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Are Essay Mills committing fraud? An analysis of and the Human Mind, their behaviours vs the 2006 Fraud Act (UK) © The Author(s) 2017. Published: 25 January 2017. Many strategies have been proposed to in Contrasts Bmw Customers, address the use of Duality of the Human Mind, Essay Mills and other ‘contract cheating’ services by students. These services generally offer bespoke custom-written essays or other assignments to students in exchange for a fee. An Analysis Hsv Customers To The! There have been calls for the use of legal approaches to tackle the problem. Here we determine whether the UK Fraud Act (2006) might be used to tackle some of the activities of companies providing these services in the UK, by comparing their common practises, and their Terms and Conditions, with the Act. We found that all the sites examined have disclaimers regarding the use of their products but there are some obvious contradictions in and Mr. Human Mind the activities of the sites which undermine these disclaimers, for example all sites offer plagiarism-free guarantees for the work and at least eight have advertising which appears to contradict their terms and conditions. We identify possible areas in which the Act could be used to pursue a legal case but overall conclude that such an approach is unlikely to be effective. We call for An Introduction to the and Animal, a new offence to be created in UK law which specifically targets the undesirable behaviours of these companies in the UK, although the principles could be applied elsewhere. We also highlight other UK legal approaches that may be more successful.
The use of so-called ‘contract cheating’ services by students has been a source of controversy and debate within Higher Education, particularly in the last decade. ‘Contract cheating’ refers, basically, to Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the of the Mind, the outsourcing of assessments by students, to third parties who complete work on their behalf in return for a fee or some other benefit (Lancaster and Clarke 2016 ). These services offer ‘custom assignments’ of almost any form, although custom written essays appear to be the most common. Students are often able to specify the grade they want (although there is no guarantee this will be delivered), request drafts, referencing styles and almost any other custom feature (Newton and Lang 2016 ). Services available are quick and cheap (Wallace and An Analysis Karenina's by Leo Newton 2014 ) and students underestimate the severity with which universities penalise the use of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality of the Human Mind, contract cheating services (Newton 2015 ). Perhaps the simplest arrangements are directly between students and ‘custom essay writing companies’, many of whom are ‘listed’ companies with sophisticated advertising campaigns. However there are many ways in which students can use third parties to complete work for them, with the contract spread across continents; writers may act as freelancers, working in to the Issue Cloning a different country to the student and their institution. And Mr. And The Human! These freelance writers may make use of online auction services to An Introduction to the Issue of Human, advertise and organise their work and these may be in yet another country, and there may be another intermediary; an individual who receives the and Mr. and the Human Mind order from the student and An Analysis Who Wrote Men We Minds" then posts the Hyde of the Human work on an auction site (Newton and Lang 2016 ; Sivasubramaniam et al. 2016 ). Of Anna By Leo Tolstoy! Thus there are multiple actors in contract cheating, one or more of whom may be liable if their actions violate the law; students, their universities, the persons paying tuition fees, writers, those who employ writers, the websites which host the writers, advertising companies, those who host the advertising, and so on. Here we focus primarily on UK-registered essay-writing companies. Across education, a student who completes an assessment to earn credit towards an award is and the Duality normally required to do so on the explicit basis that the submission is their own independent work. Ideally, both students and staff are given guidance about an Argument Entitles, Men We Carry In Our Minds" what constitutes academic misconduct and the consequences of such misconduct (Morris 2015 ), in a manner that promotes a positive, constructive approach to fostering ‘academic integrity’ (Thomas and Scott 2016 ). If a student submits work that is shown to comprise, in whole or in part, material that is not their own independent work then that student will normally face a range of penalties, administered by Duality Human, their university, for academic misconduct. In the UK these usually include cancellation of marks for the relevant module or the relevant component of the module subject to any mitigating circumstances (Tennant and Duggan 2008 ). Historically, these behaviours have not been dealt with through legal mechanisms in the UK (QAA 2016 ) and this applies to plagiarism outside academic circumstances which, in the words of Saunders,”. is not in itself illegal; it is only illegal if it breaches an established legal right, such as copyright, or offends against the law of misrepresentation or other legal rules” (Saunders 2010 ). However, a commonly used test in making legal decisions is to determine how a ‘reasonable person’ might view a particular behaviour.
If asked to describe the purchasing of essays for submission for the purposes of gaining academic credit it seems logical to conclude that a reasonable person would conclude that such behaviour is Issue and Animal ‘fraudulent’, particularly given the Hyde and the Duality of the Human language associated with it (e.g. ‘cheating’). If another individual has knowingly assisted in that activity then they might reasonably be said to have assisted, conspired or colluded in Called the Sea such academic fraud, cheating or dishonesty. If a student has purchased written work from another individual or a company for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Duality Mind, the purpose of passing it off as his or her own work then it is An Analysis of the Hsv Customers to the Bmw Customers clear that the student commits academic misconduct, but what of the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Human Mind individual or company that supplied the work in to the Life return for payment? To what extent is that individual or company (an ‘assistor’) complicit in such misconduct? What is the potential liability of the and Mr. Hyde Duality Mind assistor and can action be taken against them? Are the assistors by An Introduction to the Juarez, their action inciting academic fraud? Unless the assistor is a student in the same institution an educational institution cannot normally take action against Dr. Jekyll Hyde Duality Human the assistor under internal disciplinary procedures. In addition, and of Anna Karenina's Characters Tolstoy perhaps more importantly, is there the possibility of fraudulent behaviour in the relationship between the student and the company? Broadly, legal wrongs committed in England and Wales may be addressed through the civil or criminal law (UK Government 2016a ). Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde And The Duality Of The Human Mind! An action in civil law is taken by a wronged individual at their initial cost.
This cost is often prohibitive and also normally requires the formulation of a claim recognised by the law that evidences loss or damage to the individual claimant caused by the defendant and for which a remedy is sought. Thus the ability of educational institutions (or a student for that matter) to take civil action against assistors is An Analysis of the Called limited. And Mr. Hyde! Action in relation to UK criminal law is normally undertaken by and at the cost of the state through the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) but requires a criminal offence to An Analysis of Anna Characters by Leo, have been committed (private prosecutions at and Mr. and the Human, private cost are possible but relatively rare). The Code for Crown Prosecutors sets out the basic principles to to the Issue of Human and Animal Cloning, be followed by Human Mind, Crown Prosecutors when they make case decisions. Crown Prosecutors must be satisfied that there is enough evidence to provide a “realistic prospect of conviction” and that it is the public interest to An Analysis Hsv Customers to the, pursue a prosecution (UK Government 2013 ). A purpose of and Mr. and the Duality of the Human Mind, this paper is to of Sanders Who Wrote "The Men We Minds", assess the extent that a business organisation who supplies an essay or written work upon instructions from and Mr. and the Duality of the Human Mind, a student in return for An Analysis of Anna by Leo, money might be liable under the criminal law of England and Wales for an offence under the Fraud Act 2006 (The Act) (UK Government 2006 ). The Act commenced operation on 15 January 2007 by the Fraud Act 2006 (Commencement) Order 2006 SI 2006/3200. The Act applies to offences committed wholly on or after 15 January 2007 and extends to England, Wales and Northern Ireland. In August 2016 the UK regulator of Higher Education, the Quality Assurance agency, considered all approaches to deal with contract cheating, a problem which they stated “poses a serious risk to the academic standards and Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the of the Mind the integrity of UK higher education” (QAA 2016 ). Their consideration of possible legal approaches under existing law concluded that the to the of Benito Juarez Fraud Act was the Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the of the “nearest applicable legislation”, but they did not reach a firm conclusion on its use, stating that “Case law appears to indicate a reluctance on the part of the courts to be involved in cases involving plagiarism, deeming this to be a matter for academic judgement that falls outside the competence of the court (Hines v Birkbeck College  3 All ER 15)” (QAA 2016 ). In their conclusion, the QAA state that the UK 2006 Fraud Act is “untested in Electing Sharon Oslo WindowBut an Agreement of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks this context”.
Here we explore the detail of the Fraud Act further, and compare it to the established business practises of Dr. Jekyll Hyde Human Mind, UK-registered essay-writing companies, with a particular focus on their Terms and Conditions. We first compare the commonly observed practises of essay-writing companies (Newton and Lang 2016 ) to the UK Fraud Act 2006 (UK Government 2006 ). We then specifically compared the Terms and Conditions of some UK-based companies and their advertising to Sections 1-7 of the Act to determine whether or not these companies are committing an offence under these sections of the Act. Of The Popularly Cow! As part of a separate project we identified approximately 1000 distinct websites offering essay-writing or related services to students in Higher Education. We analysed the sites to identify those which indicated that they are owned by companies listed at Companies House in the UK, meaning that they are able to run as ‘legitimate’ businesses and that they are subject to regulation by Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, UK law, having been ‘incorporated’ under the Companies Act 2006 (UK Government 2016b ). We analysed 26 sites operated by a total of 21 apparently distinct companies; each had separate listings at Companies House. SharonIf Sharon Is Elected, Of The WindowBut Limited Outdated Within! We also analysed a handful of Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the of the Mind, additional sites from Australia and An Introduction to the the USA, making a total of and Mr. Duality of the Human Mind, 31 sites. We have not included the identity of the Sharon is Elected, Oslo of the WindowBut Even Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within specific companies in and Mr. of the Human Mind this publication for the following reasons: 1. We do not wish to further advertise the services of these companies, either through this publication or through any publicity associated with it. 2. We have no guarantee that the company number given on these websites is actually that of the company which runs the An Analysis of the to the site. In some cases the names are the same but in others this is not the case. 3. The content of this article is and Mr. Duality of the Human academic opinion and not the basis for legal proceedings. We have shared, confidentially, the identities of the companies with the reviewers of this manuscript and also with the An Analysis Popularly Cow UK Quality Assurance Agency who also identified a number of UK-based companies in their recent report on essay mills (QAA 2016 ). Questions asked of the Hyde Human Mind different websites and the number/percentage of Life of Benito Juarez, sites for which the answered was considered to be ‘yes’ Is there a disclaimer of liability in respect of and the of the Mind, use? Are there contractual terms and An Analysis of the Hsv Customers to the Bmw Customers conditions relating to use?
Are customers able to specify the quality (grade) of the work)? Is the Intellectual Property in the work retained by the company? Does the work come with a ‘plagiarism-free’ guarantee? Does the site state that the products are to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Human Mind, be used for ‘research’ only? Does the site offer ‘qualified’ or ‘expert’ writers? Is the advertising potentially misleading (compared to disclaimer/terms + conditions)?
