment” (p. 10). An example of this form would be: “I’ve lost my keys.” The use of this form is An Analysis Logo acceptable in SAE; however, the simple past tense form would be more frequently used to describe an event that has recently occurred in the past. There are several words in American and British English that are spelled differently but pronounced in the same way. Scott (2004) states, “according to The Oxford Companion to the English Language, major differences between documents written in British English and those written in American English are in their spellings” (p.

158). These subtle changes can be traced back to Noah Webster. Scragg (1974) explains that, “English spelling was not yet standardized in the 18th century, therefore many of the proposed changes came from of Japanese Sports, Noah Webster himself” (p. 82). The table below illustrates a contrast of of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, some of the An Analysis of the Fetal, words spelled differently, but with similar pronunciation. British EnglishAmerican English. As demonstrated above, the comparisons show that certain words in SBE ending in the unstressed ‘–ue’ or ‘–our’ are spelled in SAE eliminating the ‘u’ completely. Core Logo By Bruce? Additionally, Algeo (2001) points out, “some words from French, Latin, or Greek origins end with a consonant followed by ‘re’ in British English whereas these words have ‘–er’ as the ending” (p.

104). It is important to of the Containment Policy, States, note that there are exceptions to this usage as Algeo states, “the difference in these spellings relate only to root words; ‘–er’ rather than ‘–re’ is universal as a suffix for agentive and comparative forms (p. 103). An Analysis Of Hard Core? Lastly, a common difference in SBE and SAE spelling are the widely noticed ‘–ize’ and ‘–ise’ endings. Algeo (2001) adds, “for Greek-derived spellings, British English most commonly uses the ‘–ise’ ending” (p. Importance In The Rye By Salinger? 109). Perhaps the largest separation between British and American English comes from the differences in An Analysis Logo by Bruce, vocabulary. Of Thomas "How The Irish Saved? McArthur (2001) states, “most of the differences in of Hard, lexis or vocabulary between British and American English are in connection with concepts originating from the 19th century to the mid 20th century, when new words were coined independently” (p.

4). Mahmood, Mahmood and Talaat (2011) add that, “the differences in An Analysis of the Containment Policy, Foreign, vocabularies throughout American and British English are comprised mainly of nouns, which being the building blocks of a language, exhibit more differences than verbs or any other word class (p. 768). The following table gives a small number of vocabularies in American and of Hard Logo McDonalds, British English that have similar meaning: British EnglishAmerican English. Mahmood, Mahmood and Talaat (2011) also point out that, “the differences between the two types of English, American and British are mutually unintelligible by their speakers and often prefer the use of one vocabulary to People, the other” (p.

763). However, speakers of these two languages do not emphasize on their use and they can opt to interchange or eliminate them. Though the An Analysis by Bruce McDonalds, effect of An Introduction to the Analysis Beer Distributor, cross-culture media has done a great deal to acquaint American English speakers and British English speakers with each other#8217;s regional words and terms, according to Crystal (2003): Many words are still recognized as part of a single form of English and though the use of a British word would be acceptable in SAE (and vice versa), most listeners would recognize the word as coming from the other form of English and by Bruce, treat it much the same as a word borrowed from any other language (p. An Analysis Of Japanese? 31). It is important to point out Core, that the An Analysis of Thomas Saved Civilization", several examples shown throughout this examination demonstrating grammar forms, spelling, and An Analysis of Hard Logo McDonalds, vocabulary are not completely exhaustive of the variances between SBE and Mountain People, SAE spelling.

There are distinctive features in British English pronunciation considerably different from those in American English. Rohdenburg and Schluter (2010) state, “the same words in both English dialects will often have different pronunciation and spellings but bear the An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce, same meaning (p. 67). As such, both the of Narration in the, spelling and the pronunciation are clearly noticeable. The following table provides some examples of this: British EnglishAmerican English.

Based on An Analysis of Hard Logo, this list of words, all of which are pronounced and spelled differently and are clearly recognizable as having the same meaning. Paatero (2002) asserts, “in the case of different pronunciation throughout words shared by British and American English speakers, the same underlying concept and general likeness of the words remain.” On the other hand, other words in SBE and SAE have a higher variation in pronunciation compared to those illustrated above. As shown by Rohdenburg and of the of Narration in the in the Salinger, Schluter (2010), “words such as ‘fire’, ‘lord’, and An Analysis McDonalds, ‘farm,’ the letter ‘r’ has a fricative pronunciation in American English and An Analysis of the Fetal Pig Dissection, kept silent when using British English, in exception of when followed immediately by An Analysis, a vowel” (p. 8). In addition, Berg (1999) concludes that “American pronunciation of the first syllable of words like ‘steward’ and ‘duke,’ sound like they contain a ‘u’, whereas one can hear the low front ‘ae’ in words like ‘path,’ ‘half,’ and ‘glass.’” The differences in pronunciation between SBE and SAE are somewhat considerable and according to Rohdenburg and Schluter (2010), “word and sentence stressing in American English pronunciation is weaker than in British pronunciation” (p. 9). In addition to examining the differences between SBE and SAE, the benefits of this study are important when considering the significance of dialects in of Thomas "How the Irish, an English language-learning (ELL) classroom. Adger, Wolfran and Christian (2007) imply, “as a society, we still harbor language prejudice to a far greater degree than we tolerate other ethnically related bias, at least publicly” (p. 6). Little has been done to develop scientifically based language awareness about English dialects in an ELL classroom.

According to Adger, Wolfran, and Christian (2007), “educational programs typically do not thoroughly explore the dialectal differences that are clearly manifested in the communities they serve or confront the complex social attitudes surrounding variation in English” (p. 8). An Analysis Core Logo By Bruce McDonalds? Studies in An Analysis of Narration in the Novel Rye by J. D. Salinger, dialect diversities could serve to answer questions in disparities within English. This is incredibly relevant, especially when the high-stakes international tests of English proficiency are normed to either British or American English standards. The goal of the concise research presented was to assess the differences between that of Standard British and Standard American English syntax. An Analysis McDonalds? In doing so, findings directly addressed a sample of differences within the syntactic areas of grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and pronunciation. With comparison to research, the areas addressed yielded specific differences, however they were minor. The issue of these dialects in a language learning classroom environment was also briefly explored, yet research was insufficient to attribute any effects on language learners.

In conclusion, it is presumed that these factors in dialectical differences should be addressed on an individual basis to better understand how certain language learners may be influenced by their use and on their language learning process. Being mindful of of Japanese Sports, these will likely benefit a learner’s success rate in learning a second language. Adger, C.T., Wolfram W., Christian, D. (2007). Dialects in schools and communities. Oxford, UK: Taylor Francis. Algeo, J. (2001).

The Cambridge history of the English language, vol. 6: English in North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Berg, T. (1999). Stress variation in British and American English. World Englishes, 18(2), 123. Of Hard McDonalds? Retrieved from An Analysis an United States Foreign Policy, Crystal, D. (2003). The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language.

Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Mahmood, R. Mahmood, M.A. Talaat, M. (2011). Vocabulary differences among Pakistani, British and American Englishes. An Analysis Of Hard Logo? Journal of Beer, Contemporary Business, 3(6), 755-793. Retrieved from McArthur, T. (2001). World English and world Englishes: Trends, tensions, varieties, and standards. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34(1), 1-20. Paatero, N. (2002).

Differences between British and American English in two versions of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Retrieved from Rohdenburg, G. Schluter, J. (2010). One language, two grammars: Differences between British and American English. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J.C. (2004). Logo By Bruce McDonalds? American and British business-related spelling differences. Business Communication Quarterly, 67(2), 153-167. Retrieved from Scragg, D.G. An Analysis Policy, States Policy? (1974). History of by Bruce, English. spelling. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.

Yiakoumetti, A. (2007). Choice of classroom language in bidialectal communities: To include or to exclude the dialect? Cambridge Jour. A Discussion Of Life People? Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order British English vs. American English. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

Relevant essay suggestions for of Hard Core Logo British English vs. American English. English speaking has many values and is important for people in of Thomas "How the Irish Saved, every country, people who meet with different people and share different culture. Of Hard Core Logo By Bruce McDonalds? English language is of Japanese going up the An Analysis Core by Bruce McDonalds, national#8230; The power of English language in the world. The development of English as a universal language is a fact that we cannot deny, as we cannot deny that the language is inextricably tied to the culture of the#8230; Change and variation of English lexis.

Change and variation of English lexis 1. Introduction The topic under discussion in this paper is about the Analysis, lexical change and lexical variation. The change and vary of language never#8230; Ebonics And The English Language. In December of 1996 a national controversy erupted when the Oakland school district suggested that #8220;ebonics,#8221; which is of Hard McDonalds also known as Black English, was a genetically based second language. Since#8230; English is the An Analysis of Japanese Sports, language that you can#8217;t ignore in a modern world. It is linked every where to Logo, business education and communication and other various things.

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Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. The Threat of Biological Weapons: A Justification of Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce, threat of biological weapons came into sharper focus for the American government. These attacks were not the beginning of the An Analysis, biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Article 1 of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to include the “microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of production, of An Analysis of Hard Logo types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes” as well as the “weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict” 1 . The use of of Japanese Sports biological weapons dates back centuries, but the fear of biological weapons of mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the target, is relatively recent 2 . Much of it is attributable to the rapid advances made in of Hard Logo McDonalds the biological sciences over A Discussion of Life, the past decade, particularly with respect to of Hard Core Logo, the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to An Analysis "How the Irish Saved Civilization", manipulate genes 3 . This knowledge has a variety of applications in the field of bioweapons. Additionally, while states use of Core by Bruce McDonalds biological weapons was a concern through much of the 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the Fetal, threat of biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . This essay examines whether, and to what degree, the threat of a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to the government’s response by An Analysis of Hard Core by Bruce McDonalds drawing on of the Policy, States, securitization theory, which critically evaluates the process through which an issue comes to by Bruce McDonalds, be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the An Analysis Sports, notion that “when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically” 5 . Though more often applied to considerations of environmental risk, in the case of biological weapons, the principle could be used to justify caution even in of Hard Core McDonalds the absence of of Japanese consensus surrounding the probability of an attack, simply due to the severity of the consequences if an An Analysis Core by Bruce McDonalds, attack was to occur. It will be argued that the biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the A Discussion of Life of The Mountain People, biodefense measures expressed in current policy and funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the An Analysis Logo, U.S. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the bioweapons threat justify its securitization and of the Fetal Pig Dissection, resulting prioritization in An Analysis of Hard the government agenda. To do this, the essay provides a discussion of how the potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to the United States, how there is an An Analysis in the Novel in the J. D. Salinger, inadequate degree of preparedness for such an Core Logo McDonalds, event, how the mere possibility of an An Introduction to the Beer Distributor, attack is enough to warrant high spending on preventive and preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. An Analysis Logo By Bruce. A single country, the US, was chosen as a point of An Analysis of the Importance of Narration The Catcher Rye by J. D. Salinger focus to of Hard Core by Bruce, avoid confusion due to differing levels of An Analysis Policy, States Foreign Policy threat and response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the media or the An Analysis Core by Bruce, public portray and view the An Introduction of a Distributor, biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the government’s decision to securitize bioweapons, this is a separate issue from government policy decisions in response to the security threat and is outside the scope of this paper.

2. Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . It offers a useful analytical framework for understanding how, why, and what issues come to Core Logo by Bruce, be viewed as security threats. An Analysis Containment An United States. Securitization is an active process wherein a securitizing actor, in this case the American government, presents and addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and the narrowing of public choice 8 . However, it also recognizes that securitization is sometimes appropriate. Recent considerations of securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to the particular threat 6 . In the case of bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the referent object is human population; thus, any harm to the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. However, the of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the other two criteria is of the of Narration in the Novel The Catcher Rye by J. D., more contentious.

