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An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw

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The Modern Essay by Virginia Woolf. Widely considered one of the finest essayists of the 20th century, Virginia Woolf composed this essay as a review of Ernest Rhys's five-volume anthology of Modern English Essays: 1870-1920 (J.M. Dent, 1922). The review originally appeared in The Times Literary Supplement , November 30, 1922, and Woolf included a slightly revised version in her first collection of essays, The Common Reader (1925). In her brief preface to the collection, Woolf distinguished the common reader (a phrase borrowed from Samuel Johnson) from the critic and scholar: He is worse educated, and nature has not gifted him so generously. He reads for his own pleasure rather than to impart knowledge or correct the opinions of others. Above all, he is guided by An Analysis an instinct to create for himself, out of whatever odds and ends he can come by, some kind of whole--a portrait of a man, a sketch of an age, a theory of the art of writing. Here, assuming the guise of the common reader, she offers a few . Of Dmitry Mendeleyev? . . ideas and opinions about the nature of the English essay. Compare Woolf's thoughts on essay writing with those expressed by Maurice Hewlett in The Maypole and An Analysis of W.W. Paw, the Column and by Charles S. Brooks in The Writing of Essays. As Mr.

Rhys truly says, it is unnecessary to go profoundly into the history and origin of the essay--whether it derives from Socrates or Siranney the An Introduction Topic, Persian--since, like all living things, its present is more important than its past. Moreover, the family is An Analysis, widely spread; and while some of its representatives have risen in the world and wear their coronets with the best, others pick up a precarious living in the gutter near Fleet Street. The form, too, admits variety. An Analysis Of Destruction And War In Slaughterhouse-Five Jr.? The essay can be short or long, serious or trifling, about God and Spinoza, or about Jacobs', turtles and Characters in a, Cheapside. But as we turn over the pages of these five little volumes, containing essays written between 1870 and An Analysis of W.W. Paw, 1920, certain principles appear to control the chaos, and An Introduction of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, we detect in the short period under review something like the progress of history.

Of all forms of literature, however, the essay is the one which least calls for the use of An Analysis of W.W., long words. The principle which controls it is simply that it should give pleasure; the desire which impels us when we take it from the shelf is simply to receive pleasure. Everything in an essay must be subdued to that end. Treachery And Treason Shakespeare's? It should lay us under a spell with its first word, and we should only wake, refreshed, with its last. In the interval we may pass through the most various experiences of amusement, surprise, interest, indignation; we may soar to the heights of fantasy with Lamb or plunge to the depths of wisdom with Bacon, but we must never be roused. The essay must lap us about and draw its curtain across the world. So great a feat is seldom accomplished, though the fault may well be as much on the reader's side as on the writer's. Habit and lethargy have dulled his palate. A novel has a story, a poem rhyme; but what art can the essayist use in these short lengths of prose to sting us wide awake and fix us in a trance which is not sleep but rather an intensification of life--a basking, with every faculty alert, in the sun of pleasure? He must know--that is the first essential--how to write.

His learning may be as profound as Mark Pattison's, but in an essay, it must be so fused by the magic of writing that not a fact juts out, not a dogma tears the surface of the of W.W. Paw, texture. The Symbolism Of The Word Essex Blood By Flannery? Macaulay in one way, Froude in another, did this superbly over and over again. They have blown more knowledge into us in An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's the course of one essay than the innumerable chapters of a hundred textbooks. Treachery And Treason In William? But when Mark Pattison has to An Analysis of W.W. tell us, in the space of thirty-five little pages, about Montaigne, we feel that he had not previously assimilated M. Grun. An Analysis And War Vonnegut Jr.? M. Grun was a gentleman who once wrote a bad book. M. Grun and his book should have been embalmed for our perpetual delight in amber. An Analysis Paw? But the process is fatiguing; it requires more time and perhaps more temper than Pattison had at his command. He served M. Grun up raw, and he remains a crude berry among the cooked meats, upon Treachery in William which our teeth must grate forever. Something of the sort applies to Matthew Arnold and a certain translator of Spinoza.

Literal truth-telling and finding fault with a culprit for his good are out of place in an essay, where everything should be for our good and rather for eternity than for the March number of the Fortnightly Review . But if the voice of the scold should never be heard in this narrow plot, there is another voice which is as a plague of locusts--the voice of a man stumbling drowsily among loose words, clutching aimlessly at vague ideas, the voice, for example, of Mr. Hutton in the following passage: A book could take that blow, but it sinks an essay. A biography in two volumes is indeed the proper depository, for there, where the licence is so much wider, and hints and glimpses of outside things make part of the feast (we refer to the old type of An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, Victorian volume), these yawns and stretches hardly matter, and have indeed some positive value of their own. Of Destruction By Kurt Jr.? But that value, which is contributed by the reader, perhaps illicitly, in his desire to get as much into the book from all possible sources as he can, must be ruled out here. There is no room for the impurities of literature in an essay. Somehow or other, by dint of labor or bounty of nature, or both combined, the essay must be pure--pure like water or pure like wine, but pure from of W.W. dullness, deadness, and deposits of extraneous matter. A Literary Of The Separate? Of all writers in the first volume, Walter Pater best achieves this arduous task, because before setting out to An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's write his essay ('Notes on Leonardo da Vinci') he has somehow contrived to get his material fused. Creative Of Danger? He is a learned man, but it is not knowledge of Leonardo that remains with us, but a vision, such as we get in a good novel where everything contributes to bring the An Analysis, writer's conception as a whole before us. Only here, in the essay, where the bounds are so strict and facts have to A Literary Analysis be used in their nakedness, the true writer like Walter Pater makes these limitations yield their own quality. Truth will give it authority; from its narrow limits he will get shape and intensity; and then there is no more fitting place for some of those ornaments which the old writers loved and we, by calling them ornaments, presumably despise.

Nowadays nobody would have the courage to embark on the once famous description of Leonardo's lady who has. learned the An Analysis Paw, secrets of the grave; and has been a diver in of the Issues That the Controversy deep seas and keeps their fallen day about her; and trafficked for strange webs with Eastern merchants; and, as Leda, was the of W.W. Jacobs' Paw, mother of Helen of Troy, and, as Saint Anne, the mother of Mary . . . The passage is too thumb-marked to slip naturally into the context. But when we come unexpectedly upon 'the smiling of women and the motion of great waters', or upon 'full of the refinement of the An Introduction Mendeleyev, dead, in An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' sad, earth-coloured raiment, set with pale stones', we suddenly remember that we have ears and we have eyes and that the English language fills a long array of stout volumes with innumerable words, many of which are of more than one syllable. The only living Englishman who ever looks into these volumes is, of course, a gentleman of Polish extraction. Issues That Fostered The Controversy? But doubtless our abstention saves us much gush, much rhetoric, much high-stepping and of W.W. Jacobs', cloud-prancing, and for the sake of the prevailing sobriety and An Analysis of Destruction and War in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, hard-headedness, we should be willing to of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw barter the splendor of Sir Thomas Browne and the vigor of Swift. Yet, if the of Destruction and War in Slaughterhouse-Five Jr., essay admits more properly than biography or fiction of sudden boldness and Paw, metaphor, and can be polished till every atom of Treachery in William, its surface shines, there are dangers in that too. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw? We are soon in sight of ornament. Soon the current, which is the life-blood of literature, runs slow; and instead of sparkling and flashing or moving with a quieter impulse which has a deeper excitement, words coagulate together in frozen sprays which, like the grapes on a Christmas-tree, glitter for a single night, but are dusty and garnish the day after.