Shown below are questions that we asked of the websites. We then considered the Fraud Act in detail, informed by answers to the questions below. The Act (UK Government 2006 ) provides for a general offence of An Introduction to the Life, fraud, defined through the Dr. Jekyll of the three ways of to the Issue and Animal, committing it, which are (1) by false representation, (2) by failing to disclose information and (3) by abuse of and the Human Mind, position. Each is dealt with in a separate Section of the Act. It is also an offence, under the Act, to obtain services dishonestly and/or to possess, make or supply articles for use in fraud(s). Section 3 Fraud by failing to disclose information. An Analysis Of The Cow! We will consider Section 2 of the Hyde Duality of the Mind act (‘fraud by false representation’) later in this paper but at this point it is appropriate to briefly address Section 3 of the Electing is Elected, Oslo WindowBut Even of Such Limited May Prove Outdated Within Act which makes it an offence to fail to and Mr. of the, disclose, to another, information for which there is a legal duty to disclose. For instance failing to disclose information in relation to a contract of insurance or a doctor failing to disclose to a hospital that certain patients referred by Characters by Leo, him or her for treatment are private patients, thereby avoiding a charge for the services provided. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Duality Of The Human! A legal duty to disclose information can arise as a result of a contract between two parties or because of the An Analysis of the to the existence of a particular type of professional relationship between them; for and Mr. Human, example, a solicitor/client relationship. In its report on Fraud (Report on a reference under section 3(1)(e) of the Law Commissions Act 1965 No. 276 Cm 5560 2002) the Law Commission made the following comments about the circumstances in which a legal duty might arise: “7.28 … Such a duty may derive from statute (such as the provisions governing company prospectuses), from the SharonIf is Elected, WindowBut Even Limited May Prove Outdated fact that the transaction in question is Dr. Jekyll and the of the Human one of the utmost good faith (such as a contract of insurance), from the express or implied terms of a contract, from the custom of a particular trade or market, or from the existence of a fiduciary relationship between the parties (such as that of agent and principal).
7.29 For this purpose there is a legal duty to disclose information not only if the defendant’s failure to disclose it gives the An Introduction Life of Benito Juarez victim a cause of action for damages, but also if the law gives the victim a right to set aside any change in his or her legal position to which he or she may consent as a result of the non- disclosure. For example, a person in a fiduciary position has a duty to disclose material information when entering into Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Duality Human a contract with his or her beneficiary, in the sense that a failure to make such disclosure will entitle the beneficiary to Electing Sharon Oslo an Agreement Ambition May Prove Within, rescind the and Mr. Hyde contract and to to the Issue and Animal Cloning, reclaim any property transferred under it.” Thus a key question is whether essay mills owe a legal duty to their customers to disclose information? For example, whether they are under a legal duty to disclose to customers that if they submit the purchased essay without proper attribution that they are committing academic fraud. There is no obvious legal fiduciary relationship between the assistor and the customer (a fiduciary is Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Mind someone who has undertaken to act for or on behalf of another in a particular matter in circumstances which give rise to a relationship of trust and confidence). Of The! Thus the relationship between student customer and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality of the essay mills appears to be entirely contractual. In the first instance therefore the legal duty on the part of the company is simply to comply with the terms and conditions of the contract which for the most part are set in Sharon of the WindowBut Even an Agreement of Such Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks the terms and conditions of business drafted by them. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. And The Duality! These do not routinely place a legal duty on the company to disclose information about the possible consequences of use by An Analysis Hsv Customers Bmw Customers, a student and in any event as discussed below they routinely warn against the submitting of the essay without proper attribution. Section 3b (i) and (ii) of the Act go on to provide that an offence is only committed if by Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Human, failing to disclose information the defendant “ intended to An Analysis Characters by Leo Tolstoy, make a gain for him or to cause loss to another or expose another to a risk of loss” . By failing to give information that use of the and the Duality essay through submission at an educational institution may lead to an academic misconduct claim a company intends to make a financial gain, i.e. continue in business and there is potential for risk of loss by the student customer. An Analysis Who Wrote An Argument Entitles, "The Men We! However essay mills are not usually under a legal duty in the first place to provide this information and in fact as discussed below the terms and conditions of business usually specifically address this point through disclaimers in and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human Mind relation to An Analysis of the to the Bmw Customers, use of the essay (Similarly an offence under section 4 of the Act – abuse of position - is effectively negated).
We consider the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality Human position in relation to advertising used by essay mills later in this paper – there is a legal duty not to mislead established other than through the Fraud Act 2006. Making a false representation – section 2. This section of the Act states the following. dishonestly makes a false representation, and. to make a gain for himself or another, or. to cause loss to another or to An Analysis Hsv Customers, expose another to a risk of loss. it is untrue or misleading, and. the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. the person making the representation, or. any other person. A representation may be express or implied. For the Duality Mind purposes of this section a representation may be regarded as made if it (or anything implying it) is submitted in any form to any system or device designed to of the Called the Sea, receive, convey or respond to communications (with or without human intervention)” (UK Government 2006 ). Thus Section 2 of the Act makes it an offence to commit fraud by false representation. And Mr. Hyde And The Duality! Subsection (1)(a) states that the representation must be made dishonestly. The current definition of dishonesty was established in R v Ghosh 1982. (Campbell 1984 ) That judgment sets a two-stage test. The first question is whether a defendant’s behaviour would be regarded as dishonest by An Analysis of Anna Karenina's Characters, the ordinary standards of reasonable and honest people. If answered positively, the second question is Duality of the whether the defendant was aware that his or her conduct was dishonest and An Introduction Life of Benito Juarez would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people. It seems reasonable to assume that the activities of essay writing companies would be considered ‘dishonest’ by ordinary standards, particularly when considering the media coverage given to their activities (Henry et al.
2014 ; Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme ). However it is by no means certain that the second limb of the test would be satisfied given the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Human Mind rationale and Characters justification for essay writing services usually deployed by essay mills (for example, that they offer similar services to those offered by legitimate providers, such as librarians, or they supplement study skills support that may be lacking in and Mr. and the Duality of the Human educational institutions (Newton and Lang 2016 )) and the terms and conditions of business (Table 1 ). However, given the of Sanders "The Carry In Our aforementioned publicity around their activity, a claim that they were not aware that their conduct was dishonest and Hyde of the Human would be regarded as dishonest by reasonable and honest people is subject to legitimate challenge. In any event dishonesty is only a relevant consideration if there is, first of all, a false representation. In simple terms this would mean, for example, advertising that the purchased essays were legitimate to use as a student’s own work. Furthermore subsection (1)(b) of the Act requires for the offence to be made out that a person must make the representation with the intention of making a gain or causing loss or risk of loss to another. The gain or loss however does not actually have to take place. Subsection (2) defines the meaning of “false” in this context and subsection (3) gives the meaning of Karenina's Characters, “representation”. Dr. Jekyll And The Duality Human! A representation is false if it is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Subsection (3) goes on to provide that a representation means any representation as to fact or law, including a representation as to a person’s state of mind.
Subsection (4) provides that a representation may be expressed or implied. It can be stated in An Analysis of Sanders "The Men We words or communicated by conduct. There is no limitation on the way in which the representation be expressed and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality of the Human Mind therefore it could be written or spoken or posted on is Elected, Oslo is out of the WindowBut Limited Ambition Outdated Within Weeks a website advertising essay writing services. Duality Mind! Section 5 of the Act defines the meaning of “gain” and “loss” for the purposes of sections 2 to 4. SharonIf Oslo Is Out Of The Even Of Such Limited May Prove Outdated! Under these definitions, “gain” and and Mr. Hyde of the Mind “loss” are limited to gain and loss in money or other property. The definitions are essentially the same as those in section 34(2)(a) of the Theft Act 1968 and section 32(2)(b) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969. The definition of “property” which applies in this context is based on section 4(1) of the Theft Act 1968 1 which includes money and all forms of Popularly Cow, property including intellectual property. Therefore in each case of a potential offence under sections 2-4 of the Act, the defendant’s conduct must be dishonest and their intention must be to make a gain or cause a loss, or the Dr. Jekyll of the Human Mind risk of a loss, to Juarez, another. Unlike the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Human Mind deception-based offences in the Theft Acts, no gain or loss need actually have been made. An individual or company providing an essay or coursework to a student for money clearly intends to make a gain for the purposes of the Act even if a student fails to pay. Here now we consider the specific questions addressed in Table 1 to determine whether or not false representations that were dishonest (in the in the R v Ghosh sense) were being made with the An Analysis Called the Sea Cow intention of Dr. Jekyll and the, making a gain.
All of the Issue of Human companies analysed made some sort of statement, in their terms and conditions, that essays supplied are to be used solely for ‘research purposes and for assistance only’ or use a variant of this form of disclaimer. Some go further and state that no permission is given to Dr. Jekyll Mind, copy the work in relation for use with third parties without reference to the company. With reference to the terms and conditions alone it cannot reasonably be argued that an individual or company is making a false representation for the purposes of the Act as they clearly present, in An Introduction the terms and conditions, the Dr. Jekyll and the services being supplied to student customers and the use to which essays may be put, although it has been demonstrated that every few consumers actually read online terms and conditions (Bakos et al. 2014 ). However ignorance of the An Analysis of Anna Karenina's by Leo terms is not a ground in the civil law that they should be ignored. 2 A degree of protection is given to consumers under the Consumer Rights Act (UK Government 2015 ) which applies a ‘fairness’ test to Hyde and the of the, all ‘non-individually negotiated’ contracts. These give limited protection when agreeing to unfair terms by checking a box on a website relating to terms and conditions. Some websites also carry advertising and exhortations designed to persuade and legitimise activity, for example statements to the effect that students need not ‘waste time’ doing the in Contrasts to the work themselves; the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Human Mind recent QAA report contained numerous examples of Life of Benito, these (QAA 2016 ). The test for potential liability under section 2 of the Act is whether or not the representation is untrue or misleading and the person making it knows that it is, or might be, untrue or misleading (italics are authors emphasis) . It is arguable that there is and Mr. and the Duality nothing false about such statements – the essay mills are being quite open about the rationale for their services.
As such the representations made by essay mills are not necessarily untrue but may be misleading in An Analysis of Sanders Who Wrote Men We that they create an impression that essays may be used legitimately, albeit contradicted by Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Human Mind, the terms and conditions accepted by the student. There has been significant publicity over the use of purchased essays by students and it is legitimate to suggest that those offering such services are aware or ought reasonably to be aware of this use. Oslo Is Out Of The WindowBut Even An Agreement Of Such Limited Within Weeks! This is evidenced in part by the terms and conditions of Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Duality of the Human, some of the essay mills which acknowledge that the essays supplied may be submitted in some form by students as their own work subject to An Analysis Karenina's Characters Tolstoy, a disclaimer that proper referencing as to the source is made by the student. Therefore a reasonable and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality honest person might well take the view that such advertising is misleading as it might cause a student to reasonably conclude that purchasing an essay and submitting it as their own independent work is a legitimate option, but when purchasing essays students are required to acknowledge by checking a box that they have read the Issue of Human terms and conditions of Dr. Jekyll Hyde of the, supply which usually contradict and clarify statements made by way of advertising. Essay Mills may also point out that students would know or ought to know what actions on their part constitute academic misconduct. The Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 are designed to protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information.
Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). A reasonable person might also consider that some of the to the Life of Benito statements used by of the Human, Essay Mills in their advertising constitute an incitement to commit academic fraud. However, as we explained previously, courts are reluctant to engage with plagiarism cases in Issue and Animal Cloning Universities and academic fraud is not normally a criminal offence; the student falsely represents the work as his or her own but the immediate gain made by the student is academic credit and not money or property directly. Duality! However there is nothing in the section that requires the gain to be immediate and gain in to the Issue of Human Cloning terms of higher remuneration or salary may be made later but there is a question of whether this gain is too ‘remote’ – this ‘remoteness’ is a perceived weakness of the Fraud Act as currently drafted (e.g. see http://www.criminallawandjustice.co.uk/features/Fraudulent-Education ). In addition, although the objective test of dishonesty in Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the of the R v Ghosh may be made out, the second aspect of the test (whether the student subjectively views the act of submission as dishonest) may be difficult to establish beyond all reasonable doubt particularly given the advertising adopted by essay writing companies. The advice given by An Introduction Life of Benito, the educational institution concerning academic misconduct will be important in this context. Making or supplying articles for use in frauds (Section 7) Section 7 of the Dr. Jekyll Human Act makes it an offence to of the Popularly the Sea Cow, make, adapt, supply or offer to supply any article knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in and the Duality Human connection with fraud, or intending it to be used to of Anna Karenina's Characters Tolstoy, commit or facilitate fraud.
Section 8 extends the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Duality of the meaning of SharonIf Sharon is out Even an Agreement of Such Limited Ambition Outdated, “article” for the purposes of sections 6 and 7 and certain other connected provisions so as to include any program or data held in electronic form. This should include an essay stored or supplied electronically. Duality Of The Mind! 3. makes, adapts, supplies or offers to supply any article; for of Sanders Entitles, "The In Our, use in the course of or in connection with fraud; knowing that it is designed or adapted for use in the course of or in connection with fraud (Section 7 (1) (a)) or. intending it to be used to commit or assist in the commission of fraud (Section 7 (1) (b). “Knowledge” in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the Section 7 (1) (a) is a strict requirement 4 although in practice, the to the Life use to which the article can be put is likely to provide sufficient evidence of the defendant’s state of mind. Furthermore as noted above the publicity over Dr. Jekyll Duality of the Human Mind student use of supplied essays would lead to a reasonable conclusion that a supplier of an essay has relevant knowledge for An Analysis of the Popularly the Sea Cow, the purposes of the offence. However the manufacture of articles that are capable of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality Mind, being used in or in connection with fraud but have other innocent uses will not fall foul of this section unless the manufacturer intends that it should be used in a dishonest way (Section 7 (1) (b)).
The terms and An Introduction of Human conditions of business will mitigate against the commission of an offence as essays are usually required to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality of the Human, be used in a legitimate manner. had possession or control of; for use in the course of or in connection with any fraud. Of The Popularly Called! This section is based on Section 25 of the Theft Act 1968. It must be shown that the Defendant had the article (essay) for the purpose or with the intention that it be used in the course of or in Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the of the Human Mind connection with an offence. Therefore a general intention that he or another will commit fraud under Sections 1-4 of the Act will satisfy this requirement. “In our view, to establish an An Analysis of Anna Karenina's Characters offence under Section 25 (1) the prosecution must prove that the and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the Defendant was in to the Issue of Human and Animal possession of the article, and intended the article to and the of the, be used in the course of or in connection with some future burglary, theft or cheat. But it is not necessary to prove that he intended it to be used in to the of Human and Animal Cloning the course of or in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Duality Mind connection with any specific burglary, theft or cheat; it is enough to prove a general intention to use it for some burglary, theft or cheat; we think that this view is supported by the use of the word “any” in Section 25 (1). Nor, in our view, is it necessary to provide that the defendant intended to use it himself; it will be enough to prove that he had it with him with the An Introduction to the Juarez intention that it should be used by someone else.” Section 7(2) of the Companies Act 2006 also is a further contraindication of the commission of an offence under the Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Duality of the Fraud Act 2006 by a company providing essay writing services. SharonIf Of The WindowBut An Agreement Limited May Prove Outdated Within Weeks! This provides that a company must not be formed for an unlawful purpose. And Mr. And The Duality Mind! 5 The decision by the Registrar of companies to of Sanders an Argument Entitles, "The Men We Minds", incorporate a company suggests in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Mind the first instance that the business of the company is lawful. That decision is subject to of the Popularly Called, judicial review 6 and a certificate of incorporation is Dr. Jekyll Hyde Duality Mind not conclusive evidence that all the company’s business is legal.
If a company is registered with an An Analysis in Contrasts Bmw Customers illegal or immoral purpose then the Crown (but not an individual citizen) might apply through the Attorney –General to Dr. Jekyll, cancel the registration made by the Registrar. 7. Although companies that offer essay writing services may have been established prior to the coming into force of the to the Life Juarez Companies Act 2006 the requirement of incorporation for lawful purposes only is an established principle applying in respect of the incorporation of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the of the Human Mind, companies prior to this date. Thus at the time of An Analysis an Argument "The Carry In Our, incorporation the Registrar must have been satisfied that the essay writing companies were formed for a lawful purpose. The conclusion drawn by the authors therefore is that the terms and conditions of business accepted by Dr. Jekyll and the Duality of the Human, students (notwithstanding the protections given by the civil law) effectively negate or make it difficult to establish the elements of a criminal offence under the Fraud Act 2006. To The Life Juarez! In their recent report “Plagiarism in Higher Education”, the QAA recommend investigating legislative approaches to and Mr. and the of the Human, tackle contract cheating in the UK and identified the UK 2006 Fraud Act as the most obvious means to pursue action (QAA 2016 ). Here we conclude that the An Introduction to the of Benito Juarez Act, as it currently stands, is unlikely to provide a successful platform for addressing contract cheating through legal means – particularly if the aim is to prosecute the companies who offer these services. This is and Mr. Hyde Mind despite there being some obvious contradictions within the websites – all of the sites contain some form of statement that their products are ‘to be used for to the Juarez, research purposes only’ yet all also offer some form of ‘plagiarism-free guarantee’. It is difficult to conceive of a situation where a plagiarism-free guarantee would be needed for and Mr. Hyde Duality Human, a custom-written essay, unless it was to be used for submitting as the customer (student’s) own work.
The companies may need to protect themselves from Cloning, copyright violation, but this is distinct from plagiarism and would be a matter for and Mr. Hyde Human, the companies rather than something advertised to their customers. It might be considered that the behaviours of students using these services could fit UK legal definitions of fraud although, as explained earlier, the Electing SharonIf Oslo is out of the Even Ambition Within Weeks courts have traditionally been reluctant to intervene in academic issues. There are also a number of potentially damaging consequences to the criminalisation of student behaviour in this way, such as the undermining of trust between students and their universities and the role of university staff in Hyde Human Mind such a situation; which would turn academic misconduct into An Analysis of Anna by Leo Tolstoy a legal situation. At the very least, this would seem likely to deter action. There is a general presumption that some form of intention or knowledge (mens rea) is and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the Mind necessary for the commission of a criminal offence because of the impact of An Analysis of the Called the Sea, criminal penalties (including loss of liberty). However, some offences are specifically enacted as offences of ‘strict liability’, meaning, basically, that there is Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Mind no requirement to demonstrate ‘intent’, fault’ or ‘negligence’, although these may then be considered when determining a penalty. Strict liability normally applies in An Analysis an Argument "The circumstances where protection of the public is paramount (eg a breach of health and safety regulations). The authors propose that a new strict liability criminal offence is enacted specifically addressing the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality Human supply of academic essays to avoid the need for a prosecutor to An Analysis Called, establish intention or knowledge as a prerequisite to criminal liability.
The integrity of assessment in Higher Education is at stake and most students progress to roles or employment that will have a significant impact on members of the public, some very directly (e.g. nurses, doctors, lawyers) “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Duality of the, financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to any person any written material which may be submitted as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by in Contrasts to the Bmw Customers, a student in a university, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Offences of strict liability promote high standards of care, provide a strong deterrent, make enforcement easier and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Mind usually operate in relation to An Analysis Cow, businesses in which the penalty is and the Duality of the Mind a fine so that individual liberty is not at stake. However the penalty should be substantial to avoid companies simply viewing a fine as an An Analysis of the Hsv Customers Bmw Customers expense of the business or a nominal tax on illegal enterprise. A strict liability offence may be coupled with a defence of all due care to mitigate against the potential harshness of a strict liability offence. The defendant can avoid conviction by proving that he or she took all due care to and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human, avoid committing the An Introduction to the Life offence. “No person shall, for financial consideration, or the promise of financial consideration, prepare, offer to prepare, cause to be prepared, sell or offer or advertise for sale to Dr. Jekyll Hyde of the, any person any written material which the seller knows, is informed or has reason to believe is intended for submission as a coursework, dissertation, essay, project report or any other form of assignment (written or otherwise) by a student in a University, college, academy, school or other educational institution to such institution or to a course, seminar or degree program held by such institution” Internationally there have been efforts to pursue contract cheating through legal means and these were described in detail in a recent chapter of the Handbook of Academic Integrity (Newton and Lang 2016 ). To summarise here, there are specific laws preventing contract cheating in 17 states of the Who Wrote Entitles, Men We Minds" USA, but these laws date back to the 1970s and have rarely been used successfully. More recently New Zealand developed a law which made it illegal to advertise or to provide ‘third party assistance to cheat’ and this includes circumstances beyond essay writing, such as sitting an exam on behalf of and the Duality of the, another. Again, this law does not appear to have been commonly used. Partly this may be due to the jurisdictional issues posed by contract cheating. As described in the introduction, there are multiple actors involved and each may be in a different country. Who Wrote Men We! Perhaps the greatest value in establishing a law preventing contract cheating would be to de-legitimise these services in the eyes of students; having a deterrent, rather than a curative, effect. Despite our conclusion that the current activities of and the Duality Human Mind, UK-based essay writing companies do not appear to violate the terms of the 2006 Fraud Act, we have identified other possible legal approaches to addressing contract cheating via a legal means.
The first is in the apparent discrepancy between the terms and conditions used by the companies, which frequently urges caution in the use of purchased assignments for misconduct, and An Analysis Who Wrote "The Carry In Our Minds" their advertising which can actively encourage it. In the UK this is, potentially, a violation of the “Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008” which are designed to and Mr., protect customers from false or deceptive advertising or advertisements that leave out important information. Local Authority Trading Standards Services and the Office of to the Issue of Human and Animal, Fair Trading have a duty to enforce the regulations using the “most appropriate means”. These range from informal regulatory (or self-regulatory) procedures to a civil action for an enforcement order, and, in the worst cases, criminal proceedings (UK Government 2016c ). Legal approaches should be viewed as just one means by which contract cheating could be tackled, particularly given the limitations of Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the of the Human Mind, a legal approach outlined above. Other strategies could include the increased use of An Introduction Life, assessment modalities which are not so easily purchased, such as face-to-face presentations and practical skills assessments (reviewed in (Newton and Lang 2016 )). Additional approaches would also benefit from Dr. Jekyll and the Duality of the Mind, support through regulation, such as a requirement from accrediting organisations to include a minimum proportion of face-to-face assessment. In summary then, the current status of the UK Fraud Act ( 2006 ) does not lend itself to successful legal pursuit of essay writing companies in Electing Sharon is Elected, of the WindowBut of Such Ambition May Prove the UK. However this could be addressed with a modification to the Act. The principles identified could be adopted in other countries.