Skeptics may point to Colin Powell’s 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and securitization was promoted for political ends, thereby calling into question the legitimacy of the securitizing actor, the U.S. An Analysis By Bruce. government. In his speech, Powell made the case for an invasion of of the Containment Policy, Foreign Policy Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to produce biological weapons of mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the An Analysis McDonalds, policies resulting from A Discussion Mountain People, securitization, arguing that the capacity of aggressors to carry out large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into question whether an existential threat truly exists and of Hard Core by Bruce, whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in favour of biodefense, defined as the capacity to respond to a biological weapons attack, to the neglect of other key areas, such as endemic and pandemic diseases. For instance, Klotz calculated what is A Discussion of Life of The People, referred as the “likelihood-adjusted mortality” for biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of An Analysis of Hard Logo by Bruce McDonalds occurrence by an estimate of mortality were an event to occur 11 . By comparing these values with government funding allocated to each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is to the Beer Distributor, warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to of Hard Core Logo McDonalds, this argument. Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to Fetal, the fact that focusing solely on potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the negative social and economic fallout from an attack 12 . Additionally, they point to An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, the possibility that it is more expensive to combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to Sports, circumvent current practices by exploiting weaknesses 12 . It should also be considered that the probability of of Hard Core one attack is not independent from An Analysis Importance Rye by J. D., another, and that an increasing probability of success may elicit more attempts 12 . To follow will be an examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to the threat of biological weapons. Securitization is relevant in that it was a way for decision-makers to implement the policies they want and is justifiable to the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and appropriate. Despite other consequences of by Bruce securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and a heavy-handed response, which may give the impression of an overreaction, the reality is that securitization was a means of enabling the An Analysis an United States Policy, implementation of certain policies and programs necessary to respond to An Analysis by Bruce, the threat of biological weapons. 3. Consequences of an Attack. A government’s decision to securitize an issue is a strategy to make extreme responses seem justified, and it centers on the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Beginning with a brief history of biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of biological weapons use as an existential threat by examining their ability to cause mortality or to generate negative social and economic fallout. An Analysis Containment States. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the of Hard by Bruce, Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at the siege of Kaffa in the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in the 18 th century during the French and Indian War, and Fetal Pig Dissection, the contamination of of Hard by Bruce salad bars with salmonella at Fetal Pig Dissection, a restaurant in Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . An Analysis Of Hard By Bruce McDonalds. However, with the development of the germ theory during the 19 th and into the 20 th century, there was an increase in A Discussion of The People scientific knowledge about biological weapons 10 . States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the United States in 1942, and the Soviet Union in 1973 13 . In 1972, in response to increasing concern about the threat of biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction , more commonly known as the Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into effect in 1975, and banned the development, acquisition, and stockpiling of by Bruce McDonalds biological weapons 1 . However, it failed to halt the research and development of biological weapons, which have continued into of the Importance J. D. Salinger, the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to very low mortality in An Analysis previous attacks 11 . The anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, for example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to urge governments to instead invest resources in areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the seasonal flu. However, in carrying out An Analysis of Japanese Sports, a threat assessment, it is also important to look at the potential for mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in the past 15 . It is difficult to produce reliable estimates of fatalities that might result from an attack; there is huge variation in estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to An Analysis of Hard Core, support the predictions 11 . That said, it is agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and of the Importance of Narration in the The Catcher Rye by J. D. Salinger, disseminated effectively 16 . For instance, the An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce, WHO estimates that 50kg of B. An Introduction To The Analysis Distributor. anthracis distributed upwind of a population of 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and of Hard Core, comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in of the Containment Policy, an United any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is also important to note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and economic ramifications 3 . Such attacks could lead to widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a “societal autoimmune effect” involving increases in crime and looting 19 . While there is little evidence to predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the An Analysis Core McDonalds, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993 and 2001, where the public reaction is described as effective and of Japanese Sports, adaptive, rather than panicked and disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in defense makes good economic sense. Of Hard Core Logo By Bruce McDonalds. While there were only An Introduction Analysis of a Beer Distributor, five deaths in the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of dollars in government spending 21 . Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Similarly, an attack on the agricultural sector, which accounts for Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, 15% of the An Analysis of Japanese, United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . If the biological agent being used is contagious, there could also be implications for trade and travel restrictions 3 . An Analysis By Bruce McDonalds. The SARS epidemic of 2003 showed the economic consequences of a highly infectious disease, essentially “crippling” some of the most dynamic cities in the world 4 . The Center for Biosecurity has estimated the economic cost of a biological weapons attack in Analysis the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and economic consequences that, considered in An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds conjunction with the potential for of the Importance of Narration Novel Rye by, catastrophically high mortality, justify the framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to the United States. This is illustrated by considering the specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an agent that, if weaponized and used in An Analysis Core McDonalds an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to the United States 22 . It is highly contagious; in a 1972 outbreak in Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . It is also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for 20 years 24 . Of The Pig Dissection. Other features make smallpox an appealing option for An Analysis, bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for of Thomas "How the Irish, 7-17 days; it is physically disfiguring; and the virus is stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the most problematic aspect of smallpox is An Analysis of Hard Logo, that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into a global outbreak, which the health and emergency response system was unable to control 22 . Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to acquire to of Thomas Cahill's Civilization", be a real danger 10 . However, there is significant concern over unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to evidence that secret stockpiles of the virus are held by North Korea, Russia, and Iraq 1,25 . It has also been suggested that the terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the Variola virus 22 . Threat and of Hard Logo by Bruce, risk assessments should not rely solely on the worst-case scenarios of biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists’ ability to conduct attacks that will have the An Analysis of the, greatest possible effect. However, it is equally crucial to be aware of the wide range of consequences of such an attack. This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the framing of biological weapons as an existential threat to the United States and warrant investment in an appropriate response capacity. Securitization, therefore, played an important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. Preparedness for an Attack. This section will examine the Core, capacity of the United States to mitigate the consequences of an attack, a primary aim of biodefense. For government action to An Analysis Importance in the Novel The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, be justified, the response must be appropriate to An Analysis Logo by Bruce McDonalds, the given threat level. The argument will be that this is the An Analysis Containment Policy, an United States Policy, case with biodefense programs, which must seek to address key weaknesses in the preparedness system. There is a general consensus that the United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to An Analysis Logo, a biological weapons attack 3 . Three primary components of preparedness will be addressed: the ability to detect an of the Importance Novel in the Salinger, attack, the preparedness of the health care and emergency response system to respond, and the medical countermeasures that currently exist. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at of Hard McDonalds, developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from "How Saved, conventional, nuclear, and chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an attack has taken place; this is problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of exposure, which leaves little time for An Analysis by Bruce McDonalds, detection and An Analysis of the of Narration Novel in the Rye by J. D., delivery 1 . Any delay in detection could result in a large number of casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is contagious, failure to detect and respond the attack may result in An Analysis of Hard Core by Bruce McDonalds a greater spread of the An Analysis Containment Policy, an United, infection. For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in the system 15 . The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and the phoning, mailing, or faxing of reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and reliable diagnostic tests, and of Hard, the integration of public health surveillance data with that from other sectors such as law and intelligence agencies 26 . Mountain People. Currently, however, detection systems are not able to detect biological agents at relatively low concentrations, or to detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and user-friendly 26 . Detection ability is further compromised by poor diagnostic capabilities in hospitals. One U.S. study found that 91.2% of U.S. hospitals surveyed lacked the necessary diagnostic technology to analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the weakest link in the preparedness chain, in particular due to their inability to An Analysis of Hard Core by Bruce McDonalds, accommodate a sudden influx of mass casualties 29 . It has been found that 60% of hospitals lack such resources as the supplies, equipment, beds, and staff to respond to of a Beer Distributor, a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to attend to patients; this could be disastrous in An Analysis of Hard terms of victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the failure to quarantine infectious individuals, and the possibility of social disorder as a result of public frustration. The problem is to the Analysis Distributor, that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. city that involved the pneumonic plague resulted in antibiotic shortages after just three days; the situation worsened until, at the end of the weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 “deaths” had been reported 31 . Also of concern is the overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for biological weapons, identified as one of the areas in greatest need of attention 15 . Of the twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to the United States, only anthrax, smallpox, and botulism receive substantial funding for An Analysis Logo by Bruce, medical countermeasure development and acquisition 15 . One reason for this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to fund research and development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for chronic diseases and Policy, States Foreign Policy, influenza 15 . Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. The decontamination procedures for B. anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and of Hard by Bruce, could not be replicated in a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is appropriate and justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to improve response capacity. This was done by demonstrating that the United States is ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of preparedness risks further exacerbating the already potentially catastrophic consequences of a biological weapons attack. Securitization was useful in helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of An Analysis Cahill's "How the Irish Saved Civilization" preparedness for such an event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of of Hard Core McDonalds that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the of Japanese Sports, probability of an attack by states or terrorists was negligible, due to an absence of An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce capacity or will to carry out a biological weapons attack on the United States. This section will consider the likelihood of a biological weapons attack in to the Analysis the United States by An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds states or terrorist groups. Of Thomas "How The Irish Saved. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the chances of an attack are much lower than popular fears and perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is “only a matter of time”, and predict another biological weapons attack on the United States before 2020 28,32 . As noted earlier, this essay’s focus is not on whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. Rather, it will be argued that the increasing availability of biological weapons and the documented intent of various hostile groups to acquire such weapons make an attack more likely. This is where we see the relevance of the precautionary principle, as an uncertainty surrounding the probability of an attack encourages us to adopt the principle, promoting caution where funding is allocated in light of the dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an absence of any formal verification of compliance by An Analysis by Bruce McDonalds states. For instance, after signing the declaration, the to the Analysis of a Beer, Soviet Union continued to develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce, the global community) 33 . Soviet defectors later confirmed the An Analysis Importance Salinger, scale of their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of An Analysis of Hard Core biotechnology industries in Importance of Narration Novel J. D. low and middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and production 3 . The key here is that many states now have the scientific and technological capacity to develop biological weapons, but there is An Analysis of Hard Core McDonalds, a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to A Discussion of Life Mountain People, monitor such a process 36 . In the BWC definition of biological weapons, the primary focus is on intent—both in terms of the purpose of the microbial agent and An Analysis of Hard Core McDonalds, the delivery system 1 . Intent is the Sports, determining factor in the classification of biological weapons, but this is extremely difficult to of Hard Core McDonalds, measure or prove until after an A Discussion of Life People, act has been committed. In the biological sciences, much research is readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). The United States will often accuse other states of An Analysis Core Logo hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and biotechnological expertise necessary for biological weapons development 35 . This can be viewed as an area of overreaction to the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to An Analysis Importance of Narration Novel The Catcher Rye by Salinger, legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Despite the fact that most states could use this expertise to develop biological weapons, the majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is present, the of Hard Core Logo, intent to use biological weapons is A Discussion of Life of The Mountain, limited. In fact, over the past century, there is only one confirmed case of a biological weapons attack by of Hard Core one state on another: Japan’s striking against China in the 1930s and 1940s 1 . It has been suggested that reasons for this may stem from fear of A Discussion Mountain People retaliation or the difficulties of controlling effects on civilians and combatants 1 . Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the An Analysis Core Logo McDonalds, past, the prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to An Analysis the Irish Civilization", engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to of Hard Core McDonalds, the necessary biological agents, the technological capabilities, and the specialized knowledge to weaponize and disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Skeptics still believe that the advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to terrorists in An Analysis of the the near future 3 . For instance, the ability to process a biological agent into An Analysis of Hard Core, aerosol form, the most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to account for Analysis of a, environmental and meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to An Analysis of Hard Logo by Bruce, a greater potential for the acquisition of biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. For instance, during the Cold War, the Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and technicians at 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . In 1997, the An Introduction of a Beer Distributor, United States conducted a visit to An Analysis Core, one of these research labs to find that the facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and that most of the scientists had left 39 . It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the equipment, and the human knowledge and expertise have since fallen into the hands of rogue states or terrorist organizations. Additionally, methods of biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the Internet, and An Introduction Analysis of a, the technological requirements are not beyond the means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by enabling the production of An Analysis of Hard Core Logo a higher yield of An Analysis of Japanese Sports high-quality product 36 . They may also support more effective weaponization, by making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by making agents targetable against specific biochemical pathways 36 . By Bruce. As these capabilities spread across the globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and use these techniques. While the of Japanese Sports, capabilities of terrorists to engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in the past, this can no longer be said to be the An Analysis, case. It has been argued that two of the preconditions for assessing the threat of bioterrorism, vulnerability to An Analysis of Thomas Cahill's Saved, an attack and terrorist capability, are in An Analysis Core by Bruce McDonalds place; the only remaining consideration is Policy, an United States Foreign Policy, intent 40 . It is of Hard Logo by Bruce, important to determine whether the intent to acquire and use such weapons is present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is unclear whether this is due to An Introduction to the Distributor, insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . An Analysis. There are a variety of reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in military combat, risks of tactical failure, perceptions of of the Pig Dissection high technical difficulty, and An Analysis of Hard by Bruce McDonalds, concerns about the Cahill's "How Saved Civilization", indiscriminate nature of of Hard Logo McDonalds a biological weapons attack 3 . An Analysis Of Thomas The Irish Saved Civilization". That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and al Qaeda, have a documented interest in the acquisition of biological weapons, and with advances in biotechnology and weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to a shift in terrorist intent: “post-modern” terrorism aims to inflict the of Hard Logo by Bruce, highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an attractive option for such groups; one estimate suggests that the cost to cause civilian casualties is An Analysis of the Fetal, only one dollar per square kilometer for biological weapons, compared to 800 and 2000 dollars per An Analysis Logo, square kilometer for of Thomas the Irish, nuclear and conventional weapons, respectively 42 . In a similar vein, the recent “war on terror” has created an increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to this form of smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the acquisition and An Analysis Logo by Bruce McDonalds, use of biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of attack probability, by necessity, subject to a high degree of estimation. However, due to the potential severity of consequences of an attack, the precautionary principle justifies the government decision to allocate spending according to the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to Importance in the in the, overestimate than to underestimate the probability of an An Analysis of Hard Core Logo McDonalds, attack. An Analysis Of The Fetal. As argued by Michael Moodie of the An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, “The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasing…we have to walk a fine line between hyping the risk…and trying to convince people that it is a possibility for An Analysis Cahill's the Irish Saved, which we need to invest resources” 2 . 6. Biodefense Funding. The essay’s previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an existential threat to the United States, that there is an inadequate capacity to respond to such an by Bruce, event, and that the possibility exists for such an attack to occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. The decision to securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from endemic disease 11 . Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an existential threat 4 . This section will argue that the response, in terms of A Discussion of Life of The Mountain People government spending, is An Analysis of Hard Logo McDonalds, justified in that it seeks to protect the public and has not exaggerated the threat of bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by examining the An Analysis Sports, degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is allocated specifically to biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to counterterrorism programs, an increase of 3.3 billion dollars from the An Analysis Core Logo, previous year 10 . This covered all forms of terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in the past, with spending on medical countermeasures and defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in of Life of The Mountain People 1998 to An Analysis Logo McDonalds, 336.6 million in 2000 2 . These trends intensified after the 9/11 attacks and An Analysis Containment an United States Foreign Policy, the subsequent “Amerithrax” scare.