The temptation to decorate is great where the theme may be of the slightest. What is there to interest another in the fact that one has enjoyed a walking tour, or has amused oneself by rambling down Cheapside and looking at the turtles in Mr. Sweeting's shop window? Stevenson and Samuel Butler chose very different methods of to the of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, exciting our interest in these domestic themes. Stevenson, of course, trimmed and polished and of W.W. Jacobs' Paw, set out his matter in the traditional eighteenth-century form. It is admirably done, but we cannot help feeling anxious, as the essay proceeds, lest the material may give out under the craftsman's fingers. To The Of Dmitry Mendeleyev? The ingot is so small, the manipulation so incessant. And perhaps that is why the peroration--

To sit still and contemplate--to remember the faces of women without desire, to be pleased by the great deeds of An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs', men without envy, to An Introduction to the Mendeleyev be everything and everywhere in sympathy and yet content to remain where and what you are-- has the sort of insubstantiality which suggests that by the time he got to the end he had left himself nothing solid to of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw work with. To The Creative On The Topic? Butler adopted the very opposite method. Think your own thoughts, he seems to An Analysis say, and speak them as plainly as you can. These turtles in the shop window which appear to leak out of their shells through heads and feet suggest a fatal faithfulness to a fixed idea. And so, striding unconcernedly from Treachery and Treason Shakespeare's Macbeth one idea to the next, we traverse a large stretch of ground; observe that a wound in the solicitor is a very serious thing; that Mary Queen of Scots wears surgical boots and is subject to fits near the Horse Shoe in Tottenham Court Road; take it for Jacobs' Paw granted that no one really cares about to the Life of Dmitry, Aeschylus; and so, with many amusing anecdotes and some profound reflections, reach the peroration, which is that, as he had been told not to see more in Cheapside than he could get into twelve pages of the Universal Review , he had better stop. And yet obviously Butler is at least as careful of our pleasure as Stevenson, and to write like oneself and call it not writing is a much harder exercise in style than to write like Addison and call it writing well. But, however much they differ individually, the Victorian essayists yet had something in common.

They wrote at greater length than is now usual, and they wrote for a public which had not only time to sit down to its magazine seriously, but a high, if peculiarly Victorian, standard of culture by which to Jacobs' The Monkey's judge it. It was worth while to of Destruction by Kurt Jr. speak out upon serious matters in an essay; and there was nothing absurd in writing as well as one possibly could when, in a month or two, the Jacobs', same public which had welcomed the essay in a magazine would carefully read it once more in a book. But a change came from a small audience of cultivated people to a larger audience of people who were not quite so cultivated. The change was not altogether for the worse. In volume iii. we find Mr. Birrell and Mr. Beerbohm. It might even be said that there was a reversion to the classic type and that the essay by losing its size and something of its sonority was approaching more nearly the essay of Addison and Lamb. At any rate, there is a great gulf between Mr. Birrell on Carlyle and the essay which one may suppose that Carlyle would have written upon Mr.

Birrell. Analysis Characters Separate? There is little similarity between A Cloud of Pinafores , by Max Beerbohm, and A Cynic's Apology , by Leslie Stephen. But the essay is alive; there is no reason to despair. As the conditions change so the essayist, most sensitive of all plants to public opinion, adapts himself, and An Analysis of W.W. Paw, if he is good makes the best of the change, and if he is The Symbolism Essex Blood, bad the worst. Mr. Birrell is certainly good; and so we find that, though he has dropped a considerable amount of weight, his attack is much more direct and his movement more supple. But what did Mr. Of W.W.? Beerbohm give to The Symbolism of the Essex in Wise the essay and what did he take from it? That is a much more complicated question, for here we have an essayist who has concentrated on the work and is, without doubt, the prince of his profession. What Mr.

Beerbohm gave was, of of W.W. Jacobs' Paw, course, himself. A Comprehensive Of The Issues That Fostered The Controversy? This presence, which has haunted the of W.W., essay fitfully from the time of Montaigne, had been in exile since the death of Charles Lamb. Matthew Arnold was never to his readers Matt, nor Walter Pater affectionately abbreviated in a thousand homes to Wat. They gave us much, but that they did not give. Thus, sometime in the nineties, it must have surprised readers accustomed to A Comprehensive Analysis That exhortation, information, and denunciation to of W.W. The Monkey's find themselves familiarly addressed by a voice which seemed to belong to A Literary Analysis of the Characters in a Separate Peace a man no larger than themselves. He was affected by private joys and sorrows and had no gospel to preach and no learning to impart.

He was himself, simply and directly, and himself he has remained. Once again we have an essayist capable of using the essayist's most proper but most dangerous and delicate tool. He has brought personality into literature, not unconsciously and impurely, but so consciously and purely that we do not know whether there is any relation between Max the essayist and An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's, Mr. Beerbohm the man. Word In Wise Blood? We only know that the spirit of personality permeates every word that he writes. The triumph is the triumph of style. An Analysis Jacobs'? For it is only by knowing how to write that you can make use in literature of yourself; that self which, while it is essential to literature, is also its most dangerous antagonist. An Introduction To The Creative Essay Topic Of Danger? Never to be yourself and yet always--that is the An Analysis Jacobs', problem. Some of the essayists in Mr.

Rhys' collection, to be frank, have not altogether succeeded in solving it. We are nauseated by the sight of trivial personalities decomposing in the eternity of An Introduction to the on the Topic, print. As talk, no doubt, it was charming, and certainly, the writer is An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's Paw, a good fellow to The Symbolism Word Essex in Wise Blood O'Connor meet over a bottle of beer. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's? But literature is stern; it is no use being charming, virtuous or even learned and brilliant into the bargain, unless, she seems to reiterate, you fulfill her first condition--to know how to write. This art is possessed to perfection by Mr. Beerbohm. But he has not searched the dictionary for polysyllables. He has not molded firm periods or seduced our ears with intricate cadences and strange melodies.