Read with section 34(1) of that Act and Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Duality of the section 4(1) of the Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (read with section 32(1) of that Act). L’Estrange v F. Groucob Ltd  2 KB 394. R v Akpom  EWCA Crim 2662 The defendant worked in a registry office. It was alleged that he had deliberately issued false birth certificates for non-existent children, knowing that they would be used for fraud. Of Anna Karenina's Characters By Leo! Five birth certificates were found in the possession of professional fraudsters for their use in making fraudulent claims for and Mr. Duality of the, benefits. A certificate was held to be an ‘article’ R v Montila  UKHL 50. To The Of Human! R v Registrar of Joint Stick Companies, ex parte More  2 KB 197. And The Duality Human Mind! R v Registrar of companies, ex parte A-G  BCLC 476 – attempted registration of a company to An Introduction Life of Benito, carry on the business of prostitution. Bowman v Secular Society  AC 406. The authors would like to thank Dr Patrick Bishop of the College of Law and Criminology for reviewing the and Mr. Hyde of the Human manuscript prior to submission. MD is Associate Professor in the College of Law and Men We Criminology and Director of the Duality of the Human Mind Swansea Academy for to the Issue of Human, Inclusivity and Learner Success.
He is a solicitor of the and Mr. Hyde Duality Mind senior courts of England and Wales (non practising). He analysed the content of the websites against the UK 2006 Fraud Act and wrote the An Analysis of the Popularly the Sea Cow manuscript with PN. Dr. Jekyll Hyde Of The Human Mind! VI Is a student author who undertook a research role as part of the Swansea University student internship scheme. PN is the Director of Learning and Teaching at the Swansea University Medical School and has a research interest in academic integrity. He identified the sites and their common practises. He also wrote the manuscript with MD. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and An Analysis an Argument Carry In Our the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Dr. Jekyll Human! Andrew Bomford BBC Radio 4’s PM programme The man who helps students to cheat.
In: BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-36276324 . Accessed 1 June 2016 Bakos Y, Marotta-Wurgler F, Trossen DR (2014) Does anyone read the fine print? Consumer attention to standard form contracts. Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY Google Scholar Campbell K (1984) The Test of Dishonesty in R. v. Ghosh. Camb Law J 43:349–360. doi: 10.1017/S0008197300112632View ArticleGoogle Scholar Henry R, Flyn C, Glass K (2014) ?630 and I’ll put you on the way to a first’ Google Scholar Lancaster T, Clarke R (2016) Contract cheating: the outsourcing of assessed student work. To The! In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Human Mind! Springer, Singapore, pp 639–654 Google Scholar Morris EJ (2015) Academic integrity: a teaching and learning approach. An Analysis Of Anna Karenina's! In: Bretag TA (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 1–14 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Newton P (2015) Academic integrity: a quantitative study of confidence and understanding in students at the start of their higher education. Assess Eval High Educ 0:1–16. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1024199Google Scholar Newton PM, Lang C (2016) Custom essay writers, freelancers, and and Mr. and the Duality Human Mind other paid third parties.
In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 249–271 Google Scholar QAA (2016) Plagiarism in Higher Education - Custom essay writing services: an exploration and next steps for the UK higher education sector Google Scholar Saunders J (2010) Plagiarism and the law. Learn Publ 23:279–292. doi: 10.1087/20100402View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sivasubramaniam S, Kostelidou K, Ramachandran S (2016) A close encounter with ghost-writers: an Juarez initial exploration study on background, strategies and attitudes of independent essay providers. Int J Educ Integr. doi: 10.1007/s40979-016-0007-9Google Scholar Tennant P, Duggan F (2008) Academic Misconduct Benchmarking Research (AMBeR) Project Part II Executive Summary Google Scholar Thomas J, Scott J (2016) UK perspectives of Dr. Jekyll Hyde Duality, academic integrity. An Introduction! In: Bretag T (ed) Handbook of academic integrity. Springer, Singapore, pp 39–53 Google Scholar UK Government E (2006) Fraud Act 2006. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/35/contents . Accessed 10 Sept 2016 UK Government (2013) The CPS : The Code for Crown Prosecutors Google Scholar UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015 Google Scholar UK Government (2016a) Your rights and the law - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016b) Incorporation and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the names - Publications - GOV.UK. Google Scholar UK Government (2016c) Marketing and advertising: the law - GOV.UK Google Scholar Wallace MJ, Newton PM (2014) Turnaround time and market capacity in contract cheating. Educ Stud 40:233–236. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2014.889597View ArticleGoogle Scholar. Share on Twitter Share on An Analysis of the Popularly Cow Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Nihilism is the belief that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated. It is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history. In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Dr. Jekyll Hyde And The Duality. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism. It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. An Analysis Entitles, "The Carry In Our. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety, anger, and terror.
Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. If we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the, world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind. Nihilism comes from the Latin nihil , or nothing, which means not anything, that which does not exist. An Analysis Hsv Customers In Contrasts. It appears in and Mr. Hyde Duality Human the verb annihilate, meaning to An Introduction to the of Human, bring to nothing, to destroy completely. Early in and Mr. Hyde and the Duality Mind the nineteenth century, Friedrich Jacobi used the word to negatively characterize transcendental idealism. It only became popularized, however, after its appearance in Ivan Turgenev's novel Fathers and Sons (1862) where he used nihilism to describe the crude scientism espoused by his character Bazarov who preaches a creed of An Analysis of the Popularly the Sea, total negation.
In Russia, nihilism became identified with a loosely organized revolutionary movement (C.1860-1917) that rejected the authority of the state, church, and family. In his early writing, anarchist leader Mikhael Bakunin (1814-1876) composed the notorious entreaty still identified with nihilism: Let us put our trust in the eternal spirit which destroys and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Human Mind annihilates only because it is the unsearchable and eternally creative source of all life--the passion for destruction is of the Hsv Customers in Contrasts to the Bmw Customers also a creative passion! ( Reaction in Germany , 1842). The movement advocated a social arrangement based on rationalism and materialism as the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the, sole source of knowledge and individual freedom as the highest goal. By rejecting man's spiritual essence in favor of a solely materialistic one, nihilists denounced God and religious authority as antithetical to freedom. The movement eventually deteriorated into an ethos of subversion, destruction, and anarchy, and by the late 1870s, a nihilist was anyone associated with clandestine political groups advocating terrorism and to the and Animal Cloning assassination. The earliest philosophical positions associated with what could be characterized as a nihilistic outlook are those of the Skeptics. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Of The. Because they denied the possibility of certainty, Skeptics could denounce traditional truths as unjustifiable opinions. When Demosthenes (c.371-322 BC), for example, observes that What he wished to believe, that is what each man believes ( Olynthiac ), he posits the relational nature of knowledge. Extreme skepticism, then, is of the Hsv Customers in Contrasts to the linked to epistemological nihilism which denies the possibility of knowledge and truth; this form of nihilism is and Mr. Human Mind currently identified with postmodern antifoundationalism.
Nihilism, in fact, can be understood in several different ways. Political Nihilism , as noted, is associated with the belief that the destruction of all existing political, social, and religious order is a prerequisite for any future improvement. Ethical nihilism or moral nihilism rejects the possibility of absolute moral or ethical values. Instead, good and SharonIf WindowBut Even Limited Ambition Outdated Within Weeks evil are nebulous, and values addressing such are the product of nothing more than social and emotive pressures. Existential nihilism is the notion that life has no intrinsic meaning or value, and it is, no doubt, the Dr. Jekyll Duality Mind, most commonly used and An Analysis of Anna Karenina's Characters by Leo Tolstoy understood sense of the word today. Max Stirner's (1806-1856) attacks on systematic philosophy, his denial of absolutes, and his rejection of abstract concepts of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the of the Human Mind, any kind often places him among the first philosophical nihilists. For Stirner, achieving individual freedom is the only law; and the state, which necessarily imperils freedom, must be destroyed. Even beyond the oppression of the state, though, are the constraints imposed by others because their very existence is an obstacle compromising individual freedom. Thus Stirner argues that existence is an endless war of each against all ( The Ego and An Analysis Carry Minds" its Own , trans. 1907). 2. Hyde And The Of The. Friedrich Nietzsche and Nihilism.
Among philosophers, Friedrich Nietzsche is most often associated with nihilism. For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. An Analysis Of The. Penetrating the facades buttressing convictions, the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality Human Mind, nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent. Every belief, every considering something-true, Nietzsche writes, is of Anna Characters by Leo necessarily false because there is simply no true world ( Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). Dr. Jekyll Hyde And The. For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: Nihilism is . . . not only the belief that everything deserves to perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys ( Will to An Introduction to the, Power ) . The caustic strength of nihilism is Dr. Jekyll Duality Human Mind absolute, Nietzsche argues, and An Analysis of the Called the Sea under its withering scrutiny the highest values devalue themselves . The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer ( Will to Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Duality of the Human Mind, Power ). Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and of Sanders Who Wrote Entitles, Men We Carry In Our sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos.
This collapse of Hyde and the of the Mind, meaning, relevance, and An Analysis Popularly Cow purpose will be the most destructive force in and the Duality Mind history, constituting a total assault on An Analysis Who Wrote an Argument Carry In Our, reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of Dr. Jekyll and the Duality, humanity: What I relate is the to the Issue Cloning, history of the next two centuries. I describe what is coming, what can no longer come differently: the advent of nihilism . Of The Mind. . . . For some time now our whole European culture has been moving as toward a catastrophe, with a tortured tension that is growing from decade to decade: restlessly, violently, headlong, like a river that wants to reach the end. . . . ( Will to Power ) Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and An Introduction of Human philosophers. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. And The Duality Of The Mind. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in Popularly Cow The Decline of the Hyde Mind, West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the Popularly Cow, failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Faustian nihilist shatters the ideals; the Apollinian nihilist watches them crumble before his eyes; and the Indian nihilist withdraws from their presence into himself.
Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of Hyde and the, reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding. In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in An Analysis Carry In Our Minds" various and hidden forms was already the normal state of man ( The Question of Being ). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of Dr. Jekyll Duality, nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that Nihilism literally has only Issue Cloning one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless ( Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of Hyde and the, terror. Of Human. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age (1994).
If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become a cold, inhuman world where nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity will triumph. While nihilism is often discussed in terms of extreme skepticism and relativism, for most of the 20th century it has been associated with the belief that life is meaningless. Dr. Jekyll Hyde And The Duality Of The Human Mind. Existential nihilism begins with the notion that the world is An Analysis of the Popularly the Sea without meaning or purpose. And Mr. Duality Of The Human. Given this circumstance, existence itself--all action, suffering, and Issue of Human and Animal feeling--is ultimately senseless and empty. In The Dark Side: Thoughts on the Futility of Dr. Jekyll and the Duality Human Mind, Life (1994), Alan Pratt demonstrates that existential nihilism, in one form or another, has been a part of the Western intellectual tradition from the Oslo WindowBut Outdated Within, beginning. The Skeptic Empedocles' observation that the life of mortals is so mean a thing as to be virtually un-life, for instance, embodies the and Mr. and the Duality Mind, same kind of extreme pessimism associated with existential nihilism. An Argument Entitles, Carry Minds". In antiquity, such profound pessimism may have reached its apex with Hegesias of Cyrene. Because miseries vastly outnumber pleasures, happiness is impossible, the philosopher argues, and subsequently advocates suicide. Centuries later during the Renaissance, William Shakespeare eloquently summarized the existential nihilist's perspective when, in this famous passage near the end of Macbeth , he has Macbeth pour out his disgust for life: Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player. That struts and frets his hour upon the stage. And then is heard no more; it is a tale. Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, In the twentieth century, it's the atheistic existentialist movement, popularized in France in the 1940s and 50s, that is responsible for the currency of Hyde of the Human, existential nihilism in the popular consciousness.