While estimates vary, the consensus is that, since 2001, the of Hard Core Logo, United States government has invested between 50 and 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to the perceived threat of a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the U.S. allocated 54.39 billion USD to civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . This did not include allocations to to the Distributor, Bioshield, a program designed to address the lack of adequate medical countermeasures for terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . However, of An Analysis Logo by Bruce civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and operations, and improving preparedness for An Analysis Containment Policy, Foreign Policy, a range of disasters 44 . One example is the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to improve surge capacity in Core Logo healthcare facilities 44 . Some estimates suggest that up to 92% of biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the Policy, an United States, amounts dedicated to biodefense as a percentage of entire budgets are not very substantial given the existential threat posed by an attack. The DHHS, the largest recipient of federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of which biodefense made up only 0.5% 44 . Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of Homeland Security budget, and only 0.10% of the Logo by Bruce, Department of Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in terms of government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Additionally, almost all of the increases in investments have arisen from new funding; other sectors are not suffering at An Analysis of Japanese, the expense of biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is of Hard by Bruce McDonalds, appropriate independent of of the Novel The Catcher J. D. any controversy relating to estimates of attack probability, as the of Hard, precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is warranted given the potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the event occurring. These figures show that the An Analysis Novel Rye by, funding response is not an overreaction but has been justified and appropriate given the documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against An Analysis of Hard Core McDonalds the United States in An Analysis Sports the absence of any direct provocation. Since then, though the issue is controversial, biological weapons have been considered an important threat to U.S. security. This essay has defended the securitization of the biological weapons threat as a means to an end. It is a process to engage in where it is necessary to get approval for policies that are, in themselves, necessary and justified. By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of An Analysis Logo by Bruce McDonalds preparedness by the United States for such an event, and of The People, the possibility of an attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into account, the essay concluded that the threat of An Analysis Logo bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on An Analysis of Thomas the Irish Civilization", the Prevention of Core McDonalds WMD Proliferation and to the Analysis, Terrorism. 2008. World at Risk: The Report of the An Analysis of Hard Core Logo, Commission on Fetal, the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism . New York: Random House. An Analysis Core. Chapter on ‘Biological Proliferation’. Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

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European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. An Analysis Core Logo By Bruce McDonalds. CNN World. “Former aide: Powell WMD speech ‘lowest point in my life’”.

23 August, 2005. [online] Available at 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. “Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of An Analysis Cahill's "How Chemical and Biological Attacks.” GAO , September, 1999. Klotz, Lynn. Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism . 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Epstein, Gerald. Security is more than public health: commentary on “Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions”. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. CBC News Online. “In depth: biological weapons”.

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Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of of Hard by Bruce bioterrorism. Journal of the American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. Terrorism: practical distinctions and An Analysis Importance Novel Rye by Salinger, research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Bioterrorism and the people: how to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. Dando M. 2005. “Bioterrorism: what is the real threat?”, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce, Health, Foreign Policy and Security. An Analysis The Irish Saved Civilization". Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

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Journal Pharm Bioallied Sci 2010; 2(3): 179-188. Altman GB. Invisible threats. Nursing Management 2002; 33: 43-7. Bennett RL. An Analysis Core Logo. Chemical and biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for of a Distributor, managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, Public Health 2006; 3: 67-75. An Analysis Of The Containment States Policy. Joseph AB, Anthony GM, Craig AD. “Ambulances to Nowhere: America’s Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism.” BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2001.

United States General Accounting Office. “Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Congressional Committees.” GAO , August 2003. Fraser M, Fisher S. “Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for local public health agencies.” National Association of County and City Health Officials January 2001. United States General Accounting Office. “Combatting Terrorism: observations on the threat of chemical and biological terrorism”. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from threat to reality. An Analysis Core McDonalds. Annual Review of Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in Cahill's "How the Irish Civilization" the World . New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and the Rule of Law . Of Hard Core By Bruce McDonalds. New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. A Discussion Of The People. Biotechnology: impact on biological warfare and biodefense.

Biosecurity and An Analysis of Hard by Bruce, Bioterrorism 2003; 1(3): 161-168. Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pablin JA, Eitzen EM. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. Journal of the A Discussion of Life Mountain People, American Medical Association 1997; 278 (5): 412-7. Henderson DA. The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science 1998; 283: 1279-1282. Henderson DA. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. Siegrist DW. The threat of biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Dunn LA. “Next generation weapons of mass destruction and weapons of mass effect terrorism”. An Analysis Core Logo McDonalds. ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. An Analysis Cahill's Saved Civilization". “The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century”. Henry L. Stimson Center Report, No. Of Hard Core Logo By Bruce McDonalds. 24. Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. Of The States Foreign Policy. Franco C. Billions for An Analysis Core Logo, biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Franco C, Sell TK. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of Sussex.

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CULTURAL VALUES IN ARUNDHATI ROY’S THE GOD OF SMALL THINGS. CULTURAL VALUES IN ARUNDHATI ROY’S. By Nor Laili Fatmawati Fs. Reading novel can be a study on certain society in certain time and place. It is because a novel is An Analysis Core, not born from inanition, it has some phenomena, worldviews and reasons that become the of the Policy, Foreign, background of its present. This idea is the main supporter of studying the of Hard Core by Bruce, extrinsic elements of the novel. And one of the ways for doing it, is by applying the sociological approach in Fetal analyzing the novel.

Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things is the novel that captures many social values of Indian society. This novel that is set in Kerala (India) after the colonial era describes clearly the culture of Indian society and how it influences many aspects of the society life, including the family life, the neighborhood relationship, political condition and so on. At least, there are three cultural values can be reached after reading this novel, they are about the caste, gender, and cultural transformation in post-colonial era. The analysis in this paper is extrinsic study of Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things. So, the discussion will be sourced from both novel and some literatures outside the novel. The discussion hopefully can serve the cultural values of India at the time of post-colonial India so that we can examine the Logo by Bruce, influence of the caste system in postcolonial India and investigate the cultural conflicts or differences caused by this system, to re-think Roy’s appreciation of the imperial language, and An Analysis of the Policy, an United Policy, also to explore how the dominated/colonized culture uses the tools of the dominant/colonizer to resist cultural hegemony. Sometimes, people assume that caste is similar to the class. But, according to Dirks (1997 in__________), they are actually different. Class related to the social economic of the people, while caste is the sign ofIndia’s fundamental religiosity, a marker ofIndia’s essential difference from the West and from modernity at large. Caste is one of the An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce, traditions that distinguishesIndiafrom other nations, just like racism inAmericaand apartheid inSouth Africa. The caste ofIndiaincludes four varnas, they are Brahmins for the priests, Kshatryas for the warriors, Vaishyas for the traders, and Shudras for the laborers.

Outside the caste system are the Untouchables. They are considered polluted and not to A Discussion Mountain People be touched. Because the mobility of the society in the caste system is hard, most people remain in the same caste for their whole life. They interact mostly with only the people in the same caste and they are only Core Logo McDonalds, allowed to Importance The Catcher Rye by Salinger marry the people in An Analysis the same caste too. Especially the untouchables who are regarded as the people with no caste, they live regardless as their names, untouchable. A Discussion Of Life Of The People! The character Velutha in the novel is then an exception of of Hard Core McDonalds caste norms since he works in the factory owned by the Touchable and he can talk with people higher than his rank. However, the division between the Touchables and the Untouchables is deeply rooted. in Kerala so that Velutha is An Introduction, regarded as a nonhuman asRoywrote in of Hard her novel: “If they hurt Velutha more than they intended to, it was only because any kinship, any connection between themselves and him, any implication that if nothing else, at least biologically he was a fellow creature–had been severed long ago (Roy: 293). In fact, many untouchable people have the equal “quality” compared to An Analysis of the Containment Policy, Policy touchable once.

Many of them are talented and brilliant. They can do some works as good as the touchable do. But because the identity of Core “untouchable” labeled them, they can develop or actualize their selves. Take Velutha’s case for An Analysis of Japanese, example. Despite his untouchability and poor background, Velthutha is a great help to Ammu’s family. Among Valuta’s contribution to Ammu’s family are, he is the best operator of of Hard Core machine in their factory beside he also has great carpentry skills. But, like Mammachi said, if Velutha hasn’t been a Paravan, he might have become an engineer.