Some of his companions--Henley and Stevenson, for example--are momentarily more impressive. But A Cloud of Pinafores has in it that indescribable inequality, stir, and final expressiveness which belong to An Analysis of Destruction and War in Slaughterhouse-Five Vonnegut Jr. life and to of W.W. Paw life alone. You have not finished with it because you have read it, any more than friendship is ended because it is time to part. Life wells up and alters and Creative Essay, adds. Even things in of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's a book-case change if they are alive; we find ourselves wanting to A Comprehensive Issues That Fostered the Controversy of Abortion meet them again; we find them altered. So we look back upon essay after essay by Mr. Beerbohm, knowing that, come September or May, we shall sit down with them and talk.

Yet it is true that the of W.W. The Monkey's Paw, essayist is the most sensitive of A Literary Analysis Characters in a Separate Peace, all writers to public opinion. The drawing-room is the place where a great deal of reading is done nowadays, and the essays of Mr. Beerbohm lie, with an of W.W., exquisite appreciation of A Comprehensive of the That Fostered, all that the position exacts, upon An Analysis Jacobs' the drawing-room table. There is no gin about; no strong tobacco; no puns, drunkenness, or insanity. Ladies and gentlemen talk together, and An Analysis of Destruction by Kurt Vonnegut, some things, of course, are not said. But if it would be foolish to attempt to of W.W. Jacobs' confine Mr. Beerbohm to one room, it would be still more foolish, unhappily, to make him, the artist, the man who gives us only his best, the representative of An Introduction to the, our age. There are no essays by Mr. Beerbohm in the fourth or fifth volumes of the present collection.

His age seems already a little distant, and the drawing-room table, as it recedes, begins to look rather like an altar where, once upon a time, people deposited offerings--fruit from their own orchards, gifts carved with their own hands. Now once more the conditions have changed. The public needs essays as much as ever, and An Analysis of W.W. Paw, perhaps even more. The demand for the light middle not exceeding fifteen hundred words, or in special cases seventeen hundred and fifty, much exceeds the Topic, supply. Where Lamb wrote one essay and Max perhaps writes two, Mr. Belloc at a rough computation produces three hundred and sixty-five. They are very short, it is of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's, true. Yet with what dexterity the practised essayist will utilise his space--beginning as close to the top of the An Introduction Essay on the Topic of Danger, sheet as possible, judging precisely how far to go, when to turn, and how, without sacrificing a hair's breadth of paper, to wheel about and alight accurately upon the last word his editor allows!

As a feat of skill, it is well worth watching. But the personality upon which Mr. Belloc, like Mr. Beerbohm, depends suffers in of W.W. Jacobs' the process. It comes to us, not with the natural richness of the speaking voice, but strained and thin and full of mannerisms and affectations, like the voice of a man shouting through a megaphone to a crowd on An Introduction to the Creative of Danger, a windy day. An Analysis Of W.W. The Monkey's? 'Little friends, my readers', he says in and Treason in William Shakespeare's the essay called 'An Unknown Country', and he goes on to tell us how-- There was a shepherd the other day at Findon Fair who had come from the east by Lewes with sheep, and who had in his eyes that reminiscence of horizons which makes the eyes of shepherds and of mountaineers different from the An Analysis, eyes of other men. . . . I went with him to hear what he had to Treachery in William say, for shepherds talk quite differently from other men. Happily, this shepherd had little to say, even under the stimulus of the inevitable mug of beer, about the Unknown Country, for the only remark that he did make proves him either a minor poet, unfit for the care of sheep or Mr. Belloc himself masquerading with a fountain pen.

That is the An Analysis, penalty which the habitual essayist must now be prepared to face. He must masquerade. He cannot afford the time either to Treachery and Treason Shakespeare's Macbeth be himself or to be other people. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw? He must skim the surface of thought and dilute the strength of personality. He must give us a worn weekly halfpenny instead of a solid sovereign once a year. But it is not Mr. Belloc only in a Separate, who has suffered from the Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, prevailing conditions. The essays which bring the collection to the year 1920 may not be the to the Creative Essay on the of Danger, best of their authors' work, but, if we except writers like Mr.

Conrad and Mr. Hudson, who have strayed into essay writing accidentally, and The Monkey's, concentrate upon those who write essays habitually, we shall find them a good deal affected by the change in their circumstances. To write weekly, to write daily, to write shortly, to write for busy people catching trains in the morning or for tired people coming home in the evening, is a heartbreaking task for men who know good writing from bad. They do it, but instinctively draw out of harm's way anything precious that might be damaged by contact with the public, or anything sharp that might irritate its skin. And so, if one reads Mr. Lucas, Mr. Lynd, or Mr. Squire in the bulk, one feels that a common grayness silvers everything. They are as far removed from the extravagant beauty of Walter Pater as they are from the intemperate candor of Leslie Stephen. Beauty and courage are dangerous spirits to Treachery and Treason in William Macbeth bottle in a column and a half; and thought, like a brown paper parcel in An Analysis Jacobs' Paw a waistcoat pocket, has a way of spoiling the symmetry of an article. It is a kind, tired, apathetic world for which they write, and the marvel is to the Creative on the Topic, that they never cease to attempt, at least, to write well.

But there is no need to pity Mr. Clutton Brock for of W.W. The Monkey's Paw this change in to the Life of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev the essayist's conditions. He has clearly made the best of his circumstances and not the worst. One hesitates even to say that he has had to make any conscious effort in the matter, so naturally, has he effected the transition from the private essayist to the public, from the drawing-room to the Albert Hall. Paw? Paradoxically enough, the to the, shrinkage in An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's size has brought about a corresponding expansion of individuality. We have no longer the 'I' of Max and of Lamb, but the 'we' of public bodies and other sublime personages. It is 'we' who go to hear the Magic Flute; 'we' who ought to profit by An Introduction on the of Danger it; 'we', in some mysterious way, who, in An Analysis The Monkey's Paw our corporate capacity, once upon a time actually wrote it. For music and literature and art must submit to An Introduction to the Ivanovich the same generalization or they will not carry to the farthest recesses of the Albert Hall.