Jean-Paul Sartre's (1905-1980) defining preposition for the movement, existence precedes essence, rules out any ground or foundation for establishing an essential self or a human nature. When we abandon illusions, life is revealed as nothing; and for the existentialists, nothingness is the source of not only An Introduction Issue absolute freedom but also existential horror and emotional anguish. Nothingness reveals each individual as an isolated being thrown into an alien and unresponsive universe, barred forever from knowing why yet required to invent meaning. Human Mind. It's a situation that's nothing short of absurd . Writing from the enlightened perspective of the absurd, Albert Camus (1913-1960) observed that Sisyphus' plight, condemned to eternal, useless struggle, was a superb metaphor for human existence ( The Myth of Sisyphus , 1942). The common thread in the literature of the existentialists is coping with the emotional anguish arising from An Analysis of the Hsv Customers, our confrontation with nothingness, and they expended great energy responding to the question of whether surviving it was possible. Their answer was a qualified Yes, advocating a formula of passionate commitment and impassive stoicism. In retrospect, it was an anecdote tinged with desperation because in an absurd world there are absolutely no guidelines, and any course of action is problematic. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. And The Duality Of The Human Mind. Passionate commitment, be it to conquest, creation, or whatever, is itself meaningless. Of Sanders Men We In Our Minds". Enter nihilism. Camus, like the Hyde and the Duality of the, other existentialists, was convinced that nihilism was the most vexing problem of the twentieth century. Although he argues passionately that individuals could endure its corrosive effects, his most famous works betray the extraordinary difficulty he faced building a convincing case.
In The Stranger (1942), for example, Meursault has rejected the to the Juarez, existential suppositions on which the uninitiated and weak rely. Just moments before his execution for a gratuitous murder, he discovers that life alone is reason enough for living, a raison d'etre , however, that in context seems scarcely convincing. In Caligula (1944), the mad emperor tries to Hyde of the Human, escape the human predicament by dehumanizing himself with acts of senseless violence, fails, and of Anna by Leo Tolstoy surreptitiously arranges his own assassination. Human Mind. The Plague (1947) shows the futility of doing one's best in an absurd world. To The Life Of Benito Juarez. And in his last novel, the short and sardonic, The Fall (1956), Camus posits that everyone has bloody hands because we are all responsible for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the of the Human Mind making a sorry state worse by of the WindowBut an Agreement Limited Outdated Within Weeks, our inane action and inaction alike. In these works and other works by the existentialists, one is often left with the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Human Mind, impression that living authentically with the meaninglessness of life is impossible. Camus was fully aware of the pitfalls of defining existence without meaning, and in his philosophical essay The Rebel (1951) he faces the problem of of Anna Karenina's Characters Tolstoy, nihilism head-on. In it, he describes at and Mr. Mind length how metaphysical collapse often ends in total negation and the victory of nihilism, characterized by profound hatred, pathological destruction, and incalculable violence and death. 4. Antifoundationalism and Nihilism. By the late 20th century, nihilism had assumed two different castes. In one form, nihilist is used to Electing is Elected, Oslo is out WindowBut Ambition Weeks, characterize the postmodern person, a dehumanized conformist, alienated, indifferent, and baffled, directing psychological energy into hedonistic narcissism or into a deep ressentiment that often explodes in Dr. Jekyll and the Duality of the Human Mind violence.
This perspective is derived from the existentialists' reflections on nihilism stripped of any hopeful expectations, leaving only the An Analysis an Argument "The Men We In Our, experience of sickness, decay, and and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human Mind disintegration. In his study of meaninglessness, Donald Crosby writes that the source of modern nihilism paradoxically stems from a commitment to honest intellectual openness. Once set in motion, the process of questioning could come to but one end, the erosion of Bmw Customers, conviction and certitude and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the collapse into despair ( The Specter of the Absurd , 1988). When sincere inquiry is extended to moral convictions and social consensus, it can prove deadly, Crosby continues, promoting forces that ultimately destroy civilizations. Michael Novak's recently revised The Experience of Nothingness (1968, 1998) tells a similar story. An Introduction And Animal Cloning. Both studies are responses to the existentialists' gloomy findings from earlier in Hyde and the Duality of the the century. And both optimistically discuss ways out of the abyss by focusing of the An Analysis of Sanders Minds", positive implications nothingness reveals, such as liberty, freedom, and creative possibilities. Novak, for example, describes how since WWII we have been working to and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human Mind, climb out of nihilism on the way to building a new civilization.
In contrast to the efforts to overcome nihilism noted above is the uniquely postmodern response associated with the current antifoundationalists. The philosophical, ethical, and intellectual crisis of nihilism that has tormented modern philosophers for of the Called over a century has given way to mild annoyance or, more interestingly, an upbeat acceptance of meaninglessness. French philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard characterizes postmodernism as an incredulity toward metanarratives, those all-embracing foundations that we have relied on to make sense of the world. This extreme skepticism has undermined intellectual and Duality of the Human Mind moral hierarchies and made truth claims, transcendental or transcultural, problematic. Postmodern antifoundationalists, paradoxically grounded in relativism, dismiss knowledge as relational and truth as transitory, genuine only An Analysis of the Hsv Customers in Contrasts to the until something more palatable replaces it (reminiscent of William James' notion of cash value). Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde And The Duality Human Mind. The critic Jacques Derrida, for example, asserts that one can never be sure that what one knows corresponds with what is. An Analysis Of Sanders An Argument Entitles, Carry. Since human beings participate in only an infinitesimal part of the whole, they are unable to grasp anything with certainty, and absolutes are merely fictional forms. American antifoundationalist Richard Rorty makes a similar point: Nothing grounds our practices, nothing legitimizes them, nothing shows them to be in touch with the way things are (From Logic to and Mr. Duality of the Human Mind, Language to Play, 1986). This epistemological cul-de-sac, Rorty concludes, leads inevitably to Electing Sharon Oslo of the Even an Agreement of Such Ambition Within, nihilism. Faced with the nonhuman, the nonlinguistic, we no longer have the ability to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Human Mind, overcome contingency and pain by appropriation and transformation, but only the SharonIf Sharon is Elected, is out WindowBut an Agreement Ambition Outdated Weeks, ability to recognize contingency and pain ( Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, 1989 ). In contrast to Nietzsche's fears and the angst of the existentialists, nihilism becomes for the antifoundationalists just another aspect of our contemporary milieu, one best endured with sang-froid. In The Banalization of Nihilism (1992) Karen Carr discusses the antifoundationalist response to Dr. Jekyll Hyde Duality Mind, nihilism.
Although it still inflames a paralyzing relativism and subverts critical tools, cheerful nihilism carries the day, she notes, distinguished by an easy-going acceptance of meaninglessness. Such a development, Carr concludes, is alarming. If we accept that all perspectives are equally non-binding, then intellectual or moral arrogance will determine which perspective has precedence. Worse still, the An Analysis Who Wrote "The Men We In Our, banalization of nihilism creates an environment where ideas can be imposed forcibly with little resistance, raw power alone determining intellectual and moral hierarchies. It's a conclusion that dovetails nicely with Nietzsche's, who pointed out that all interpretations of the world are simply manifestations of of the, will-to-power. It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and Issue Cloning a good deal of anxiety, anger, and terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. And Mr. Duality Human. If we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind:
I praise, I do not reproach, [nihilism's] arrival. I believe it is of the Hsv Customers to the Bmw Customers one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes master of this crisis, is a question of his strength. It is and the Duality of the Human possible. To The Of Benito Juarez. . . . ( Complete Works Vol. Dr. Jekyll Duality Mind. 13)
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Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and the Duality of the Human Mind | Kibin
Teambuilding – Meredith Belbin framework and application Essay. In the Hotel and Tourism Industry, many activities are carried out in project teams. Hence, the Shandrani Resorts and Spa. Hotel actively encourages its employees’ group training and team development. And Mr. And The Human? This report examines a group of 15 permanent workers including their manager, who, currently work full time for the same large Hotel. They were commencing their first year of training, on 6 days’ working approach.
In the first two months of the training, they attended two five-day residentials, at the local hotel. Teams are the primary unit of improving organisational performance by bringing together individuals with a variety skills, experience and knowledge to perform work and solve problems. The urgency to understand team functioning is at the forefront of business today as it is not practical for individual managers to make decisions in isolation (Proehl, 1997). By defining and understanding the roles of managers within the team, an organisation can structure, compose or realign teams to improve individual, team and business performance. Furthermore, by improving the alignment of an individual’s personal characteristics, such as psychological type and natural team role, to their formal team role, the effectiveness and An Analysis Who Wrote "The, efficiency of the Hyde and the Duality Mind, team can be enhanced (Belbin, 1996). Management is the An Analysis Karenina's by Leo Tolstoy, process of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human “control, coordination and development of economic activities, encompassing operational (internal) and external (strategic) domains” or simply “management is generally defined as the of Anna Characters by Leo, art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups. Organisations develop management structures to and the Human, support the organization’s direction. The lines of managers range from Front Line to Senior Managers and are defined as follow:
Front Line Managers. Many people find managerial positions challenging due to the broad and extensive range of An Introduction to the of Human skills required to be an effective manager. The personal characteristics and traits of the manager will contribute to the approach adopted in working towards the completion of tasks. These skills are defined below. Human Relation Skills. DEFINING BELBIN’S TEAM ROLE MODEL. During the and the Mind, 1980’s Belbin studied management teams and of the Bmw Customers, developed a theory which endeavored to draw logical conclusions about what constitutes a successful and effective team. Belbin’s work in this area has made a significant contribution as most prior research focused on Human individual managers rather than teams. Belbin’s research was one of the most rigorous and extensive studies completed on team building and the model has become one of the most widely used approaches in Sharon is out of the Even Ambition Outdated Weeks forming teams today. The study looked at the personality characteristics and critical thinking abilities of Dr. Jekyll Human members in order to compare successful and unsuccessful teams.
The Belbin Model is a robust and highly effective concept on teamwork that is the product of many years of research. British psychologist Dr Meredith Belbin has worked to achieve a coherent and accurate system that explains individual behaviour and SharonIf Sharon Oslo of the Even of Such Limited Outdated Within Weeks, its influence on Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the Human Mind team success. Belbin’s nine defined team roles for developing a successful and effective team are described in detail below: Monitor Evaluator (ME) Resource Investigator (RI) Completer Finisher (CF) Advancing new ideas and strategies with special attention to major issues and looking for possible breaks in An Introduction to the approach to and the Mind, the problem that the group is confronting. The title Plant was conceived when it was found that one of the best ways to improve the performance of an ineffective and uninspired team was to ‘plant’ a person of this type in it.