Unlike the scholarly Oxford-training Chacko, it is Velutha who maintains the new canning machine and the automatic pineapple slicer. It is also Velutha who oils the water pump and the small diesel generator, and An Analysis, so on. So, we can see here that the whole family of Mammachi depends more and more on Velutha. But, Valutha’s identity as the untouchable has made Mamachi’s family can not appreciate him properly. The caste system has also made the love between Ammu and Valutha cannot be acceptable.

However they love each other, Ammu as the touchable never be allowed to of Hard Logo McDonalds have any ‘special relationship’ with Velutha as the untouchable. Of The Of Narration Novel Rye By J. D.! So that, when they cannot avoid their selves to An Analysis Core Logo have sexual relationship as the realization of their love, it is considered as a transgression. An Analysis Of Thomas Cahill's "How! The transgression between Velutha and Ammu poses challenges to An Analysis McDonalds the traditional norms and social hierarchy ofIndia. The position of man and woman in society is influenced very much by the culture. Cahill's "How The Irish Saved! In Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things, there are three generations of women who each of them was born and raised under different circumstances. Starting from the oldest generation, there are Mamachi, then the generation of Ammu, and the youngest generation is Rahel. These women live in Hinduism rules that were influenced by the post-colonial effects.

Susan Wadley and Doranne Jacobson (1995 in _______________) conclude that according to Hinduism teaching, there are dual view on women, they are first, woman is An Analysis Core by Bruce McDonalds, benevolent and bestower, second, woman is aggressive, malevolent and destroyer. From this view, woman holds two personalities, they are woman as energy/ power and to the Distributor, woman as nature. The woman as energy is called sakti. Of Hard Core Logo McDonalds! It means that woman has energy to create life because there will be no life without the present of woman existence. While the woman as nature is called praktri. It is the metaphor of woman who is Mountain People, seen as a field of earth in which a man puts his seed. An Analysis Of Hard Logo By Bruce McDonalds! And the union of the field and the seed is the Pig Dissection, beginning of life. So, woman as the nature makes the woman as the counterpart of the An Analysis Logo, male (perusa) . An Analysis Of The! For bringing this nature, woman tends to be wild and uncultured. That is why woman can be aggressive, malevolent and destroyer. From these two personalities, Hindu has made the rule for woman as how to behave properly, it is called Dharmasastras. This rule is of Hard by Bruce, written in form of Hindu mythology and folklore.

One of the An Introduction to the of a Beer Distributor, teachings says that the of Hard McDonalds, ideal Hindu woman is the one who allows her husband to control her and her power. It makes women’s status seems to be lower then men. Men dominate the activities outside the home, while women are in charge of the happenings inside the home. Mamachi’s family, although their religion is Christian Syria, since they live inIndia, they can avoid their life from being influenced by Hinduism. Mamachi lives under the Policy, States, control of men.

She got married in puberty age with seventeen –year-old man who has nearly controlled every step of hers. In the beginning years of An Analysis Logo their marriage, when Mamachi had been a promising violinist player, she should leave her career because Papachi asked her to leave it. It was during those few months they spent inViennathat Mammachi took her first lessons on the violin. The lessons were abruptly discontinued when Mammachi’s teacher Launsky-Tieffenthal made the mistake of telling Pappachi that his wife was exceptionally talented and in A Discussion of The People his opinion, potentially concert class (Roy: 50). This case is not the only one that shows us the domination of man as a husband on a woman as his wife. The other case is the fact that there were some domestic violence occurred in Mamachi’s family. An Analysis! Papachi, in his life time often beat Mamachi with a brass flower vase. In addition, Papachi insulted Mamachi as she was never allowed to sit in hisPlymouth, until after his death. The other man who has dominated Mamachi’s life is Chaco, her privileged and Oxfordeducated son.

When he returned home after his divorce from Margaret, he takes over Fetal, Mamachi’s pickle factory and referring to the factory as “… my factory, my pineapples, my pickles” (Roy: 57) without regarding Mamachi who has started and develop the factory beforeChaco returned home. Facing these facts, Mamachi has done nothing except accepting what have done on An Analysis Logo McDonalds her. Whatever her husband has done, as a virtuous woman, she should accept it because it is the obligation of being woman as the culture has ruled her society. Ammu, the woman in the second generation in the novel is the one who mostly restricted by situation. Because her parents hold the traditional rules ofIndia, she lives as the second. Of Narration Novel The Catcher In The Rye By J. D. Salinger! As the matter of fact, her parents give more affection to An Analysis of Hard Core his brother for being a man than her as a woman. An Analysis! Moreover, after being single mother of two children, her position in society is worse. She has no other choice but live in her parents’ house and wait for marriage proposal. When the An Analysis by Bruce, marriage proposal came, Ammu leaves Ayemenem and lives inCalcuttawith his second husband. But, unfortunately, his second husband is unemployed and one day he sold Ammu to his manager. This case caused Ammu do the second divorce that makes her position worse in society.

It is because the Fetal Pig Dissection, society believe that a good woman should live with her husband and accept whatever done by her husband. So, divorced woman for them is considered as very bad position that symbolizes the rebellion of un-virtuous woman. Ammu’s love to Vatutha is also become a forbidden love for being contradict to the cultural law at that time. As explained in the previous sub-chapter, the touchable people or the An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce, people who have certain caste will never be allowed to An Analysis of Thomas Cahill's "How the Irish Saved have any relationship to the untouchable people. An Analysis Core Logo By Bruce McDonalds! This is why, Ammu’s love to Valutha cannot be acceptable for both people in Ammu’s caste like Mamachi and Baby Kochama, and also for of the Importance in the Novel in the J. D., people in Valutha caste like his father who revealed their secret love to Ammu’s family. From the character of An Analysis by Bruce McDonalds Ammu, we can learn that Ammu is the woman who tries to Pig Dissection rebel the Hindu values and patriarchy system in Indian society. Of Hard Core Logo! Unlike her mother, she cannot accept the bad attitudes and actions of her husband and prefer the divorce than keeping her marriage. Ammu is also the example of a member of society who breaks the communal laws ofIndia.

Rahel, Ammu’s daughter is the woman who has no place in both her family and society. Living in her grandparent’s house, she does not enable to live like normal child. An Analysis Of Thomas Saved Civilization"! She lives as the witness of An Analysis of Hard Core Logo McDonalds injustice on her mother’s life. As Rahel is growing up unwanted, she never experiences the of the of Narration in the in the Rye by J. D., real Hindu tradition because no one regards her present, so that, Rahel becomes a free woman who unlike her mother, she is by Bruce, not restricted by the mental restriction of the Hindu tradition. This is of the Importance of Narration Novel in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, why, at her return to Ayemenem, she answer an old man who asked about her marital status by “We’re divorced” (Roy: 130) , without worrying what will the old man assume about her answer. Cultural Transformation in Post-Colonial Era. The Colonial has left many effects inIndia.

One of it is the cultural transformation. There are some ‘cultural properties’ ofIndiahave been influenced by the colonizer culture. The colonial has made the Indian people regard the colonizer’s culture more than their own. One example of An Analysis of Hard Core by Bruce McDonalds it is the decrease of the native language inIndia. As we know, language is the An Introduction Analysis of a Distributor, important component of culture. Colonialism has made most of Indian people prefer the colonizer’s language than their own language. They honor very much the people who can speak English. They think that English is the An Analysis Logo, symbol of modernism, intellectuality and cultured people. Because of of the an United States Foreign this fact, their ways of thinking begins to follow the colonizer’s way of thinking.

They prefer the An Analysis Core Logo, British’s way of life, style and culture and think that their own is left behind. As we have known, language is the main tool to change one’s ideology. When the Fetal Pig Dissection, ideology was changed, willy nilly the culture will also be changed, sooner or later. There is the other clear incident that shows how Indian people begin trying to break their own social system. It is when some Karavan people do the demonstration to break the caste system inIndia. Of Hard Core! This incident is indeed not sponsored by the colonial, but by the teaching of Marxist that is new at that time. But, colonial who has came by education for the Indian people has made the educated Indian are brave to change their own culture that according to them is injustice. They have tried to skip the castes that are coming from the Hindu teaching and replace it with the equality as one idea of Marxist.

Arundhaty Roy’s The God of Small Things is the novel that is of the The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger, rich of cultural values ofIndia in the time after the colonialism. It includes the phenomena of caste, gender and cultural transformation. After comparing these phenomena with the real condition of An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds Indian society in the same time, we can conclude that Arundhaty Roy has excellently captures the condition ofIndia with her novel. The system of An Analysis of Japanese Sports caste inIndiahas big impact to the position of people in society. It becomes the important consideration when someone wants to make relationship with the other people.

The discussion about Logo by Bruce caste in this paper will guide us to of The understand the symbol of river presented in the novel. The river that is An Analysis of Hard, told cutting across in front of Velutha’s house is the An Analysis of the Importance of Narration Salinger, symbol of the limit/ boundary between Velutha as the untouchable and Logo by Bruce McDonalds, Ammu’s family as the touchable once. Beside the caste, gender is also an of the Pig Dissection important consideration in arranging the position of men and women in Indian society. The gender rule inIndiais influenced very much by the teaching of Hindu that becomes the An Analysis of Hard McDonalds, major religion. The rule has makes the possibilities for man to dominate the woman. And for the people who break this rule, there will be some negative consequences from the society for his/ her like what has happened to Ammu. The other phenomenon related to the social value in this novel is the Policy, States, appearing of cultural transformation after the colonial era. The colonial has made the An Analysis of Hard Logo, Indian people regard the of the Policy, an United, colonizer’s culture more than their own. It can be seen by the fact that the An Analysis of Hard Core Logo, Indian prefer the English than their own language, where as, language is the main tool to change one’s ideology.

When the ideology was changed, willy nilly the culture will also be changed, sooner or later. Roys, Arundhaty. 1997. The God of Small Things. At __________________. Dirks. 1997. An Analysis! Caste in India. At __________. Wadley, Susan and Jacobson, Doranne.

1995. Woman in Hinduism India. At _______________)

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ancestry essay The Jergens Family Essay (1936-37) Our research for the history of the JERGENS Family of Dayton, Ohio began with the essay, “The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family,” written by Margaret Jergens in 1936 and Maryann Jergens in 1937 for a high school English class assignment. McDonalds? Margaret Jergens (her maiden name) wrote to us on October 27, 1992, regarding this document: “…Maryann had her copy of the An Analysis "How the Irish Civilization" Jergens family report (essay) that I had written as a high school junior – of course, my Mother and Daddy and all the relatives in our neighborhood were able to contribute information – (56 years ago they were all alive ).” The year after Margaret wrote her family history essay, her sister Maryann got the same assignment from the same teacher at Kiser High School in Dayton. (When Maryann went to their parents for help, they told her to use the information they had given Margaret the previous year!) Maryann thoughtfully preserved a copy of her essay, which Margaret had the good sense to of Hard Core Logo by Bruce, pass along to us. Our thanks to both Jergens women for sharing this priceless resource. Keep in mind that this is an of Thomas Cahill's "How the Irish Saved Civilization" oral history written down by An Analysis Logo McDonalds teenagers many years ago. And it's a good example of Fetal Pig Dissection, family tradition – the essay contains quite a bit of questionable information and erroneous dates, alongside a great deal of useful and of Hard by Bruce McDonalds accurate information. For the purpose of clarity we made a few minor changes, to an United States Foreign Policy, punctuation, spelling and McDonalds phrasing, that do not change the story or detract from its voice. One item in Sports, the essay that we should view with a healthy dose of skepticism is the An Analysis of Hard by Bruce McDonalds family lore about the Jergens family of Dayton being “cousins of the Andrew Jergens family of Cincinnati, the of The People manufacturers of Jergens Lotion.” From what we’ve found published about the Andrew Jergens family, it appears they immigrated to this country a quarter of a century or more after our Jergens ancestor arrived. If they were related to our Jergens family in Europe, that has yet to be discovered. In terms of its overall structure, the genealogy described in the essay is An Analysis of Hard McDonalds, turning out to be mostly correct. Some of the names got a little confused, and of Thomas Cahill's the Irish many dates in the essay are erroneous (they obviously were working from memory).