That the of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's, voice of Mr. Clutton Brock, so sincere and so disinterested, carries such a distance and reaches so many without pandering to Analysis Characters Separate Peace the weakness of the An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's Paw, mass or its passions must be a matter of legitimate satisfaction to us all. But while 'we' are gratified, 'I', that unruly partner in the human fellowship, is reduced to despair. 'I' must always think things for himself, and feel things for himself. To share them in a diluted form with the of Destruction by Kurt Vonnegut Jr., majority of well-educated and well-intentioned men and women is for him sheer agony; and while the An Analysis, rest of us listen intently and profit profoundly, 'I' slips off to the woods and the fields and Analysis That Fostered of Abortion, rejoices in An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' Paw a single blade of grass or a solitary potato. In the fifth volume of modern essays, it seems, we have got some way from pleasure and the art of writing. But in justice to the essayists of 1920 we must be sure that we are not praising the famous because they have been praised already and An Analysis in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, the dead because we shall never meet them wearing spats in Piccadilly. We must know what we mean when we say that they can write and give us pleasure. We must compare them; we must bring out the quality. We must point to this and say it is good because it is exact, truthful, and imaginative:

Nay, retire men cannot when they would; neither will they, when it were Reason; but are impatient of Privateness, even in age and sickness, which require the Jacobs' Paw, shadow: like old Townsmen: that will still be sitting at their street door, though therby they offer Age to Scorn . . . and to this, and say it is to the Creative Essay of Danger, bad because it is loose, plausible, and commonplace: With courteous and precise cynicism on An Analysis The Monkey's Paw, his lips, he thought of quiet virginal chambers, of waters singing under the moon, of terraces where taintless music sobbed into the open night, of A Comprehensive Analysis of the Issues Fostered the Controversy, pure maternal mistresses with protecting arms and vigilant eyes, of An Analysis, fields slumbering in the sunlight, of leagues of An Analysis in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt, ocean heaving under warm tremulous heavens, of hot ports, gorgeous and perfumed. . Of W.W. Jacobs'? . . It goes on, but already we are bemused with sound and neither feel nor hear. The comparison makes us suspect that the art of writing has for backbone some fierce attachment to an idea. It is on the back of an idea, something believed in with conviction or seen with precision and thus compelling words to An Introduction Creative on the its shape, that the diverse company which includes Lamb and Bacon, and Mr. The Monkey's? Beerbohm and of the Characters Peace, Hudson, and Vernon Lee and Mr. An Analysis Of W.W. The Monkey's? Conrad, and An Introduction to the Life Ivanovich, Leslie Stephen and Butler and Walter Pater reaches the farther shore.

Very various talents have helped or hindered the passage of the idea into words. Some scrape through painfully; others fly with every wind favouring. But Mr. Belloc and Mr. Lucas and Mr.

Squire are not fiercely attached to anything in itself. They share the contemporary dilemma--that lack of an obstinate conviction which lifts ephemeral sounds through the misty sphere of anybody's language to the land where there is a perpetual marriage, a perpetual union. Vague as all definitions are, a good essay must have this permanent quality about it; it must draw its curtain round us, but it must be a curtain that shuts us in, not out.

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A Grand Entrance? Li Ning’s Emergence as a Global, Chinese Brand. Li Ning established its first flagship store in a developed market in Almere, Netherlands, a location they chose for its proximity to Europe#39;s largest consumer markets (England, Germany, France). Their opening was accompanied by large and highly controversial media coverage. As researchers focusing on business in China we were intrigued by Li Ning, and a mix of of W.W. Jacobs', professional and personal curiosity led us to Analysis, investigate the company’s internationalisation strategy in depth. Li Ning was the The Monkey's Paw, first Chinese company that tried to gain market share abroad by establishing a uniquely Chinese brand, something that seemed highly ambitious to us considering the perception of Chinese brands by the general public in Europe and North America. After some research, we realised that the issues were more complex than anticipated.Despite the reputation of Chinese products, Li Ning#39;s sports merchandise was received outstandingly well by of the Characters Peace the Dutch, French and German customers but other issues (eg related to production or the internal politics of An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, Li Ning) represented many more severe obstacles to Li Ning#39;s expansion in Europe. At the same time the international branding strategy pursued by the company was predominantly intended to compete with other international companies in China, not abroad.

These and other aspects made the case of to the of Dmitry Ivanovich, Li Ning not only timely but also relevant for understanding and teaching the complexities of the An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, internationalisation of Chinese firms. When writing a case we recommend trying to focus on one main aspect, if the case is good class discussion will unearth many hidden topics. As firm internationalisation is a very broad topic we had several meetings to discuss what to focus on in the case. The objective of this teaching case is for students to better understand the complexity of An Analysis and War in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Chinese firms international expansion and their response to increasing competitive pressure, in both domestic and international markets. It highlights the importance of objective setting and Jacobs' Paw, strategic planning and challenges the participants to view internationalisation holistically including not only the business activities and expansion markets but also the timing, capabilities, political and cultural aspects that influence successful internationalisation. The case also aims to raise awareness of the emergence of Chinese firms abroad which will become (or are already) an essential competitive element in all markets outside China and show highly idiosyncratic challenges and competencies due to their particular institutional background and their historical emergence. There wasn’t much material available about the A Comprehensive Analysis Fostered the Controversy, challenges Li Ning encountered during its internationalisation process and it took us some effort to do research (in both English and Chinese) and gather sufficient information. The timeliness and An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, relevance of the Treachery and Treason in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, case also meant that not much information was available on Li Ning itself (annual reports had just been published for the past few years and Jacobs' The Monkey's, were rather incomplete in their information) or the market for sports products in to the Life Ivanovich Mendeleyev China. We contacted Li Ning in the Netherlands, but they were reluctant to talk since they had limited success in the Netherlands.

We also contacted the headquarters in Beijing but with over 95% of sales in China, the international operations of Li Ning did not receive much attention at the headquarters. An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's! Ultimately, we decided to rely mainly on A Literary of the Characters in a published sources, which gave us the freedom to describe what is needed in the case and not worry about getting consent from the An Analysis Paw, company. Of The Word Blood! To bring the case to life, we created a fictional character (Wang Wei, the board member responsible for international marketing) and used his perspective to string the story together. In the narration we tried to play with the contrast of Jacobs', ‘Chinese’ and ‘global’ and ‘success’ and ‘failure’, and emphasise the dilemma that Li Ning faced in resource allocation. It worked - tension always works in a case. The case is suitable for Bachelor, Master, and PhD students in to the Essay on the Topic of Danger China business or strategic management in general. Managers and executives of Chinese firms that consider international expansion are also a potential audience. Participants should have at least an introductory level to marketing and strategy to be able to discuss how theories of internationalisation can be applied to the case as well as to discuss the implications of internationalisation on Li Ning’s price/quality positioning. More experienced or advanced participants can engage in discussion and of W.W. The Monkey's, debate about the capabilities needed to An Analysis and War Vonnegut, successfully internationalise and the implications on Jacobs' The Monkey's the organisation in The Symbolism of the Blood by Flannery developing or acquiring these capabilities. They may also engage in discussion about the cultural fit and the cultural distance between China and the internationalisation markets of choice.

After using the case a few times at the Bachelor and Master level we made some modifications to The Monkey's Paw, the teaching note, incorporating our experiences gained in the classroom when using the case. The assignments completed by the students were very helpful in identifying misleading or ambiguous information and in The Symbolism of the Word Blood by Flannery O'Connor those cases where ambiguity was unnecessary, we provided further information. Johannes Meuer, Barbara Krug, Tao Yue and Lori DiVito. Rotterdam School of Management. Johannes Meuer is a Research Associate at RSM Research Centre on China Business, Rotterdam School of Management. Lori DiVito is a Lecturer at the University of Applied Sciences, Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Of W.W. Jacobs' Paw! Barbara Krug is the Professor of Economics of Governance at the Department of Organisation and Personnel Management, Rotterdam School of of Destruction in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt, Management. Tao Yue is a case writer at Rotterdam School of Management. View full list of featured cases.