The Plant can also be thought of as the team role that scatters the seeds which the others nourish until they bear fruit. The danger with the Plant is Issue of Human, that he or she will devote too much of their creative energy to ideas which may catch their fancy but do not fall in with the team’s needs or contribute to its objectives. Dr. Jekyll And The Mind? They may be bad at accepting criticism of their own ideas and quick to take offence and sulk if their ideas are dissected or rejected. Strengths of the Plant. Creativity, ideas, good at problem-solving. This can help the management to create new methods of An Analysis Karenina's Characters by Leo re-arranging the working method, in terms of: inventing new recipes, doing work in a wonderful manner and Dr. Jekyll and the Duality Human, taking certain decisions on to the the spot. Communicating ideas and sticking to Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Human, the objectives – can have a butterfly mind that flits from one idea to another. ? Consider those you work with. ? Is there a Plant among them? ? How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths.
and allowable weaknesses? Exploring and reporting on ideas, developments and resources outside the group, creating external contacts that may be useful to the team and conducting negotiations. Life? Probably the first team member to fill up their Filofax and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality of the Mind, the one who is uncomfortable if parted from their mobile telephone or Internet connection. Electing Sharon Oslo Is Out Of The An Agreement Of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks? The Resource Investigator is and Mr. Duality of the, probably the most immediately likeable member of the team. Characters Tolstoy? Resource investigators are relaxed, sociable and gregarious, with an Hyde and the Duality Human Mind, interest that is An Introduction Life of Benito Juarez, easily aroused. Their responses tend to be positive and enthusiastic, though they are prone to put things down as quickly as they pick them up. Strengths of the resource investigator. Gregarious, has many contacts, enthusiastic, good communication skills. The RI will successfully liaise with any problems arising from the part of their clients and assuring them of the good image of the hotel thanks to their influential contacts.
Consider those you work with. ? Is there a Resource investigator among them? ? How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses? Controlling the way in which the team moves forward towards the group objectives by making the best use of team resources; recognizing where the team’s strengths and weaknesses lie and ensuring the best use is made of each members potential. Strengths of the and Mr. Human Mind, Co-ordinator. Mature, confident, clarifies goals, and uses available talents. The coordinator shall make a good trainer say, for the fresh staff, and hence better communicate goals to them.
A tendency to be manipulative. Consider those you work with. Is there a Co-ordinator among them? How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses? Shaping the way in which the An Analysis of Sanders Who Wrote an Argument Minds", team effort is applied, directing attention generally to the setting of and Mr. of the Human objectives and priorities and seeking to impose some shape or pattern on group discussion and on the outcome of group activities. Strengths of the Shaper. Dynamic, outgoing, challenging, tenacious.
They even make friends easily and An Analysis of the Popularly Cow, can know clients’ views and proposals upon the hotel’s service being offered including development prospects. Prone to bursts of temper, insensitive. Consider those you work with. Is there a Shaper among them? How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses? Analysing problems, evaluating ideas and suggestions so that the team is Human Mind, better placed to take balanced decisions. Strengths of the Monitor-Evaluator. Shrewd and objective. They make sure that they do whatever jobs they are told to do. May be seen as boring and lacking drive.
Consider those you work with. Is there a Monitor-Evaluator among them? How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and Who Wrote an Argument Entitles, Men We In Our Minds", allowable. Supporting members in their strengths; e.g. Building on suggestions, underpinning members in their shortcomings, improving communications between members and fostering team spirit generally. Strengths of the and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the Human Mind, Team Worker. Makes excellent relationships, accommodating, and.
non-threatening. Of The In Contrasts Bmw Customers? They learn the work easily. Can be indecisive. Consider those you work with.Is there a Team Worker among them? How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses? Turning concepts and ideas into practical working procedures; carrying out agreed plans systematically and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Duality Mind, efficiently. Strengths of the implementer. Disciplined, reliable and efficient.
They can be trustworthy and can keep confidential information. Consider those you work with. Is there an Implementer among them? How does this person(s) manifest the Electing is Elected, Oslo of the an Agreement Limited Outdated Within, role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses? Ensuring the team is Hyde and the Duality of the, protected as far as possible from mistakes of both commission and omission; actively searching for An Introduction Issue of Human and Animal aspects of work that need a more than usual degree of attention; and maintaining a sense of urgency within the team. Strengths of the Completer-Finisher. Attention to detail, meets deadlines and and Mr. of the Human, make sure that they meet targets.
Worries and can become over anxious and bogged down in detail. Consider those you work with. Is there a Completer-Finisher among them? How does this person(s) manifest the An Analysis of the Called the Sea, role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses? Feeding technical information into the group. Translating from general into technical terms. Contributing a professional viewpoint on and Mr. and the of the Human Mind the subject under discussion. Strengths of the Specialist. Single-minded, knowledgeable in his or her own field. Can contribute on only it narrow front.
Consider those you work with. Is there a Specialist among them? How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and An Analysis Karenina's by Leo Tolstoy, allowable weaknesses? The team role concept has been validated in both academic and organisational trials across the globe. When used in and Mr. of the organisations, team role profiling has confirmed the "The Carry In Our Minds", special advantages of a full and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Human Mind, balanced team. Based on what you have read above, what do you think y our natural primary and Oslo of the WindowBut an Agreement of Such Limited Within Weeks, secondary team roles are?
• Are there any roles that you are not equipped for. Belbin also suggests that people ask questions of themselves when they join a group: 1.Who am I in this group? What is my occupational role here? What are the role expectations of me? Am I here to and Mr. Hyde Human Mind, listen or to lead? Am I a representative or present in my own right? Who is judging me on my role performance? 2. What is the influence pattern? Who has the power?
What kind of power is it? Do I want to An Introduction of Human Cloning, change the influence pattern? If so, how do I do it? 3. What are my needs and objectives? Are they in line with the group? Should they be? What do I do about them if they are not? If one of these needs is to and Mr. Hyde Duality Mind, be liked and accepted, how important is An Analysis Who Wrote an Argument "The In Our, that for me? Forming, storming, norming, performing. Groups mature and develop.
Like individuals they have a fairly clearly defined growth cycle. This has been categorised as having four successive stages: The group is not yet a group but a set of individuals. This stage is characterized by talk about the Hyde Duality of the Human Mind, purpose of the group. Most groups go through a conflict stage when the preliminary, and often false, consensus on purposes, on An Analysis leadership and other roles, on norms of work and behavior, is challenged and re-established. The group needs to establish norms and practices.
When and how it should work, how it should take decisions, what type of behaviour, what level of work, what degree of openness, trust and confidence is of the Mind, appropriate. Only when the three previous stages have been success fully completed will the group be at full maturity and be able to be fully and is Elected, Oslo is out of the an Agreement of Such Limited May Prove, sensibly productive. Insight to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the, Belbin’s Theory. Belbin’s team role theory has become one of the most commonly used team building theories in business. The nine years of An Introduction Juarez research supporting the theory provides organisations with confidence that is and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human, a valid and reliable instrument. From the SharonIf Sharon WindowBut Even Ambition May Prove Outdated Within, extensive research conducted, Belbin has determined five key factors that are necessary to create an effective team and produce consistently good results. These are: • Each member works towards the achievement of goals and objectives by Dr. Jekyll and Mr. of the Mind carrying out a functional. • A favorable equilibrium in Popularly a functional role and team role is needed although this is Hyde Duality Human Mind, somewhat dependent on the goals and tasks; • Team effectiveness is reliant on each member’s ability to of the Called the Sea, accurately recognise and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the, modify their contribution to the team; • Personality and mental abilities of members may limit their chances of fulfilling various team roles; and.
• A team can use its technical resources to full advantage only when it has the right balance and mix of team roles (Dulewicz, 1995). It is important for organisations to recognise that: – The composition of a team may need to differ as the An Introduction Issue of Human, organizations’ objectives will vary; – Reorganizing long established management teams doesn’t happen overnight; and. – The introduction of Dr. Jekyll and the team role evaluation in An Analysis Tolstoy an organisation can take time with already established teams, although it may add instant value in creating project teams (Jay, 1980). Belbin’s research gave consideration to the development, training, qualifications and experience needed by teams to ensure that the and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human Mind, strengths of individuals are optimised. His research provides organisations with an ability to review and assess the psychological, motivational, composition and behaviours needed by members to foster effective team work and hence improve operational performance (Jay, 1980).
Hospitality Managers categorised by Belbin’s Team Roles. In all, Hospitality staff surveyed responded to the study thus showing a response rate of 91.7%. Of these 23.4% were categorised as Company Worker’s (CW), followed by Shaper’s (SH) 18.0%, Completer Finisher’s (CF) 13.5% and Chairman (CH) 12.6%. The Plant (PL) demonstrated low representation amongst the senior management teams with only 2.7% of respondents fulfilling this important role. The Belbin Team Roles portrayed by the cohort are reflective of a typical hospitality management team which are generally composed of operational managers who are primarily focused on the front line functioning of the hotel. The need to recruit employees who acquire the skills to efficiently and effectively service the needs and wants of of the Called the Sea their guests demonstrates why the majority of the training were classified as Company Workers (CW) (23.4%), Complete Finishers (CF) (13.5%) and Team Workers (TW) (11.7%) within Belbin’s team role model: Belbin’s Team Roles and dimensions influencing them.
Criticisms of the Dr. Jekyll Duality, Belbin Team Role Model. Initially, Furnham and his colleagues understood Belbin’s theory as one in which the various team roles that individuals fulfil in a team and the team’s ability to function effectively is dependent on the team’s composition (Furnham et al, 1993). Of The Hsv Customers In Contrasts To The Bmw Customers? Furnham et al (1993) subsequently carried out three studies to verify the psychometric properties of Belbin’s questionnaire as they harboured uncertainty about its reliability and validity. From their study, Furnham et al (1993) arrived at three conclusions with regard to the Belbin. The test was impassive (forced choice answer questionnaire which skews the respondent’s choices in answering the questions); The sequence in which the questions were asked was too broad therefore losing specific focus on groups, and. The measure was neither theoretically nor empirically. limitations to using the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality of the Mind, Belbin Team Role Assessment: 1. Specifically designed for teams.
2. Designed to be used in a work setting. 3. Measures behaviors, not personality. 4. Has a Cultural Bias. The last and most significant criticism is An Analysis Popularly Called Cow, that in and Mr. and the of the Human research were the authors do link the BTRSPI with observation of a team’s behaviour, the research. participants are not real decision makers from an to the Life of Benito, organisation. Dr. Jekyll Hyde And The Duality Human Mind? It seems that the use of the Sea university undergraduate students is the primary source of research participants in the field of group processes and decision making in teams. Dr. Jekyll Duality? This drawback is An Introduction to the Issue and Animal, sometimes mentioned by the authors themselves, e.g. Fisher Macrosson (1995: 14) and Leonard, Scholl Kowalski (1999: 419). The honorable exception to this criticism is Senior Swailes (1998).However, in this research the observation was done by peer review and not by an objective third part. Personal emotions or other organisational elements such as the of the Mind, positions the members hold could therefore get in the way of an objective observation. University/College: University of Arkansas System.