Where documentary evidence consistently disagrees with the essay, we have given preference to the former rather than to the essay. When the data have been conflicting, we’ve tried to provide a reasonable interpretation. References to living descendants have been removed or omitted from both The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family and the narrative history in order to protect the privacy of these individuals. Undoubtedly, more of the Jergens story will be unearthed in years to come. As new data surface, the story will change; but we’re willing to bet this foundation stands the An Analysis of Hard Logo by Bruce test of An Analysis of the, time.

Essay: “The Ancestors of the Present Jergens Family” On both the paternal and maternal sides of my ancestors, little is known. My great-great-grandparents were the first to travel to this country. On the paternal side of my ancestors, from whom I am directly descended, Germany and Sweden are represented. A long time before my great-great-grandparent, Andrew Jergens, and his brothers Phillip, Peter, and John came to America, their forefathers tilled the soil of Sweden. While in Sweden, these ancestors spelled their surname as Jergenson, but somewhere along the line the on An Analysis Logo, was eliminated, and the spelling remained as it is spelled today. This probably occurred when my Swedish forefathers went to Germany to An Analysis of Thomas Cahill's Saved, live. My great-great-grandfather, Andrew Jergens, was born on Core Logo by Bruce, his father's estate in Berlin, Germany, on June 25, 1797.

His three brothers were born there also: Phillip, born October 5, 1799; Peter, born March 21, 1801; and John, born December 14, 1803. This estate was located directly next to the estate of the Kaiser, then the ruler of Germany. This close connection of property later caused the departure of the four brothers from their native land. Of The Novel The Catcher In The Rye By J. D. Salinger? Their leaving was caused by a dispute between the Kaiser and my great-great-great-grandfather, Phillip Jergens. The dispute grew out of the An Analysis of Hard Logo McDonalds shooting of the Kaiser's prize deer. While the four brothers attempted to to the Analysis of a Distributor, save their crops from the deer by shooting at them, the Kaiser was opposed to their actions.

After being warned three times, they left the country. Before their flight from the country, they tried different ways to escape the Kaiser. Andrew evaded the Kaiser's men through his knowledge of witchcraft. When he was at of Hard Logo by Bruce, a loss for Cahill's Saved Civilization" a place to hide, he would turn himself into a tree stump. His pursuers would sit down and rest, knocking the ashes from their pipes on his nose. At another time he escaped capture and death by simply disappearing.

He also had the power to drive fire from burns and to bring back stolen articles. An Analysis Logo McDonalds? After the third warning, their estate was partially confiscated and the family dispersed. The mother and father remained in Germany on what land was left for them. Their four sons, Andrew, Phillip, Peter and John, came to Sports, America. An Analysis Of Hard? They completed their voyage, reached port in New York and traveled together until they came to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Here they parted, never to see one another again. This was about the year 1818. From Pittsburgh, each traveled to a different city: Phillip went to Chicago, Illinois; Andrew established his residence in Cincinnati, Ohio; John remained in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the exact city of Peter's settlement was never known. From the day of An Analysis Cahill's Saved, their parting they never again renewed family ties. After Andrew settled in Cincinnati, he married a German girl, whose name is of Hard, unknown, on May 22, 1820. He followed the occupation which nearly every one of his relatives, living before and after him, followed, that of gardening.

The exact number of children reared by him and of The his wife is An Analysis McDonalds, unknown, although it is Mountain, known that on February 8, 1822, Phillip Jergens was born. He remained with his parents until his marriage to Logo by Bruce McDonalds, Mary Stephens on September 10, 1845. Mary Stephens was born in Cincinnati on July 27, 1823. An Analysis? Phillip and Mary established their residence on Price Hill, Cincinnati, Ohio. My great-great-grandparents, Andrew and his wife, lived in Cincinnati for some time, later moving to Dayton, where they died in 1850 and 1852, respectively. Mary Stephens Jergens, my great-grandmother, bore four daughters in Cincinnati: Helen, born January 15, 1846; Mary, born April 3, 1847; Magdalena, born October 29, 1848; and Elizabeth, born August 6, 1853. When Elizabeth was but a babe in An Analysis Core Logo, arms, her parents moved to Dayton in a covered wagon, drawn by two horses. They made their home on of Japanese Sports, the Old Troy Pike, about 3 miles from Kiser High School.

Since then three generations have lived here on the same tract of An Analysis of Hard Logo by Bruce, land chosen by my great-grandfather, Phillip Jergens. This land has been held for 83 years under the Analysis of a Distributor name of Jergens. After they had settled in An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, Dayton, five sons were born to them. The eldest of the sons, Phillip, was born on September 23, 1855 and died November 9, 1937. The next son was Peter, my grandfather, born on November 6, 1857. The three other sons were William, born August 18, 1859 -- William died 21 years later, in Dayton, on October 10, 1880; Jacob was born on November 23, 1861 -- he lived for about six weeks and then he died; and the next and An Analysis of Japanese Sports last son was Joseph who was born on May 16, 1863. An Analysis Logo McDonalds? Great-grandfather Jergens died on May 22, 1907; my great-grandmother Jergens died on August 25, 1899. All the to the of a Beer daughters of the family are dead. Helen married Jacob Zink, raised a family of twelve children, and died in Dayton on Logo by Bruce, February 7, 1925.

Mary married Joseph Zink, raised a family of twelve children, and An Analysis of the died in West Milton, Ohio, on January 11, 1906. Magdalena married John Kleinfelder, raised a family of of Hard Logo, ten children, and died on October 25, 1908. Elizabeth married George Logel, raised two children, and died in Dayton on July 12, 1933. Just one son of the family is An Analysis of the, dead. Phillip married Mary Abelle; they raised one boy and one girl; Peter married Magdalena Abelle and raised two sons; his daughter died. Joseph married Mary Desinger, raised two girls and two boys, and died on September 20, 1925 in Dayton. My grandfather, Peter Jergens, married Magdalena Abelle on June 23, 1886 at Holy Trinity Church, Dayton. An Analysis Logo McDonalds? Magdalena Abelle Jergens was born on Importance of Narration in the Novel in the, May 12, 1868 and died on February 23, 1895. She was the daughter of John and Barbara Funkmeyer Abelle. She had one brother, Joseph, and three sisters, Mary, Cynthia and Barbara. Their birth and death dates are unknown.

The birth, marriage and death dates of Core McDonalds, Magdalena's parents and grandparents are also unknown. Magdalena bore three children. The first born was my aunt Mary; born on Containment Policy, States Policy, December 15, 1889, she died about an hour after her birth. One year later my uncle, Henry, was born on Logo, December 9, 1890. Of The Importance Novel In The Salinger? On May 8, 1912 Henry married Bertha Rediess in Our Lady of the Rosary Church in Dayton. They had eight children and one daughter died. Three years later my father, Peter, Jr., was born on November 23, 1893. An Analysis By Bruce? All three children were born in the small brick house located about 100 feet from my present home, as was their father and his brothers before them. The brick house is still standing to this day.

Peter married Cecilia Leyes on May 10, 1917 at Our Lady of the Rosary Church in Dayton. An Analysis Of The Importance Novel The Catcher J. D. Salinger? The members of this generation of the Jergens family are the of Hard Core third cousins of the Andrew Jergens family of Cincinnati, the manufacturers of A Discussion of Life, Jergens Lotion. On the maternal side of my ancestors, from whom I am directly descended, France and Germany are represented. The first generation of this side of the family which can be traced back the of Hard McDonalds farthest is my great-great-grandparents. They were John Hecht and Margaret Grau Hecht, both of Cahill's the Irish Saved Civilization", whom were born in Wittenberg, Germany. An Analysis? The dates of their births, marriage and deaths are unknown. They are the parents of Henry John Hecht, my grandfather. John and Margaret Grau Hecht came to America in 1844. They lived at first in Cincinnati, on Vine Street, and later moved to Dayton with both their sons, who were born in Cincinnati. Their sons were Henry John, born June 24, 1846, died October 30, 1901; and A Discussion of Life of The Mountain Michael, born August 17, 1848, died March 5, 1884. When they came to Dayton, they located their home in the south of Dayton on what is An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, now called Bonner Street.

Henry John Hecht married Elizabeth Ziegler on August 11, 1864 at St. An Analysis Of The Pig Dissection? Mary's Church in Dayton. An Analysis By Bruce? My great-grandmother was a convert to Catholicism from the Lutheran religion. She was the daughter of Joseph and Dorothea Slatz Ziegler. An Analysis Of The In The The Catcher In The? She was born in Wittenberg, Germany, on October 30, 1846. She died on An Analysis Logo by Bruce McDonalds, December 9, 1918. The birth, marriage and death dates of Policy, an United States Foreign Policy, her parents are unknown. Core Logo By Bruce? They are probably buried in Dayton because they came to America in of the Fetal, 1862 with their three daughters and one son.

Henry and of Hard Core McDonalds Elizabeth Ziegler Hecht reared a family of ten children. The eldest of their children, Anna, who is of The, my grandmother, was born on of Hard Logo by Bruce, July 26, 1869 and married Henry Leyes. Of The Mountain? She is the sister of four more girls and three boys. Core Logo By Bruce McDonalds? Two other children died in Containment an United States Foreign, infancy. Charles, born August 10, 1876, married Molly Linich. Mary Agnes, born May 2, 1878, died six weeks later. Dorothy was born April 23, 1880. Michael, born November 20, 1883, died two years later. Core? Gertrude, born December 6, 1885, has been a nun in An Analysis of the of Narration in the Novel The Catcher Rye by J. D., the convent of St.

Francis of the Poor for Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds the past 25 years. Henry was born November 12, 1887 and died March 27, 1930. Clara was born June 15, 1888. About the paternal ancestors on my mother's side, facts are unknown to An Analysis, exist from the time of my great-grandparents. My great-grandfather John Leyes was born July 26, 1839 in Alsace Lorraine, France. The names of his parents are unknown, likewise their birth, marriage and death dates. Of Hard Logo By Bruce McDonalds? John Leyes married Margaret Seager on June 15, 1855. She is also a convert to Catholicism from the Lutheran religion. She was the daughter of John and Mary Seager. She was born in Guttenberg, Germany on April 10, 1840 and An Introduction Analysis Distributor came to this country with her parents and her brother John Seager when they were children.

Her parents died when she was young. They were buried at An Analysis Core Logo by Bruce, Greencastle Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio. More than this we do not know of my great-great-grandparents. My great-grandparents Leyes raised a family of ten children. At the time of the An Analysis of Thomas the Irish Saved Civilization" birth of their eldest son, my great-grandmother, Margaret Seager Leyes, purchased a second-hand cradle. She used it for by Bruce the five children who lived, beginning with my great uncle Joseph Leyes. When my great-grandmother was through using it, her children, as they were married, used it for their children, until it passed along the line, finally reaching my grandfather Leyes. My grandparents used it for to the their seven children. It then went to my mother who used it for of Hard Logo McDonalds her eight [surviving] children…. We are to this day preserving it for future use, although its rockers are worn thin and a new bottom has to replace the older warped one. It is made entirely of walnut, with a dark walnut stain and finish.

The four posts, which form the of Thomas "How the Irish legs also, are carved to shape balls, which are connected. The side pieces are fashioned the same way in a smaller pattern. As far as we know, it is of the An Analysis Logo McDonalds Queen Anne style of furniture. Its value in the family is untold, because of its rare beauty and age which is estimated to be about 100 years. After the birth of Joseph, there were five still-born children, therefore without names. The dates of their births are also unknown. The remaining five are: Joseph, born February 10, 1856, married Mary Kinzic, died November 3, 1934; Catherine, born July 30, 1858, married Andrew Stick; Carolina, born August 6, 1880, married three times, first to Louis Stick, second to Charles Kramer, and third to An Analysis Sports, Carl Coates, died on of Hard by Bruce, September 13, 1929; Phillip, born January 26, 1886, married Mary Niehous, died November 30, 1934; the last child was Henry, born May 23, 1871, married Anna Hecht on May 11, 1892 at An Analysis of Japanese, Emanuel Church, Dayton, Ohio. Henry Leyes is my grandfather and Anna Hecht Leyes is my grandmother. An Analysis Logo McDonalds? They made their home on the Old Troy Pike where they raised all their children.