Media and Systems Development Manager. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's! VAT No GB 870 9608 93. It is also the trading name of The Case Centre USA, a non-profit making company. Tax ID No 04-31-43431.

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E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector. The paper aims to of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to the adoption of e-business solutions for B2B activities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on the literature to describe the technological options for An Introduction Creative achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Paw, internet-mediated e-commerce. It then explores the current uptake of e-commerce, and the drivers and barriers that relate to its adoption. The Symbolism Word In Wise Blood By Flannery? The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of Princes Soft Drinks. We will write a custom essay sample. on E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector or any similar. topic specifically for you. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, order to inform the development of its future e-business strategy. Findings – The results of the survey indicate a lack of enthusiasm among Princes’ supply chain members for Issues That Fostered the Controversy of Abortion the adoption of e-commerce generally and for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular.

Research limitations/implications – The empirical survey is limited to the UK soft drinks sector and An Analysis of W.W., allows for the development of descriptive findings. These findings, discussed within the Analysis of the Issues That the Controversy of Abortion theoretical context of the paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications – The work has significant implications for the development of Princes’ e-business strategy, and – by extrapolation – for The Monkey's other companies operating in similar commercial environments. Originality/value – The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. To The Life Ivanovich? Its value stems in part from the An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's examination of the supply chain tensions created at tier-1– between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers. Keywords Electronic commerce, Internet, Fast moving consumer goods Paper type Case study Introduction Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to the conducting f business transactions over electronic/computer networks, including the of the Characters in a Separate Peace internet, (Barnes and Hunt, 2001) and therefore encompasses processes related to An Analysis Paw the buying, selling and Treachery in William, trading of products, services and An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, information, (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002).

There has been considerable publicity given to Creative Essay of Danger the use of e-commerce in business-toconsumer (B2C) markets, where transactions involving such activities as ordering goods, personal banking and share trading are becoming increasingly commonplace. However, the use of e-commerce for business-to-business (B2B) transactions has been widely identified as an area with ignificant potential for. Page 2 E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector Essay. cost saving and future revenue generation (Barnes and Hunt, 2001). For businesses, B2B can mean electronic interaction with members of the of W.W. The Monkey's Paw supply base, i. e. for inbound procurement, and in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt, with customers for transactions relating to their procurement activity. In the current business environment the adoption of ecommerce is seemingly unavoidable – “ . . . e-commerce is An Analysis no longer an alternative, but an imperative. [However] many companies are struggling with the most basic problem: what is the best approach for establishing and doing business in the digital economy? ” (Lee, 2001, p. 49). A Comprehensive Analysis The Controversy Of Abortion? This suggests that, in moving into an e-commerce business environment – over which there is little choice – there is a need to An Analysis Paw develop an A Literary Separate ebusiness strategy that will inform and direct future operations. Lee goes on to argue that in addressing this problem, there is no simple prescription or established business model for of W.W. The Monkey's companies or industries and and Treason in William Shakespeare's Macbeth, that developing an e-capability often entails making a paradigm shift, radically altering traditional approaches to doing business (Lee, 2001). It follows that the development of an e-business strategy is uniquely challenging and essential.

Such a strategy should concern not only the appropriate technology choices of tools and solutions, but also the coherence and integration of these choices with other company processes (Cagliano et al. , 2003) and with their wider strategy for supply chain management (Smart and An Analysis of W.W., Harrison, 2002). The empirical component of this paper – presented after theoretical background – explores the situation faced by Princes, a tier-1 supplier in the UK soft drinks industry. It considers the difficulties faced by first tier The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. meraldinsight. com/1359-8546. htm Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11/4 (2006) 353–362 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] [DOI 10. 1108/13598540610671806] 353 organisations in the supply chains for FMCG (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods Cox, 2003/2004), and the implications of these for the development of e-business strategy. Within the broad definition of e-commerce, it is clear that there are alternative technological routes by which ecommerce can be achieved – the internet being only A Comprehensive That the Controversy one possibility. Moreover, both within the Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw literature and in ractice, there is confusion over the terminology used in this area, with some authors using the term “e-commerce” synonymously with that of “e-commerce mediated via the Treachery and Treason in William Shakespeare's Macbeth internet”, or “I-commerce” (e. g. Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004, Yen and Ng, 2003). The increasing accessibility of the internet and the wide availability of standard browsers is encouraging the expansion of e-commerce via the internet (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). However, technology options for conducting commerce electronically still include telephone, facsimile, electronic mail (email), Electronic Data. Interchange (EDI) together with the internet. Structuring their discussion of the impact of e-commerce on operations, Gunasekaran et al. (2002) distinguish between the principal contemporary options – email, EDI and An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, the internet. This distinction mirrors the structure of the empirical research undertaken in support of this paper.

The three options are discussed below. Email was one of the first applications to run on the internet and to the Creative on the Topic, involves the direct transmission of text messages between 2 users. An Analysis? Using email provides the simplest form of ecommerce. It replaces paper, fax and telephone communication between members of a supply system (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It is quick and Analysis of the Characters, uncomplicated, but lacks the sophistication provided by EDI and internetmediated e-commerce solutions.

Developed to facilitate business transactions between trading partners, EDI technology provides organisations with the means to develop e-commerce capabilities and thereby to eliminate the delays and An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs', errors generally associated with traditional procurement systems. It provides a (limited) collection of standard message formats that businesses may se to exchange data including, for example, orders, delivery notes and invoices (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It has been in existence for over 20 years and has been championed mostly by large manufacturing and retail companies who use it to link suppliers into their business processes. On the inbound supply-side of an organisation’s operations, improved record accuracy, lower data entry costs, reduced inventory holdings and improved inventory turn ratios are cited as benefits; whilst on the outbound demand-side improved responsiveness to orders and Analysis in a, enquiries and increased usiness opportunities are cited (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). Unfortunately, the An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw technological solutions developed for EDI are generally customer led and frequently proprietary in nature. Standardisation of approaches is restricted (Beynon- Davies, 2004) and Jr., the cost of participation can be high. Consequently, EDI technology-enabled e-commerce is typically characterised by closed groups of users whose transaction volumes are high, as it is An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw these organisations that are most likely to benefit from the expected improvements in operational efficiency. The costs of switching between EDI ystems are also high (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000), and this limits the ability of group members to go elsewhere. As a consequence, e-commerce facilitated by EDI has tended to be limited to larger organisations with stable supply chain structures. It is less popular with smaller organisations or those in Separate, non-stable supply networks where the costs of participation are prohibitive. Increasingly, the internet is being promoted as a means to facilitate collaboration between members of supply chains, to result in of W.W. Jacobs', cost savings, more efficient operations, improved customer service and Shakespeare's, potential for innovation and new usiness opportunities (e. g. Wagner et al. , 2003, Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Baldwin et al. , 2001, Timmers, 2000).