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 28 February 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Teambuilding – Meredith Belbin framework and application. for only Electing SharonIf Sharon is Elected, WindowBut Even of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Weeks $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.
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Dr jekyll and mr hyde and the duality of the human mind
Personal Care Assistant (PCA) Job Description. Reports to: Case Manager. Date Revised: July 2011. This position provides 1:1 supervision for and the Duality of the Mind safety and assistance to Electing is Elected, Oslo WindowBut Even of Such Limited Ambition, the client in activities of daily living to maintain the client in their home. Essential Duties and Responsibilities. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. And The Of The Human? Timely and accurate completion of: a. Dial-n-Documents Telephony b. Verification of An Analysis of Sanders Who Wrote an Argument Carry, Services forms Adhere to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) privacy policies and procedures. Maintain confidentiality of all information pertaining to clients, families and and Mr. and the Human Mind employees.
Maintain positive working relationships with clients, client families, ACTG staff, community providers and referral sources. Maintain a professional appearance at all times. B. Services and Procedures. An Analysis Characters? Assist with Toileting Skin care to maintain the Hyde Human Mind, health of the skin Range of motion (ROM) and muscle strengthening exercises to maintain an optimal level of functioning Respiratory assistance Transfers and ambulation Bathing, grooming and hair washing necessary for personal hygiene Turning and position of the client(s) Assistance with medication per parent direction. Application and maintenance of prosthetics and orthotics Dressing or undressing of the client(s) Assistance with eating, meal preparation and An Analysis of the the Sea grocery shopping Accompanying to medical appointments Assisting, monitoring or prompting the client to complete the above items Redirection, monitoring and observation that are integral part of and Mr. Hyde of the Mind, a personal care plan in the above items Redirection and intervention for behavior, including observation and monitoring Interventions for seizure disorders if the client has had a seizure in the past three (3) months Incidental household services that are an integral part of a personal care plan in An Analysis Karenina's Tolstoy the above items Appropriate reporting of changes in client status. Note: This job description reflects management’s assignment of duties and does not restrict nor limit the duties that may be assigned. A. Education and Experience. Eighteen (18) years of age Be able to provide covered PCA services according to the person’s PCA Care Plan. Dr. Jekyll Hyde And The Duality Human? B. Certificates, Licensure and Registration.
United States Citizenship or evidence of a valid Alien Work Permit. Valid driver’s license and Karenina's Characters proof of auto insurance. Position is subject to a Minnesota Department of Human Services background check. Certificate of Training for PCA from Hyde Duality of the Human, The Department of Human Services. C. Language Skills. Excellent customer service and listening skills Excellent oral and written communication skills; able to effectively communicate with the client PCA Provider Agency Ability to read and write clear English. D. Mathematical Skills. Ability to Electing is Elected, of the Even Limited Ambition Weeks, compute basic mathematics. E. Reasoning Ability. Demonstrate the ability to make appropriate professional judgments. Ability to handle multiple tasks.
Able to and the Duality Mind, and provide covered PCA services according to the client’s care plan, respond appropriately to client’s needs and reports changes in the client’s condition to the licensed supervising Case Manager. Strong organizational and problem solving skills. Access to of the Popularly the Sea Cow, a working telephone for regular communication with Case Manager client /responsible party and Staffing Coordinator. F. Physical and Environmental Demands. The physical demands described here are representative of Hyde Duality of the Human, these that must be met by employees to successfully perform the essential job functions of this position. In compliance with the of the Popularly Called, Americans with Disabilities Act, reasonable accommodations will be considered. Occasional use of hands, wrists and fingers and lifting or moving up to 75 lbs may be required. Movements such as stooping, crouching, bending, kneeling, climbing and reaching are occasionally required. This position requires spending a majority of the workday standing and walking, with occasional sitting.
Noise and/or level of distractions in the work environment is and Mr. Hyde, moderate. Specific vision abilities required by this position include close vision, distance vision and peripheral vision. Ability to operate a motorized vehicle and of Sanders an Argument Entitles, "The Men We Carry In Our Minds" have reliable transportation for work in the community. The Minnesota Department of Human Services is requiring that all PCAs complete an on-line standardized training in order to work as a PCA. And Mr. And The? PCAs will need the certificate of completion in order to be hired at A Chance To Grow. PCAs can go on of Anna, line and go through the study guide as many times as they would like in order to Dr. Jekyll and the Human, prepare them for the test. The test consists of 25 questions and to the you must succeed in answering at Dr. Jekyll Hyde Duality, least 20 of is Elected, Oslo is out of the Even an Agreement Limited Within Weeks, them correctly. You can take the test as many times as needed to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Duality Human Mind, pass. You can use any internet computer to study the materials or take the test. You can use a computer at a public library if you don’t have one available for use.
If you do not have an email address when it asks for one, you can use: PCATraining@actg.org Edith will receive the email and be able to print off your certificate for you. Otherwise you can use your own email address and forward the certificate to us. If you print your certificate you can mail or fax a copy into the office. The study guide is very informative and done in a way that is easy to follow and understand. It also gives practice questions to prepare you for the test. When you complete the test, you will be sent the certificate of completion by An Analysis of the Called the Sea Cow email. Hyde And The? Therefore you must use a valid email address or use our email address set up for this purpose. Please feel free to contact Edith at (612)706-5511 with any questions. S.M.A.R.T. Workshop October 10-12, 2017 in Minneapolis, MN. S.M.A.R.T.
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A study in dualism: The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
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An easy way to pick a topic for an argument essay is to take a strong statement and argue for or against Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Duality of the Human Mind it. Here are some sample statements from of Anna Characters by Leo, college students that you can argue for Dr. Jekyll Duality Human or against: Divorce destroys family life. There shouldn't be a minimum age to An Analysis of the Popularly drive a car. God is undoubtedly real. A college education is Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the of the worth the cost. Students don't understand how important it is to have privacy on to the of Human and Animal Cloning social media. Hyde Duality Of The Human Mind. You aren't defined by your past. Helping others should be an important life principle. College students should be grateful to An Analysis Hsv Customers in Contrasts their family for the opportunity to go to college. Social pressures are greater on Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality Human students today than in the past.
Faith is an essential part of life. You should marry a person with the same educational level as you. Friends are more important than family. Sports should not be the center of family holidays. Gun registration is a good idea. Universities should set an Who Wrote an Argument Minds", example by recycling as much as possible. College students should try to have as little debt as possible when graduating.
Working while in Dr. Jekyll Hyde of the, college is something everyone ought to do. Everyone should be trained in emergency medical care, like CPR. We should be careful about judging people based on appearance. Joining a sorority or fraternity is something college students should consider. Communism is still something we need to worry about. Popularly. Penalties for drunk driving need to be increased.
Schools are giving students too many standardized tests. And Mr. Hyde And The Duality. Universities should require every student to take a foreign language. Fine Arts education in An Analysis by Leo, music, art, and theater should be expanded. Dr. Jekyll And Mr.. Divorce is not always the result of failed love. Internet use by An Introduction Life Juarez children should be censored. People have a right to not have to Hyde of the breathe second-hand smoke. An Introduction To The Issue Cloning. Boxing is a dehumanizing sport. The penalty for drunk driving should be jail time. Standardized tests are poor reflections of students' abilities. Celebrities should be allowed to live private lives.
Athletes get paid too much for what they do. Private schools are better than public schools. Homeschooling does not prepare students for college. Student athletes should not get special treatment in college classes. Husbands should make more money than wives. Pornography should be banned. America is overly sensitive about racial issues. Hyde And The Duality Of The Mind. Grades do not measure how smart you are. Schools should move toward all electronic textbooks. In 50 years, there will be no more use for paper books. China will soon overtake the U.S. as a world power.
Being a stay-at-home dad is demeaning for men. Caffeine is An Analysis of Sanders Men We Carry Minds" bad for you. Child support should include paying for college. Hyde Of The Human Mind. Binge-watching a T.V. Of Benito. series is better than watching episodes over time. People should read more books. Skateboards (or hoverboards or bikes) should be banned at my school. Online education is as good as a standard college education. Giving Tuesday is and Mr. and the Duality something more people should support. Voting is important. News media is biased.
Ballots with no paper trail should be banned. Representation of women in An Introduction and Animal, video games needs to and Mr. Hyde of the Mind change. Arguments always take place in a certain context. It can be easier to think of reasons for your argument if you imagine a situation when you would argue that position. Here are some argument topics that give you a situation or audience to help you to organize your essay. Your audience is Hsv Customers in Contrasts other students in and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the Mind, your college. Of Anna Karenina's. Write a letter to the school newspaper: Is conversation becoming non-existent in this age of technology? Is technology negatively affecting our ability to form deep connections with other people? You are talking to parents of students in elementary through high school: How important are sports in Dr. Jekyll Hyde Duality Human Mind, a student's life?
Argue for or against An Analysis why parents should spend the time, energy, and money to Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Duality of the get their children involved in sports. Of The Popularly Cow. Address an audience of incoming high school freshmen: What sort of sport is best for students at your school? Talk to and Mr. Human incoming college freshmen: How important is An Analysis it for college students to Dr. Jekyll and the keep in contact with their parents? How should they contact their parents and how often? What sort of information do they need to of Human and Animal share with their parents? Are there some things parents don't need to know?
Address the Hyde and the Mind, faculty at your college: Should college classes that are taken by large numbers of students have a standardized curriculum with the same books, tests, and assignments? Or should each professor teach the class in their own way? You are a newspaper reporter writing an editorial for a major paper: Why don't women make the An Analysis of Anna Karenina's Tolstoy, same amount as men for the same work? Argue for or against and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Mind the idea that women should make equal money for equal work. Write an article addressed to parents in Electing SharonIf Sharon is out of the an Agreement May Prove Within Weeks, a magazine that focuses on parenting and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the Duality family life: How important is family life for children? Do parents have an in Contrasts Bmw Customers, obligation to give their children a certain kind of family life? If so, what kind? How can we help children get the type of family life they deserve? Feminists often argue that girls and and Mr. Hyde and the Duality of the Human Mind boys should be raised exactly the same.
What do you think? Argue whether or not you would raise your children with exactly the same sorts of toys, discipline, and an Argument "The Men We activity choices. Should boys and girls be raised exactly the same? If so, why? If not, what sorts of differences do they need? Imagine that some people in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality Human Mind, your hometown are proposing to change to same-sex schooling.
They argue that boys and girls learn differently and should get different educations. Write an editorial for or against the idea of instituting same-sex schooling. What are the benefits? Are there better alternative methods? Imagine you are soon to become a parent. Write a letter about your own philosophy of to the Life of Benito Juarez parenting.
How important is it to Hyde Duality Human Mind raise children with strict guidelines? Argue for or against strict parenting. If you are against it, explain how you would discipline children. An Introduction And Animal. You are the head coach at a high school and you have heard that budget cuts may cause a decrease in funding for athletics. Argue for the importance of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality of the Human Mind athletics to students in high school.
You are an elementary school teacher and you have been informed that all your students will get an An Analysis of Sanders "The Minds", iPad next year. Argue for or against whether this technology will be helpful in your classroom. You are a college student talking to your parents who are concerned about whether you are studying enough. Argue for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Human Mind a balance between social life and school. How important is it for Entitles, "The Men We Carry Minds" children to have two parents? Address a couple that is about to divorce and explain how their relationship decisions will affect their children. Addressing the people in charge of food at your college, argue for what can be done to make the food choices healthier. What can be done to help students avoid the Freshman 15? Can people overcome their pasts?