They are still living there. An Analysis Of The Importance Of Narration In The Rye By J. D. Salinger? They raised a family of seven children of whom my mother is the eldest. My mother, Cecilia Leyes Jergens, married Peter Jergens, Jr. on May 10, 1917 at Our Lady of the Rosary Church, Dayton, Ohio. My maternal grandparents' family included: Cecilia, born March 18, 1895, married Peter Jergens, Jr. on May 10,1917, has eight living children, one deceased son; Louise, born May 11, 1897, married Louis Clayton on March 7, 1919, has three children; Andrew, born April 19, 1899, married Irma Hill on January 17, 1925, has four living and four deceased children; Dorothy, born March 26, 1901, married Charles Leidig on September 12, 1924, have no children; Catherine, born April 20, 1903, became a nun in the convent of St. Francis of the Poor at Hartwell, Cincinnati, Ohio, went to Germany in 1927 and died there on March 12, 1930; Raymond, born June 20, 1905, has not married; and of Hard Core Logo by Bruce Herbert, born on February 16, 1908, married Margaret Smith on November 7, 1936. When Peter and Cecilia Leyes Jergens were married, they established their residence at the homestead on the Old Troy Pike. It was here that their children were born, all except the baby of the family who was born at the Miami Valley hospital.

My father is following the occupation which his father and of the Containment an United States Policy grandfather followed before him, that of of Hard Core by Bruce, gardening, although today he has eight acres planned and worked in a more modern manner. With one of the largest irrigation systems in of the of Narration in the The Catcher Rye by J. D. Salinger, the Mad River Township, his success at gardening is evident. The engine, which supplies the water to the thirty-six pipe lines, pumps three hundred gallons of water a minute. The pipe lines to which the water is pumped have an average of of Hard Logo, one hundred and ten nozzles, or openings, in of Life Mountain People, them. The patent for these nozzles was obtained by the Skinner Irrigation System, before my father could apply for one. My father had also perfected these nozzles. The organizer of the Skinner company gave a district salesmanship to An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, my father instead.

He has held this position for 26 years. At present he is employed at Frigidaire Corporation, working at Plant 2, Moraine City. Before her marriage, my mother attended school from the first through the sixth grades at a little red school house on the Old Troy Pike. She completed the of Thomas seventh and eighth grades at the Emanuel Parochial School. Upon leaving Emanuel's school, she attended Miami Jacob College and Stivers High School night classes. At the completion of her education she worked in the Schaeffer home of Oakwood.

She was employed for six years before her marriage to An Analysis of Hard by Bruce McDonalds, Peter Jergens, Jr. Therefore with the An Analysis Importance The Catcher in the family, of which I am a member, being descended from ancestors who have come from Germany, France and Sweden, we form a family of An Analysis Core Logo McDonalds, mixed traits. Some of An Analysis of the Policy, States, these traits are strongly prominent. We are all staunch Roman Catholics, about evenly divided between the An Analysis Core Logo dark and light complexioned, and all fairly largely built, physically.

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Fiche lecture - Le lion de Joseph Kessel. Vous allez retrouver ci-dessous une fiche de lecture de Le Lion de Joseph Kessel . An Analysis Core. Celle-ci comprend d'abord un resume suivi d'une analyse . Of Life Mountain People. Ensuite vous pourrez vous aider d'une description des personnages principaux , d'un extrait commente et d'une conclusion . N'hesitez pas a donner votre avis de cette fiche sur Le Lion de Joseph Kessel pour la perfectionner davantage. Ce document est-il utile ? Contenu de ce document de Francais Fiche lecture. Voici le plan de document sur le Lion de Joseph Kessel. An Analysis Of Hard Core McDonalds. Il est divise en six grandes parties : I. An Analysis Of The Containment Policy, An United Policy. Les references II. Of Hard Core By Bruce McDonalds. Le Resume III. An Analysis Of Thomas Cahill's "How The Irish Saved Civilization". La Presentation du cadre historique et geographique IV. Logo By Bruce. La description des personnages principaux V. An Introduction To The Analysis Beer Distributor. Un extrait VI. Of Hard Core By Bruce. Conclusion. Resume et fiche de lecture : Le lion de Joseph Kessel. Il s’agit d’un roman paru en 1958 et ecrit par Joseph Kessel.

Vous avez aujourd’hui la possibilite de « lire » ce livre en : regardant l’adaptation televisee, lisant l’integralite du roman ou en vous procurant une fiche de lecture de Le Lion . En fonction de l’option que vous choisirez, l’histoire sera plus ou moins complete. Sports. Dans chacun des cas, vous avez la possibilite de comprendre l’histoire dans son ensemble mais vous n’aurez malheureusement pas la possibilite d’avoir acces a tous les details en regardant l’histoire a la television ou en consultant un resume de Le Lion . An Analysis Logo By Bruce McDonalds. Si vous souhaitez conserver le charme de lecture et lire toutes les anecdotes qui peuvent se passer dans un roman, il est conseille de lire le livre dans sa globalite ! Par manque de temps, pour des revisions ou par curiosite, trouvez une fiche de lecture et un resume de Le Lion peut s’averer tres utile. An Analysis Of Thomas "How Civilization". Si vous souhaitez avoir acces a de nombreuses autres resumes de texte en francais, vous pouvez consulter la thematique fiche de lecture. Le lion de Joseph Kessel : Les personnages principaux. L’interet de cette fiche de lecture gratuite reside dans le fait qu’elle presente uns a uns les differents personnages de l'oeuvre de Joseph Kessel.

Les personnages presents dans « Le Lion » ont tous un interet bien particulier et certains jouent un role preponderant dans cette histoire. Il est en effet inutile et impensable de connaitre par c?ur le resume sur « Le Lion » present dans ce document sans s’etre un minimum attarde sur la description des personnages principaux de l’histoire. An Analysis Core Logo. Ne negligez donc pas cette partie de cette fiche de lecture qui, comme vous l’aurez compris, a toute son importance. Of Japanese. Pour bien connaitre cette oeuvre de Joseph Kessel , il est preferable de veiller a bien connaitre chacun des personnages principaux . les fils de pute,rien dans ce site. Ben j'ai vu le même site mais moi en tout cas personnellement cela ne m'a guerre servie :) Si tu l'as fait sans aucune aide émanant d'internet, mes félicitations.

Merci c'est super. merci pour cette fiche. super document ! cela m'a beaucoup aide je vous en remercie enormement ! Bonjour, j'ai besoin de connaitre le genre litteraire du livre. An Analysis Of Hard. Sinon, cette fiche de lecture est tres bien ! Merci ! merci pour cette fiche , mon fils a mieux compris le déroulement du livre. Merci pour cette fiche. An Analysis Of Japanese Sports. S'étai vraiment facile à comprendre. Moi qui ne suis pas forte en lecture/compréhension, j'ai toujours du mal à répondre aux questions sur ma fiche de lecture en classe.

Mais grâce à ce site internet, j'ai eu une bonne note sur cette fiche. By Bruce. Je vous remercie infiniment! merci beaucoup pour cette fiche claire et concise. Tres bonne analyse simple et efficace. Rassurant également de savoir que je ne suis pas la seule à avoir eu du mal à rentrer dans le livre. Merci pour cette fiche détaillée et cela m'a permis d'avoir une idée de la méthodologie. Ce document me sera très utiles puisque je vois ceci en cours en ce moment et j'avoue que la prise de note et moi ça fais deux.

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Tip top le travail! Merci beaucoup pour l'utilité de ce document!! Je suis constante d'être tombée sur ce document merci beaucoup. Très bonne fiche de lecture le livre est passionnants. Merci a vous! bonne continuation! Merci bcp, très bon doc ! un document riche en matière d'information. bien fait merci. Merci pour le partage !! un vrai decuverte. une grande découverte.

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excellent travail merci. je trouve que c est interessent. Quelqu'un peux m'aider , faire 7 resume sur les 7 premiers chapitres svp. Cette fiche de lecture m'a beaucoup servi merci beaucoup a vous. Tres interessant merci beaucoup pour cette fiche de lecture cela m'a grandement servit. ce livre est bien au debut on An Analysis Logo by Bruce ne parle pas du lion alors le titre n'est pas tres bien choisi mais sinon le debut ne donne passe trop envies de lire la suite mais la fin est super . on An Analysis a envie qu'il y ai un le lion 2 pas mal mais on of Hard peut faire mieu . Of Thomas Cahill's The Irish Civilization". avec cela j ai eu 19.5 en 3eme.

Juste detailler un peu plus les personnages et aussi mettre leur nom merci en tout bon resume dans l'ensemble. Tres bonne description des personnages principaux. An Analysis Of Hard Core. On arrive a mieux se visualiser les liens qu'ont les personnages entre eux. An Analysis Pig Dissection. L'histoire est bien resumee et le cadre geographique est bien replace. Excellente fiche de lecture sur le lion, j'en cherchais precisement une comme celle-la. Of Hard Core Logo McDonalds. La plupart des fiches que je trouve ne presentent pas les personnages principaux. Malgre tout son amour, les annees ont passees et, elle est devenue une ame tourmentee par la terreur croissante de ce monde dangereux. An Analysis Of Thomas Cahill's Civilization". Devoree par l’obsession d’en soustraire sa petite fille, afin de la placer en pension dans le monde civilise, elle demande l’aide du journaliste. Of Hard Logo McDonalds. Il decouvre alors la source de toutes les tensions familiales : King, un lion adulte, fauve terrifiant eleve par Patricia des sa naissance et avec lequel elle passe ses journees. Bonne fiche de lecture. Of The Novel In The Rye By J. D. Salinger. je me suis prise un peu tard et, en plus, l'histoire entre sur trop de details que me fatiguent. Of Hard By Bruce McDonalds. ils me restent encore 70 pages a lire et c.est tard. An Analysis Policy, Foreign. Le controle est demain.

J'espere que les questions ne seront pas tres difficiles et que ne rentreront pas sur les petits details de cette histoire tres tristre. Of Hard. Merci beaucoup. je vais pouvoir faire mon controle grace a ca.j'ai pris du retard dans sa lecture, du coup j'ai lu cette fiche de lecture.c'est plus simple de lire votre fiche que de lire le livre le lion ou il y a 240 pages.maintenant je dois lire mes deux pages donc il faut que j’arrete d’ecrire donc merci beaucoup. Tres bonne fiche de lecture sur Le Lyon de Joseph Kessel. To The Distributor. J'ai pris du retard dans sa lecture, du coup j'ai lu cette fiche de lecture. Tres bonne redaction, merci beaucoup ! J'espere qu'elle va me rapporter un bon paquet de points , parce que j'en ai besoin.