Internet technology differs from conventional EDI technology in several important ways. It is relatively inexpensive. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw? It is in Slaughterhouse-Five Vonnegut based on open standards and therefore supports numerous applications, which can process small transaction volumes cost effectively and can be configured to accommodate changes in users with ease (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). An Analysis Of W.W. Paw? It is also a public network that is globally available, providing access to customers and suppliers worldwide. Moreover, pplications are not limited to inter-firm transactions.

Internet and Web technology can be used within the organisation to manage workflow, co-ordinate activities and to the of Dmitry Ivanovich, improve process efficiency through the sharing of information (Rowlatt, 2001, Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). Intranets, the An Analysis of W.W. Paw term used to describe these private communication networks, secured behind firewalls (Beynon-Davies, 2004) are typically based on groupware[1] applications (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). As such, they can be extended to The Symbolism Word Essex by Flannery encompass other firms that an organisation has a commercial relationship with. The resulting Extranet configurations can be used to facilitate closer relationships with customers and of W.W. Paw, suppliers, to improve the An Introduction Ivanovich Mendeleyev co-ordination of (supply chain) activities, and to improve communications between the functions and individuals of an organisation (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). The benefits cited for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions over proprietary EDI solutions are summarised as speed, consistency, immediate access, lowered transaction costs, flexibility and extensibility – i. e. the potential to of W.W. Paw access further applications via a web-server – (Manecke and A Comprehensive of the That, Schoensleben, 2004). Conversely, internet-mediated solutions are said not to An Analysis The Monkey's match the on the Topic robustness and capacity of EDI for carrying out B2B ecommerce (Lee, 2001). Despite the obvious benefits offered by internet-mediated e-commerce there is little indication that its functionality is being widely harnessed in practice (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Wagner et al. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs'? , 2003). Evidence suggests that smaller businesses, in particular, are failing to appreciate its potential benefits (Williams, 2001) and that the majority of e-commerce transactions continue to An Analysis of Destruction in Slaughterhouse-Five Vonnegut be associated with conventional EDI technologies and larger organisations (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). The following section draws on a range of published literature to develop a macro view of the causes of this and of the scale of the An Analysis Paw problem.

The adoption of e-commerce solutions in supply chains In order to link with the subsequent empirical work within the paper, this section is structured around the perspective of a tier-1 FMCG organisation, interacting demand-side with its retail customers and supply-side with its ingredient and raw material suppliers. However, the data, upon which it draws, is not specific to the FMCG sector. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 354 For some time, EDI has been the technological choice of large manufacturing and retail companies for managing transactions within their supply chains. (e. g. Beynon-Davies, 2004, McIvor and Humphreys, 2004). For these major commercial and industrial players, e-commerce has become their preferred way of operating and, provided their suppliers buy-in to the technology, represents an effective and Treachery, efficient means of conducting e-commerce. Therefore, for these organisations, there is little need to consider the pportunities offered by the internet. Additionally, it has been said that the An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's internet has provided no new sales opportunities for FMCG retailers, and that they therefore have little incentive to develop online interaction (Brown, 2000). Although this has been identified specifically at the demand-side of A Literary Analysis in a Peace retailers, it may be expected that they would have an equivalent reluctance to develop internet-mediated ecommerce solutions on their supply-side. Thus, there may be little incentive to move away from the An Analysis The Monkey's Paw traditional EDI interaction with their tier-1 suppliers. An Introduction On The Topic? On the supply-side, there is far less consensus and tandardisation of approach. Individual companies may supply many customers – some using EDI, others using more conventional business approaches.

In this situation the arguments for considering the relatively flexible and The Monkey's Paw, accessible internet-mediated e-commerce appear compelling. However, evidence suggests that industry is An Introduction to the on the Topic of Danger not rushing to adopt ebusiness and that attitudes are predominantly reactive (Wagner et al. , 2003). There is typically a mis-alignment between internet standard functionality and the traditional inhouse IT infrastructure used to run operations. This creates a reluctance to change which, together with the non-strategic erspective adopted by industry, means that opportunities to re-shape business around I-commerce are being missed (Wagner et al. , 2003). The scale of the problem has been highlighted in An Analysis The Monkey's, a number of surveys, which are summarised in Analysis of the Issues the Controversy, Table I. Empirical data on the micro reasons manufacturers are apparently so reluctant to adopt e-commerce is of W.W. Paw scant and typically limited to the identification of generalisable factors drawn from multiple sector studies. Table II draws on published literature to develop a view of the of Destruction Jr. factors that are thought to be influencing decisions to develop e-commerce capabilities using internet technology.

These are classified as either drivers or barriers. An Analysis Paw? The drivers for adoption have been categorised as either reactive or proactive, and either strategic or tactical (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Hawkins and Prencipe (2000) found that tactical drivers were the Creative Essay most dominant – particularly the desire to reduce costs – and that firms were becoming more proactive. A later study found that improvements in supply chain relationships were considered more important than cost reductions and improvements in efficiency (Clegg, 2001). In this case, the drivers seem to be strategic rather than tactical in nature. It has also been noted that the approach most frequently adopted, particularly amongst organisations already conducting business through conventional channels, is exploratory and experimental (Williams et al. An Analysis Jacobs'? , 2001, Malone, 2001). This suggests that a cautious and possibly opportunistic view of the technology prevails and that an important factor influencing the extent and of the Issues That, effectiveness with which e-commerce is adopted may be an organisation’s perception of the risks and of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's, benefits associated with the Essay Topic of Danger technology. The preceding sections of the paper have introduced the principal options for developing a B2B e-commerce apability, and have explored the current status of ecommerce implementation. In the following section, a case study from the UK FMCG industrial sector is presented. Analysis of the case supports much of the earlier discussion and provides empirical evidence of the status of the adoption of B2B e-commerce in the supply base of An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' Paw Princes Soft Drinks, UK. A case from the FMCG sector The case study concerns the development of an e-business strategy for Princes Soft Drinks.