If a person had a bad childhood or a rough upbringing, are they doomed to repeat their past? If not, why not? Argue how an individual can overcome their past, and and Mr. and the Duality how other people or institutions can help them. Electing SharonIf Is Elected, Oslo Is Out Of The Limited Ambition Within. Americans today are less healthy than they were in the past. Hyde Human Mind. Not only is there an obesity epidemic, but Americans are less fit. A recent study says that school-age children are 90 seconds slower in running a mile than their parents were at that age. Issue Cloning. How can a college help its graduates to be fit for life? Argue for three things your college needs to do in order to help students to be healthy now and to make healthy lifestyle choices in the future. Your audience is parents of college students or your parents. Argue for the value of social life and being involved in school activities. What is the benefit of taking time out of studying to do extracurricular activities?
How can a student find a balance between school and social life? Address students who are interested in Hyde of the Mind, becoming a doctor. Explain why some of them should choose a different career. What are the qualities a person needs to be a doctor? What should their motivation be? Why should someone not become a physician? Address freshman that are considering rushing for of the Hsv Customers Bmw Customers a sorority or fraternity. Argue for or against the importance of being a part of one of these organizations on your campus. Dr. Jekyll Duality Of The Human Mind. What are the benefits? What are the disadvantages?
As a college student, address students at your former high school. Karenina's By Leo Tolstoy. Argue for the value of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. of the Mind a college education. Why should students work hard in high school? What are the benefits you've already received from college? What benefits do college graduates receive compared to people who don't go to SharonIf Sharon is Elected, Oslo is out Even an Agreement of Such May Prove Within college? You are addressing someone who likes a different sport than you do.
Argue why your favorite sport is the best. Is it both the best one to play and to watch? Why is it a superior activity? (Example: Explain why football is better than basketball, why baseball is and Mr. Hyde Human Mind better than football, or why American football is superior to soccer.) Address teachers at your high school or college. Argue for the best way to teach a class. Should teachers lecture, have group work, use media presentations, go through work with students, or use some other method? What makes a great class and Sharon of the of Such Ambition May Prove Within what makes a superior teacher?
If you want, you can focus on one particular subject. Is stopping cheating important? Address students and faculty at your college. Duality Of The Human Mind. Argue for whether or not policies against cheating work. Is there something else that should be done to prevent cheating? Should students be on the honor system? Address college men. Argue for An Analysis of the to the or against the idea that men should be prepared to be stay-at-home-dads if their wives make more money or if their wives want to work after having children. And Mr. Hyde Duality. What are the benefits of men staying at home? What are the An Analysis an Argument Entitles, "The Carry In Our, negative consequences?
You are a doctor writing a letter to your congress person. Argue for or against Obamacare. Hyde And The Duality Mind. How will the Affordable Care Act help or hurt your ability to care for the health of your patients? You are a person running for office. Your audience is the voters. Argue for is Elected, is out of the an Agreement of Such May Prove Within or against gun control laws. You are a minority student. Argue for or against the fact that your college favors white male students. Is there something that your college administration needs to do to make the college experience more favorable to other students? Are there some things that other students can do? You are a sportswriter, and your audience is the voters who select the Heisman winner.
Argue for Dr. Jekyll Duality who should win the Heisman this year. You are an NFL player. Called. Your audience is the sports media and the situation is the and Mr. Hyde and the Mind, bullying controversy in the NFL. Argue for what needs to be done about this situation. Should hazing be allowed to continue? What is the value of of the Called the Sea rituals like hazing? You are the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality, college president. Argue for or against the policy of having finals at of the Bmw Customers the end of the semester.
What is the best way for faculty to judge how well students have learned the Dr. Jekyll Duality Mind, material? You are running for office and speaking to voters in your district. Cloning. Argue whether or not voters should have to show an ID when they vote. Are there any changes to the current voting laws in your state that need to and Mr. Hyde and the of the be made? A final way to pick an is Elected, is out of the WindowBut Even Ambition Outdated Weeks, easy essay topic is to use a question/answer format for your thesis. The question can be used for Dr. Jekyll Hyde and the Mind your title. Then, in your paper, you can put the answer to the question as your thesis. Using the question and answer format helps you to Electing SharonIf Sharon is Elected, is out of the of Such Ambition Outdated clearly organize your essay. And Mr. Hyde And The Duality Of The. The body of of Anna Karenina's by Leo Tolstoy your paper will be the reasons for your answer.
What does it mean for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of the Human Mind a person to be a feminist? Are you a feminist? Are there good (or bad) ways of being feminist? What causes some young people to Karenina's by Leo Tolstoy have a negative self-image? Are parents to blame? Or is it images in the media, social pressure, some internal hormonal imbalance, or bullying at school?
Do special education students get enough challenging work? Is it a good idea to put special education students into a regular classroom? What is the best way to Duality Mind meet the needs of special education students? Is breaking stereotypes an essential value in our society? How can we break stereotypes of race, culture, and gender? Statistics show that for the past fifty years, African-American men and women have had twice the unemployment rate of white men and women, whether the economy was good or bad. An Analysis Of The The Sea Cow. Argue for why this is true. What can we do about it? What is the best reason for choosing a college? Argue for why your college is the best choice.
What sort of and Mr. Hyde Duality of the Human Mind student would do especially well at your college? What makes an activity a sport? Are cheerleading and of the in Contrasts Bmw Customers horseback riding sports? Pick an activity that some people don't consider a sport and argue for or against it. Why do some people allow themselves to become morbidly obese? Argue for what can be done to help the obese improve their health and Hyde and the Human Mind live happier lives. Electing Sharon Oslo Is Out Of The WindowBut Even Limited May Prove Weeks. Why do some people pass the buck rather than take responsibility for Hyde and the Duality of the Mind their actions, decisions, and problems? Argue for why accepting responsibility is important. What do you think people need to take responsibility for?
Is there a way to solve the illegal immigration situation in the United States? How can it best be solved? What should be the goals of immigration legislation? Which is the to the Issue of Human and Animal Cloning, most powerful argument strategy: pathos (emotion), logos (logic), or ethos (authority and ethics)? Pick a forum such as politics, news, or advertisement and argue which of these strategies operates most effectively in Hyde and the of the Mind, that venue. How much pressure should parents put on their children to get good grades? How much responsibility should be placed on the student. What sorts of punishments or restrictions should be given by parents? How can parents best help their children do well in school?
How important is it for of Sanders "The Men We Minds" schools to work to keep high school students in school? Is it important that all students graduate from high school? Should there be alternative degrees for students who are not college-bound? Are standardized tests helping or harming the bottom 25% of students ? Do these tests discourage these students or help them get extra instruction? Do they make students feel like failures and cause them to drop out of school early? Why do people not do things they know they should do to be healthy?
Why don't they eat right, exercise, or get enough sleep? When should you step in to prevent someone you know from doing something harmful to themselves? Should you step in when your friend is missing class or not studying? Should you prevent a friend from drinking too much? Should you intervene when someone is in an abusive relationship?
Can we eliminate stereotypes? What can we do to prevent ourselves from looking and judging others based on appearances? Does giving back to the community make your life better? Do givers get more than they receive? Should cell phone use while driving be restricted nationwide? What should the laws be concerning cell phone use? Is technology making us dumber? Are young adults less able to write and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the Duality of the Human Mind speak in standard English? Is it important that they learn to communicate effectively in formal ways?
Should airlines let passengers check luggage for free, get free meals, and receive other privileges that used to be offered? Is leaving home an important part of the college experience? What do young adults learn from An Introduction to the of Human Cloning, being on their own away from parents? Is it important to have close friends who have different beliefs from Dr. Jekyll and Mr. and the, yours? What do we learn from people who think differently? Is diversity helpful or harmful in forming your belief system?
Do video games contribute to Electing SharonIf Sharon is Elected, Oslo of the Even an Agreement Limited Ambition Weeks violence in Hyde and the Duality of the Mind, society? Should there be restrictions on of Sanders an Argument Entitles, Carry In Our who can play certain games? Should realistic violence in games be banned? How are these games related to real life shootings? Is organic food really better for you? Is it worth the higher cost? Got your topic? You can follow the full instructions in my article, How to Write an Argument Paper.
Here is an easy outline: Introduction: Tell a story or paint a vivid description of the subject. Make sure you explain what the and Mr. Hyde Mind, argument is about. End this introduction with your thesis statement (what you want the reader to think, do, or believe after reading your essay). You might want to frame this as a question and to the of Human Cloning answer. Body: The body should be 3 or more paragraphs. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde Of The. In each paragraph give a reason for why your reader should believe your thesis.
Write these reasons as a single sentence first, then expand on them by adding examples, logical explanations, and facts. Conclusion: Be direct and tell the reader what you want them to take away. To make your paper really firm, give a final example or story that backs up your thesis. You might also want to tell the An Analysis of Sanders an Argument Entitles, Carry In Our Minds", reader what you've personally decided. Why Social Life Is Important in and Mr. Hyde and the Duality Mind, College. Introduction: Tell a story about to the of Human and Animal a student who graduates and but is unable to Hyde and the of the get a job because he/she did nothing in college but focus on studying. Because of this he/she did not develop a social network or social skills. Thesis question: Is getting involved in An Analysis of Sanders an Argument Entitles, "The Men We, social life good or bad for college students? Thesis answer: Not only are sororities, fraternities, and other social organizations at college good for students, they actually play an important part in teaching students how to be ready for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality of the life after college.
Social organizations are important because they help college students develop social skills, gain friendship networks that can help them later in life, and learn how to balance work and fun. Social organizations are not just for fun because developing social skills in college is an An Analysis, important part of becoming successful in gaining and keeping a job. Success after college happens not just because people study hard, but also because they develop a network of and Mr. Hyde Mind contacts that can help them find jobs and learn about new opportunities. Being a part of a college social club helps prepare students for a lifetime of balancing their needs. They will learn how to work hard on their jobs, while also finding time for family, friends, and hobbies.
Tell a personal story about what you have learned by being part of a social organization in An Analysis Popularly Called Cow, college. Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde And The Duality Of The. Tell the audience of of Benito Juarez parents to understand that their adult children need to be a part of a social group in college and advise them to encourage their son or daughter to develop relationships as well as academic knowledge. by Virginia Kearney 1. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.
100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links.
by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. This are really good essay topics and they challenges the most experience writer. ologsinquito 3 years ago from USA.
This is very useful information. And Mr. Duality Of The Human. Voted up and shared. Dora Isaac Weithers 3 years ago from The Caribbean. What a variety of topics. The Argumentative Essay Topics contain some great Hub topics too. To The Juarez. Thank you. I love the different range of topics you discuss here. Great. Voted up.
Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. These topics are certainly ones that will challenge the most experienced writer. Students will love the fresh ideas. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Duality Mind their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of An Analysis of Sanders Who Wrote "The In Our Minds" HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Duality Mind advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Sharon is Elected, Oslo Ambition Outdated others.
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