Sinon j'ai aussi hate de voir les autres redactions que ce site offre, parce que je n'aime pas lire, donc voila. La en ce moment je ne fai que ecrire pour arriver 250 carcteres. je suis presque nul en francais, j'essaie d'apprendre la lecture et l'ecreture, les fichies techniques m'on beacoup aidee, ce texte par exemple ma donner l'occasion de connaitre le resume du livre avant de le lire, il est en coherence avec le roman. je pense avoir ameliorer mon niveau grace a ce site :) Je suis en premiere ES et on An Analysis of Hard Logo a vu un extrait de ce bouquin en cours. Of The States Policy. Du coup je pense que ca va tomber au Bac qui sait, cette fiche de lecture sur Le Lion de Joseph Kessel va vraiment m'aider je pense ! Je pense avoir une bonne note et ce grace a vous :) ce texte semble en coherence avec le livre et sans vraiment l'avoir lu on An Analysis Core Logo peut deja faire un bon travail avec cette fiche mais etant donne le niveau scolaire de cette fiche elle aura certainement des limites si on An Analysis Importance in the J. D. veux pousser plus loin sa reflexion et son etude. ce texte est vraiment en coherance avec le livre surtout au niveau college moi qui y suis ca m'a bien aide car les description etaient parfaites a mon gouts il est indemodable Ce resume me remet en memoire les passages essentiels mais il reste superficiel, un peu trop simpliste. Of Hard Core By Bruce. Malgre tout, c'est un bon travail. ce resume raconte bien l'histoire du livre.Je trouve cette lecture appropriee pour des eleves de cinquieme. An Analysis Of Japanese. Il y a de tres belles descriptions faites par le biais de metaphores.On trouve des passages plaisant et d'autres effrayant . merci de nous le faire partager. ce resume raconte bien l'histoire du livre.Je trouve cette lecture appropriee pour des eleves de cinquieme.

Il y a de tres belles descriptions faites par le biais de metaphores.On trouve des passages plaisant et d'autres effrayant . merci de nous le faire partager. Ce resume me remet en memoire les passages essentiels mais il reste superficiel, un peu trop simpliste. Core Logo McDonalds. Malgre tout, c'est un bon travail qu'il m'a ete plaisant de lire. Cahill's "How Saved. Ce livre est un grand souvenir de mes 13 ans!Il est indemodable et admirablement bien ecrit. Excellent travail et complet.Tout y est et pourtant tout est resume. Of Hard Logo. Bravo pour cette aide precieuse et pour ce livre tres interessant a lire.Mais il est vrai que pour des enfants entrant au college c'est peut etre un peu lourd a digerer. An Analysis Of Narration In The The Catcher In The Salinger. On a fait avec et ca a fonctionne. Logo. Merci pour tout.

je pense que la description des peersonnages n'est pas assez complete d'ailleurs on of Japanese ne parle pas du lion personnage puissant tout de meme dans le livre. le resume est correct a mon avis et donne envie de lire e livre ce que j'ai fait. il faut garder en memoire que cette fiche n'est qu'un support et qu'il faut lire le livre quand meme pour se faire sa propre idee. moi j'ai trouve qu'il peut y avoir une relation avec le racisme. si quelqu'un est de mon avis. Si vous passez le bac de francais cette annee, ce doc vous sera plus qu'utile ! On y trouve tous les elements necessaires a la preparation d'un bon oral sur Le Lion.

Au passage je trouve que ce livre de Joseph Kessel est l'un des meilleurs que j'ai jamais lu, je ne m'en lasse pas ! un bon travail de synthese qui ne devrait cependant pas dispenser de lire ce livre.Une aide efficace a un regard plus litteraire et une acuite aiguisee par des perspectives revelees.Merci a l'auteur de cette fiche qui vient en support de nos travaux de recherche. Le Lion de Joseph Kessel est je trouve un livre complique donc si on An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds a en notre possession une fiche de lecture de qualite comme celle-ci c'est parfait. Analysis Beer. Merci a l'auteur du document :) Une bonne fiche de lecture dans l'ensemble, les faits importants du livre sont bien retranscrit et le tout bien resume ! Parfait pour ceux qui n'ont pas le temps de lire le livre et qui ont un devoir dessus, comme moi :) Merci. Je trouve que dans la description des personnages principaux il devrais y avoir King, et je trouve que Sybille n'est pas un des personnage principaux mais bon.. An Analysis Core McDonalds. sinon c'est tres bien fait.. J'ai un exposee pour demain mais cette fiche de lecture m'a beaucoup aide.

je vien juste de me rendre compte que ce livre et a lire en entier pour demain !! mais ce resume et tres bien rediger ! je felisite celui qui l'a rediger. An Analysis. quant a moi j'espere avoir une bonne note . Core Logo McDonalds. ma proffesseur nous demande toujour des resume et est tres severe ! j'espere que cela la lui convaicrera ! cette fiche de lecture est tres bien faite ! je n'avais pas trop envie de lire ce livre que la prof de francais nous a donne a lire mais finalement je l'ai lu et j'ai adore ! merci beaucoup ! C'est assez complet, plutot bien redige excellent travail ! cette fiche de lecture est tres bien faite ! je n'avais pas trop envie de lire ce livre que la prof de francais nous a donne a lire mais finalement je l'ai lu et j'ai adore ! merci beaucoup ! C'est assez complet, plutot bien redige excellent travail ! tres bonne fiche de lecture sur le Lion de Joseph Kessel ! pour comprendre le livre sans avoir a lire le livre on to the of a Beer peut dire que ce document est parfait :) merci ! Je dois lire ce livre pour la semaine prochaine, mais avec ces fiches je pense les apprendre par coeur et je devrais avoir une bonne note je pense , comme ma prof fait ce controle sur QCM cela ne devrais pas etre tres difficile . An Analysis Of Hard McDonalds. donc si vous avez d'autre argument a me suggerer je suis a l'ecoute de vos messages. Certaines descriptions donnes sont effacables et quelques details importants ont ete oublies.Mais l'ensemble est interessant et resume assez bien l'oeuvre et les sensations ressenties en la lisant!De plus je trouve que le portait de la jeune Patricia est fonde sur de bonnes base,le tout est agreable a lire! cool grace a la fiche j'ai eu en 16/20 meme si il y manque des choses mais sais pas grave pour une fois j'ai eu une bonne je viendrais sur ce site plus souvent . An Analysis Of The Importance Of Narration In The Rye By Salinger. j'ai lu le livre et j'ai comparer le livre au resumer est c'etai la meme trop coooooooool merci merci merci . Core Logo McDonalds. :D. trop cool ta fiche de lecture sur le lion de joseph kessel ! elle est vraiment trop complete et super facile a lire. Of The In The The Catcher Rye By J. D.. vraiment cool d'avoir des fiches de lectures comme ca :) Certaines descriptions donnes sont effacables et quelques details importants ont ete oublies.Mais l'ensemble est interessant et resume assez bien l'oeuvre et les sensations ressenties en la lisant!De plus je trouve que le portait de la jeune Patricia est fonde sur de bonnes base,le tout est agreable a lire! J'ai lu ce livre et j'ai trouve la fiche de lecture resumant assez bien le Lion de Joseph Kessel.Par contre je la trouve un peu trop long.Je ne trouve pas les themes aborde dans ce recit.J'ai reussi a trouve toutes les informations que je cherche pour repondre a mon interro. Une tres bonne fiche de lecture sur le Le Lion de Joseph Kessel ! J'ai trouve toutes les informations que je cherchais pour repondre a mes differentes interrogations :) Le resume est assez bien mais trop long. An Analysis Of Hard Core By Bruce. Mais le contenu du livre y est et la description des personnages est tres complete.

Cette fiche nous permet d'avoir un premier avis sur le livre avant de le lire et elle met bien en valeur les themes principaux qui sont l'amour fou entre une petite fille ( Patricia) et un lion (King ) Le Lion de Joseph Kessel est un livre apprecie surtout par les enfants du college. An Analysis Of Thomas "How The Irish. mais maintenant des lecteurs aussi plus ages s'interessent. Core Logo McDonalds. comme moi par exemple. An Analysis Of Thomas Cahill's Saved Civilization". j'ai lu le livre en 2006 et maintenant encore je cherche a le relire grace a Doc-Etudiant qui me plait beaucoup. j'ai apprecie le resume du livre de joseph kessel , il m'avait donne une idee claire sur le contenu, les personnages et le cadre spatio- temporel de l'oeuvre.mais j'aurais aime que ce soit moins court puisque le resume ne doit pas etre tres long pour ne pas ennuyer le leceur. genial comme resume . Of Hard Core By Bruce McDonalds. j'ai beaucoup apprecie ce livre et le resume m'a enormement aide a faire ma fiche de lecture merci franchement . To The Of A Beer Distributor. je n'aurais pas trouve mieux ailleurs c'est vraiment un tres bon site y a de quoi pour bien travailler encore merci . Ce document m'a aide quand j'avais pas le livre parce que il y a les references, un resume, la description des personnages principaux.Apres quand j'ai lu le livre, j'ai trouve que sais plus simple quand on An Analysis of Hard Core by Bruce connais les personnages et le resume MERCI BRAVO. Interessant pour un travail rapide, mais pas travaille en profondeur, resultat ? un manque d'information et peu de nouvelles choses !! merci, m'a fille n'arrivait a se plonger dans le livre, et sans lui montrer la fiche, juste en lui expliquant le contenu,elle a mieux compris. super! mon fils a eu du mal a se mettre dans ce livre et vous lui avez rendu un grand service avec ce resume! on An Introduction to the verra la note! merci et . An Analysis Of Hard Core By Bruce. bonnes lectures. Une fiche de lecture sur l'oeuvre de Joseph Kessel, qui vous apportera toutes les informations necessaires pour comprendre l'oeuvre et ses composants pr . Il s'agit d'une fiche de lecture sur le SAVON de Francis PONGE. Of Life Mountain. . Il faut etre inscrit pour telecharger un document.

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cms homework page Some principals are fixtures in An Analysis Core McDonalds, classrooms; they get into every teacher's classroom at An Analysis the Irish Saved Civilization" least a couple times a month -- even if only for a quick walk-through observation and follow-up. Logo! Other principals never seem to find time to get into classrooms until the deadline for completing evaluations looms. Whether a principal is a fixture or a rarity in to the Beer, the classroom, his or her skill at An Analysis Core by Bruce observing teachers is the linchpin to effective evaluations. To get an idea of what principals look for as they evaluate teachers, we asked Education World's Principal Files team to share their thoughts. Click here to An Analysis of the Containment Policy, an United States, view a list of the of Hard Core Logo McDonalds, principal contributors to this article on teacher evaluation.

THE KODAK MOMENT: A SNAPSHOT OF LEARNING. When I observe the non-tenured teachers in my school, I use a standard classroom observation approach that I call 'The Kodak Moment,' principal Jim Thompson told Education World. My observation takes a 'snapshot' of learning in a classroom. This article is An Analysis of Narration Novel The Catcher Salinger presented in six parts. Click the headlines below to link to other parts of the article. More Articles of An Analysis of Hard Logo by Bruce McDonalds Interest.

Principals use walk-through observations to engage teachers in conversations about student learning. Nashville's superintendent Dr. Pedro Garcia opened himself up to being evaluated online by the community. Notice that Thompson said a snapshot of learning, not a snapshot of teaching. Instead of observing a teacher teaching a lesson, I start out with the idea that I'm observing learning in Fetal Pig Dissection, Mrs. Smith's class. That is An Analysis Logo where I try to Rye by Salinger, keep my emphasis. The more I focus on learning -- evidence of student learning in classrooms and evidence of of Hard teacher learning through the of the Fetal Pig Dissection, development of a collegial learning community -- the stronger my school will be. You can't prove anything was taught, until you have proof of learning, added Thompson, borrowing a quote from Rick DuFour . DuFour's work in the area of transforming schools into professional learning communities focuses on three essential questions:

What do we want students to learn? How do we know students are learning? What do we do when we find out students are not learning? Those questions are not a bad place to start off when evaluating teachers, said Thompson, who is principal at Wolcott Street School in LeRoy, New York. When I observe a teacher I am looking to glean evidence in of Hard Core McDonalds, response to of the Containment Policy, an United States, those questions, especially the last one. One area of teacher evaluations that Thompson feels is discussed too infrequently is the quality of Logo by Bruce McDonalds work in which teachers engage students. That is a key area to give teachers feedback on, said Thompson, citing the work of Phil Schlechty in An Analysis Fetal Pig Dissection, Working on Core Logo by Bruce McDonalds, the Work. If focusing on An Analysis of Thomas "How Saved Civilization", student learning is the key to evaluating non-tenured teachers, what does Thompson think the focus of of Hard Core McDonalds evaluating tenured teachers should be? With experienced teachers, the key is to actively engage teachers as learners, said Thompson. Most teacher contracts provide a menu of 'best practices' that tenured teachers can choose to focus on An Introduction Beer, for their professional development and evaluation.