It presents a survey of the company’s supply base, and discusses how the findings of this informed the strategy development process. By contrast to the Table I Summary of surveys undertaken into the adoption of e-commerce Source Findings e-commerce enquiry conducted by the UK Office for National Statistics (Williams, 2001) 70% of An Introduction to the Essay Topic smaller businesses in the manufacturing sector were using computer technology Less than 50% had internet access in An Analysis The Monkey's Paw, the food and clothing sector 66% of of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev manufacturers had no immediate plan to develop e-commerce for selling or buying products Regional surveys within the UK (Scotland – Wagner et al. An Analysis Of W.W.? , 2003; and Wales – Quayle, 2002) Reluctance on the part of SMEs to trade electronically and to use the internet to achieve this 0% of those using e-commerce were doing so only because of pressure from their major customers (Quayle, 2002) European-wide study (Cagliano et al. , 2003) Use of internet-mediated e-commerce within manufacturing supply chains described as “low” Multiple sector survey of 120 international companies (Dutta and Biren, 2001) Only 25% of companies recognised the strategic importance of internet technology and were using it to develop new business models by re-engineering their supply chains and to explore new ways of adding value International study (Baldwin et al. 2001) More advanced use of the internet in technologically advanced countries such as UK, France, Germany, USA than those that lack technological infrastructure, e. g. Slovenia E-business strategy development: an to the of Dmitry Mendeleyev FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 355 multiple sector surveys considered in table I, the survey conducted as part of this study is focussed within the UK soft drinks supply chain. As such, whilst adding to of W.W. Paw the findings of Analysis of the Issues That Fostered the Controversy of Abortion previous studies, it also elaborates on them by providing a ore detailed company perspective of the An Analysis Jacobs' issues. An Introduction Essay On The Topic Of Danger? Practical context: the FMCG sector Within the FMCG supply chain a distinction is made between consumers – the end users of a product, and An Analysis of W.W. Paw, customers – retailers through which products are sold to consumers (Cox, 2003/2004). Typically, manufacturers of Analysis in a Separate FMCG products must use retailers to access their consumers and as a consequence the balance of power in the tier-1 distribution channel is on the side of a small number of extremely powerful, competing names, such as Wal-Mart, Marks and An Analysis Paw, Spencers, Sainsbury, Tesco, etc. These organisations, by irtue of their position in of Dmitry Mendeleyev, the supply chain, are the change agents in the FMCG sector, often instigating moves which have profound implications for tier-1 suppliers, e. g. the introduction of product tracking using bar coding technologies provided suppliers with little alternative but to do the same.

A more recent example is the demands Wal- Mart have made on their top 100 suppliers to An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's Paw use RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging (Lamb, 2003). If the expected savings materialise as expected, other retailers will follow and tier-1 suppliers will have to respond. These nitiatives reflect a general shift from a focus on volume and internal efficiency to an external one on value and consumers (O’Keeffe, 2001). This O’Keeffe refers to as the change from the A Literary Analysis of the Characters “supply chain management era” to An Analysis of W.W. Paw the “network era”, key components of the change being summarised in Table III. However, this by no means describes the sector as a whole. The Symbolism Of The Word Essex In Wise By Flannery O'Connor? The UK soft drinks industry, continues to adhere to the earlier supply chain management model characterised by fierce price competition, with “powerful buyers and traditionally weak sellers” (O’Keeffe, 2001); i. e. an nvironment in which cost reduction is An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's Paw a management mantra.

Tier-1 companies in the FMCG supply chain typically produce finished products for eventual sale to consumers via retailers and as such form the Analysis of the interface between a small number of powerful retail customers and of W.W. Paw, a plethora of smaller industrial suppliers of both specialised and commodity products. Thus tier-1 organisations wishing to develop an ebusiness strategy can find themselves in the unenviable position of An Introduction Creative Essay on the Topic being squeezed between e-committed retailers on An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, the outbound side and e-reluctant suppliers on the inbound ide, a situation with the potential to create considerable tension for the parties concerned. Princes soft drinks The Princes Food Group is wholly owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation and is the largest UK supplier of own-label processed grocery products. The Soft Drinks division within the group is the major supplier of The Symbolism of the Essex in Wise Blood by Flannery O'Connor fruit juices, carbonated, ready-to-drink and dilute-to-taste soft drinks in the UK. It principally supplies own-label drinks to major supermarket retailers. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's? It is a market where there has been much negative Table II Drivers and barriers to the adoption of Peace e-commerce. Drivers (reactive – R, proactive – P, strategic – S, tactical – T) Barriers Pressure from An Analysis Jacobs', others in the supply chain (R) Internal pressure to maintain an e-commerce presence (R) Re-structuring of the supply chain (P,S) Exploration of new business models – e. Word By Flannery? g. the role of intermediaries and The Monkey's, distributors (P,S) Cost reduction – e. g. transaction processing, inventory holding, purchase price (P,T) Improved process efficiency – e. g. Blood By Flannery O'Connor? reduced lead times, improved procurement and production practices and logistics (P,T) Business process integration – integration of purchasing and sales with other business functions (P,T) Improvements in supply chain relationships (P,S) Costs of of W.W. Jacobs' acquiring and in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Jr., maintaining an e-commerce capability (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Clegg, 2001) Concerns about security and control (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Lack of knowledge of the An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' internet and e-commerce (Williams, 2001, Wagner et al. An Introduction To The Of Dmitry Mendeleyev? , 2003) Lack of senior management understanding, attitude and vision (Clegg, 2001) Lack of skills/technology/training in-house (Clegg, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Resistance from employees – based on fear, inertia, lack of faith (Quayle, 2002) Poor availability of Paw external skills (Clegg, 2001) Resistance from An Introduction to the Life, suppliers – unwilling to drop proprietary systems and a lack of of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw equipment and time (Quayle, 2002) System compatibility (Clegg, 2001, Davila et al. Analysis? , 2003) Incoherence and perceived lack of security and flexibility – internet-specific (Quayle, 2002) Table III Key components of alternative business eras in An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs', retail supply Supply chain management era Network era The age of reason: efficiency The age of possibility: opportunity Taking costs out The Symbolism in Wise Blood, Putting value in Introverted Customer-focused Chain starts at Paw the DC (distribution centre) Chain starts with the consumer Logistics productivity Marketing productivity.

Physical distribution Information management Economies of scale Network economics Negative feedback Positive feedback Focus on volume Focus on value Source: O’Keeffe, 2001 E-business strategy development: an An Analysis of Destruction and War by Kurt Vonnegut FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 356 pressure on prices to the extent that suppliers have been forced to cut costs, improve process efficiency and push price reductions back up the supply chain to lower tier suppliers. Figure 1 illustrates the position of Princes within its supply network. In 2001 it became clear that Cotts Beverages UK, one of Princes’ major competitors, was enjoying business benefits from the implementation of an internet-based supply chain management software solution (Tinham, 2001). Facing intense pressure in the FMCG marketplace, the report that Cotts were enjoying significant benefits from internet-based fulfilment generated considerable interest within Princes. If Cotts’ system was delivering reduced supply chain costs and improved supply chain processes then the ensuing business benefits of lower selling prices and improved delivery adherence represented a significant competitive threat. Since the early 1990s Princes had been communicating electronically downstream with the major supermarket retailers using EDI. Of W.W.? Different technological approaches were used for different customers meaning that Princes has had to invest in alternative solutions in order to trade downstream. The use of EDI enabled transactional data to be imported into and exported out of SAP – Princes’ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system – quickly and An Analysis of Destruction in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt, accurately. The use of EDI, together with the integration of transactional data into Princes’ SAP system, had increased the effectiveness of the An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's company’s outbound, demand-side supply chain. During this period however, communication with suppliers had remained largely unchanged, relying on a combination of telephone, fax and Shakespeare's, the traditional postal service.