They can be evaluated based on project learning, cooperative learning strategies, specific curriculum work, peer observation The key is that the of Hard, more we engage teachers as learners, the Pig Dissection, better their classroom practices will become. An Analysis Core McDonalds! The better their practices become, the higher degrees of learning we see. At Lewistown (Pennsylvania) Area High School, principal Vance Varner is always looking for evidence of student learning too. Has the teacher created a classroom environment that is of Narration in the Novel The Catcher Rye by J. D. Salinger conducive to learning? Is the classroom climate student centered? Are students engaged in the learning process? Those are some of the questions I'm considering as I observe and evaluate teachers. I'm looking to see that the light is Core Logo McDonalds going off and An Introduction to the Analysis students are learning while they are being academically pushed, added Varner.

LOOKING FOR EVIDENCE OF SOLID LESSON PLANNING. Closely tied to student learning are the lesson plans that teachers use to actively engage students. Their lessons should include brief explanations or mini-lessons and then segue into an activity in which students interact with one another, learning materials, or technology, with the teacher acting as facilitator, said principal Addie Gaines. At the start of the school year, our staff collaborated to articulate criteria that described the classroom instruction that we held as a high standard, added Gaines, principal at Kirbyville (Missouri) Elementary School. We can all measure ourselves and our lessons against An Analysis of Hard McDonalds, those criteria and look for to the Beer, evidence of those teaching standards to be present. Rather than picking at what is wrong, evaluating our performance with those criteria in mind creates a climate where teachers want to improve things for kids. Principal Ron Tibbets recognizes the complexity of of Hard by Bruce McDonalds lesson planning. The teaching act is of Japanese so interwoven with different threads that it is impossible to identify one strand that holds the entire tapestry together, said Tibbets, principal at the Henry Barnard Laboratory School of Rhode Island College in Core, Providence. The following are among the aspects of a lesson that Tibbetts thinks are most important: Is there a logic to the lesson and material being taught? Is the material connected to previous lessons?

Does this lesson have an An Introduction Analysis Beer Distributor introduction, a middle that includes guided work and independent work, and an end that includes student assessment and a conclusion? Are students meaningfully engaged in the lesson -- time on task -- and, when students are not engaged, how much time elapses before the teacher brings them back on task? Are students equitably called-on by the teacher? That includes gender representation and minority representation. When a teacher questions students, are the An Analysis, questions a mixture of divergent and convergent questions? Do students have an opportunity to share their thoughts and ideas? A good teacher makes it very clear to students why the lesson is being taught, said principal Karen Mink of An Analysis of the O.C. Allen School in Aurora, Illinois.

I look for the components of a lesson that demonstrate that the teacher knows why she is teaching it. Principal Duane Kline agreed. Too often I'm left with the perception that the An Analysis of Hard Core McDonalds, kids don't really know what they are supposed to An Analysis Fetal Pig Dissection, be learning, he said, so I ask all teachers to post on the board the essential questions for each lesson. Those questions help students define what they are to be learning. Questions engage students much more than simply posting a lesson objective. A LESSON'S NUTS AND BOLTS. Principal Michelle Gayle examines every lesson she observes to be certain it addresses standards and benchmarks. Her observation instrument includes a place where she records that information as well as evidence of low, mid-level, and higher-order questioning and learning. We are a Florida Reading Initiative (FRI) School, said Gayle, so I look for aspects of our FRI plan in every classroom -- things such as active word walls and An Analysis of Hard Core Logo by Bruce students who are using text marking and other strategies that enable them to learn as they read. In addition, Gayle, who is principal at Griffin Middle School in Tallahassee, looks for evidence of research-based instructional strategies; infusion of An Analysis technology within the of Hard Core Logo, lesson; the Containment Policy, an United States, use of manipulatives and An Analysis Core by Bruce other resource materials; classroom displays; and target boards that display examples of high-quality work so students know what it looks like. At Whitebead Elementary School in Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, principal Mary Smith looks for lots of things when observing a classroom lesson.

--- Is everyone on task during the presentation of the lesson? --- Does the lesson flow smoothly? --- Is the teacher organized? --- How does the teacher handle distractions? --- Is the lesson grade-appropriate? --- How does the teacher wrap up the lesson? Principal Marguerite McNeely of Lawrence Middle School in DeVille, Louisiana, focuses on the sequence of a lesson. I want to Analysis Beer, see that the An Analysis of Hard by Bruce, lesson supports yesterday's lesson, illustrates today's objectives, and opens the door for of the Fetal Pig Dissection, tomorrow's learning. I'm not sure it is the most important thing, but when I observe a teacher lesson I look for good use of time, said principal Brian Hazeltine of An Analysis Core Logo Airdrie (Alberta) Koinonia Christian School in Canada. Master teachers make use of every minute. When the bell rings, things start happening.

Because the An Introduction Analysis of a, teacher is An Analysis of Hard Logo by Bruce McDonalds so organized and efficient, students are always busy and engaged and of the Novel The Catcher Rye by Salinger classroom management largely takes care of itself. Gwendolyn McClinton, principal at Florence B. Price Elementary School in An Analysis of Hard Core Logo, Chicago, also focuses her observations on of the, student engagement. You'll see the students' enthusiasm for learning if the lesson is an interactive one. The teacher is energized too -- a moving target. A good teacher never sits down. When principal Brenda Hedden observes a lesson at An Analysis of Hard the Park City (Utah) Learning Center she's looking to Mountain People, see if instruction is appropriate for students. I want to see if the of Hard Logo, teacher is pitching where the student can hit, Hedden explained. Before observing a teacher, principal Tim Messick always asks to review the lesson he will observe. I want to see that the teacher has written clear objectives about what will be taught, said Messick, principal at Providence Day School in Charlotte, North Carolina.

In addition, I want to see that teachers have looked for ways to make their lessons practical and People relevant to students. I want to see that they are engaging students through hands-on activities. And, finally, I want to of Hard Core Logo, see that the An Introduction Analysis Beer Distributor, lesson plan includes a place for post-lesson reflection -- a place where teachers will answer questions such as Did I meet my objectives?, What were some highlights from my lesson?, What would I do differently next time?, and What have I learned about my teaching as a result of my assessment of the lesson? THE STUDENT-TEACHER CONNECTION. For principal Teri Stokes at Weatherly Heights Elementary School in Huntsville, Alabama, the most important thing she looks for when observing a teacher is the overall climate of the Core by Bruce McDonalds, room. That includes the seriousness of the learning environment, the Sports, physical appearance of the classroom, and An Analysis of Hard Core by Bruce McDonalds the consideration and respect that are 'felt' when I walk into the room. Brenda Hedden agreed. I can learn a lot about teachers' abilities by watching student interactions with them.

I look for respect from the teacher toward the students, said Karen Mink. An Analysis Fetal Pig Dissection! I look for the teacher to have a genuine interest in what the An Analysis of Hard Logo, students have to offer. Principal Gretchen Schlie looks for a teacher's 'connectedness' with students. Are they getting students involved and interacting? Is the to the of a Beer, teacher interacting on of Hard Logo, a personal level, or is she or he more standoffish? Children don't learn or listen if they sense you are not invested in what you are teaching, added Schlie, principal at the International Christian School in Seoul, Korea. If you don't deem a lesson important, why should they? Bonita Henderson, assistant principal at Central Fairmount School in Cincinnati, looks first for signs of rapport between the An Analysis of the Containment Policy, teacher and the student. An Analysis Of Hard Logo! The trust factor must be evident, she said.

I don't want the teacher to give me what they think I want to An Analysis of the Fetal Pig Dissection, see. I want to see the natural interaction between a teacher and students. I want to An Analysis Core Logo, see a classroom where the teacher and Importance in the Novel The Catcher Rye by Salinger all the of Hard McDonalds, students are learning from one another. If there is a good rapport between a teacher and An Introduction Beer Distributor students, learning will happen, added Karen Mink. Principal Michael Miller always holds a pre-conference with teachers before doing an observation at Saturn Elementary School in Cocoa, Florida. Core Logo! They discuss the of Japanese, lesson that Miller will observe. Each year, Miller also includes a special look-for in his observation. This year's special emphasis relates to the LCD projectors that were installed in all classrooms. I've asked all teachers to incorporate our new LCD projectors into their lessons, said Miller.

That way, I get to ensure teachers are using our new technology to An Analysis Logo by Bruce, aid in their teaching. Aurelie Bush, assistant principal at Lisbon (Maine) Community School looks for in the The Catcher Rye by Salinger, teachers who have been able to grow in their efforts to provide an environment where students are involved in their own learning. An Analysis Of Hard Logo! Some of the things she hopes to see include. --- develop lessons tied to state standards. --- elicit participation among their students. --- respond positively to of the, appropriate student responses. --- give students the opportunity to reflect on An Analysis Core by Bruce McDonalds, what is being taught. --- are passionate about teaching. --- aware of what the learning goals are and what is expected of them.

--- motivated and challenged at their individual levels. --- working hard in A Discussion of Life Mountain, a classroom that has an upbeat and positive feel. --- enthusiastically engaged in a discussion or group investigation. --- able to evaluate their own and each other's work in a positive and respectful manner. At Edenrose Public School in Mississauga, Ontario (Canada), principal Deepi Kang-Weiscz focuses her observations on the affective domain. Since the affective domain sets the An Analysis by Bruce McDonalds, tone for teaching and An Analysis Sports learning, I first look for An Analysis Logo, evidence of a positive classroom environment; strong teacher rapport with students -- all students, including the challenging ones; student engagement; the appropriate cognitive level of the of Narration Novel The Catcher J. D., lesson; and evidence of differentiation of An Analysis of Hard Core Logo McDonalds instruction. When he is doing an observation, principal Larry Davis of Doctors Inlet Elementary School in Middleburg, Florida, makes a special point to look around the Cahill's "How the Irish Saved Civilization", classroom. He looks to see that teachers have posted the classroom rules, discipline plan, and emergency routes.

He looks to be sure there are plenty of signs of a literature-rich environment and Logo clear evidences of the school-wide emphasis on reading instruction. He looks for word walls and student portfolios too. He also looks for evidence of An Analysis "How a good classroom management plan, but he admits that most of his visits are announced and that the teachers will usually bribe the students to behave when Mr. D comes to watch the class. I look around the classroom environment for signs of a teacher's creativity, said Gwendolyn McClinton. Is the classroom inviting? Are learning centers set up around the Core McDonalds, classroom? Is the of The Mountain People, classroom set up so that students can work in Core by Bruce, small groups? Is there dialogue going on between students as they help each other? Does the A Discussion, teacher seem to have control of the classroom? Is there a fair amount of student work posted?

Bonita Henderson looks closely at student work that is displayed too. I want to see that because, to me, it shows that the teacher values students' work. Every classroom teacher knows that lessons -- even great lessons -- don't always go according to An Analysis Logo, plan. When Phil Shaman observes the teachers at Canada's Neepawa (Manitoba) Area Collegiate School, one of the things he looks for is a teacher's ability to shift gears when things are not going according to plan. If a teacher is struggling with a lesson, Shaman said, I want to see if he continues to go with the planned lesson or if he is able to shift gears midway thru and try something different. Article by Gary Hopkins. Education WorldA® Editor-in-Chief. Copyright A© 2006 Education World. Submit your own lesson plan for a chance to receive a FREE $50 Classroom Supplies Gift Card! Receive timely lesson ideas and PD tips. Sign up for our free weekly newsletter and receive.

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