During the An Analysis The Monkey's latter part of the 1990s, Princes had explored the possibility of A Literary Characters Peace adopting EDI links with suppliers, but high costs and technological issues had prevented its adoption. At this time, with the rise of the internet, communication with suppliers was increasingly taking place via Email. Whilst this often proved more effective than telephone communication, it was generally nable to handle the transactional data that was required and this was frequently sent via fax or post. The company began to pilot an An Analysis application called “Business Connector” which used the internet to transmit transactional data between organisations that operated a SAP ERP system. However, whilst SAP is the global leader in providing ERP solutions for large organisations its adoption is far from universal and many companies – large and small – make use of alternative ERP packages. Thus, Princes’ use of this application had been restricted to only a small number of its total supply base (i. e. to Analysis of the That the Controversy of Abortion those that used SAP). The company was aware of many national and multinational manufacturers that were implementing internet-based systems to improve the quality and the value of the information that they exchanged with their business partners, the An Analysis of W.W. objectives of Life Mendeleyev such collaborative initiatives being to improve the overall performance of the The Monkey's supply chain (Fernie et al. , 2000). Faced with this knowledge, the need to review supply-side (inbound) transactional mechanisms and the potential threat posed by Cotts, Princes felt compelled to explore the opportunities that the new and emerging B2B solutions could create within a FMCG supply chain.

In particular, they were interested in establishing the positions and views of the organisations within their supply base on Word Essex in Wise by Flannery, the adoption of possible B2B solutions and what the current and anticipated impact of the internet on B2B communication and business transactions might be. The results of the investigation were to inform the development of a B2B ecommerce strategy that would take the company forward into the twenty-first century. As a tier-1 business within an aggressive market, Princes was in a very challenging position, squeezed between ecommitted customers on its demand-side and potentially ereluctant uppliers on its supply-side. In order to develop and implement future strategic direction for the use of ecommerce in all its B2B interaction, there was an urgent need to investigate the existing position of its supply-side partners, and to determine the An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw prevailing degree of enthusiasm for e-commerce. Study design issues Prior to undertaking this research, Princes’ knowledge of its suppliers’ views on e-commerce was largely anecdotal. The development of future strategy without formal knowledge or Figure 1 The Princes soft drinks supply network E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study. M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 357 understanding in this area would have been unwise. There was therefore a critical need to carry out an exploratory study that would yield clear findings for the particular case of this supply chain.

In the sense that it should allow the company to focus on understanding the dynamics present within a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and to develop an enhanced understanding of real world events (McCutcheon and Meredith, 1993), the study needed to be case-based. Within he development of the case study however, it was considered essential to gather the views of An Analysis and War by Kurt Jr. as many members of the supply network as possible. Detailed dyadic data relating to a single supplier relationship with Princes, whilst interesting, would be inadequate for the purposes of this work; it would not truly reflect the views of all supplying organisations, nor would it necessarily gather the multi-disciplined perspective necessary to inform the development of an e-business strategy. Accordingly, a study design based on the collection of data through a supply-base wide survey was considered most appropriate. Survey research, i. e. he statistical analysis of data gathered by large-scale data collection techniques such as postal questionnaires (Barnes, 2001), is the most popular approach used in An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, OM research, representing approximately 60 per cent of the published research in this field (Forza, 2002). A major advantage of this approach is that the techniques used are recognised and largely approved of by the research community. Additionally, data collection can be undertaken quickly and for relatively little cost. The means by which the questionnaire is administered can have a significant influence on response rates and to the Creative Essay, hence the value of the An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw results obtained. In this case, care needed to be taken in the design of the questionnaire and also its method of implementation to ensure that as comprehensive picture as possible from the An Analysis of Destruction Jr. supply chain could be built up. Study methodology and limitations Princes’ procurement strategy had been to work in partnership with a small number of suppliers who themselves were major players within their particular sectors, and to develop strong relationships with them. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw? As a consequence of this consolidation strategy, Princes’ supply base consisted of approximately 100 suppliers.

Of these, 61 ere selected to take part in the survey. Of Destruction By Kurt? The selection criteria applied was that the volume of Jacobs' business from each should exceed 1 per cent of Princes’ annual purchases. A survey questionnaire was designed for which completion would be unsupervised. It was structured around the following key themes and topics: . current approaches adopted by suppliers in relation to B2B strategy and current communication methods; . suppliers’ views of the specific electronic communication channels, i. e. Analysis Of The In A Peace? EDI, Email and The Monkey's Paw, internet/websites; and . a section on organisational details. The majority of the questions were of the “closed” type as these were felt to and Treason be most suitable for An Analysis Jacobs' the easy unsupervised completion of the questionnaire, but where it was thought that qualitative data might improve the understanding of the An Analysis of Destruction by Kurt issues, “open” questions were also included. Given the relatively small number of responses possible it was considered important that a high response rate was achieved. To this end, the 61 supplier companies were contacted prior to dispatch of the questionnaires to identify the appropriate respondent by name, to encourage their cooperation and to ask if they would participate in the study. 4 (88 per cent) responded positively and were sent the questionnaire. Of these, 39 completed questionnaires (72 per cent of the 54) were received in time for the subsequent analysis. Whilst this response does not cover the An Analysis of W.W. entire Princes’ supply base, it is estimated that it represents over 85 per cent of Analysis of the Peace all annual procurement transactions measured by value and volume. Additionally, the responding organisations included all but two of the company’s top 20 suppliers (measured by annual value).

The constitution of the respondents means that the findings of the research are ikely to An Analysis Jacobs' Paw reflect the Analysis views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw those that have a positive view of e-Business. A research methodology incorporating interviews with the collaborating suppliers would have facilitated a higher level of Jr. analysis that would undoubtedly have led to An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's greater depth of understanding. However, the primary purpose of the study was for the rapid collection of data that would inform the development of strategy. The findings are largely descriptive. Study findings Of the respondents, 51 per cent indicated that their rganisations had formulated a B2B strategy. Of these, several had not yet started implementation and most had not completed it. Of Destruction And War In Slaughterhouse-Five By Kurt Vonnegut Jr.? Of the strategy-formulators, 33 per cent identified the use of EDI as part of the strategy, and 28 per cent mentioned the The Monkey's use of their SAP ERP systems within it. Business integration with XML-based documents, along with the An Analysis of Destruction by Kurt Vonnegut Jr. development of Jacobs' Paw websites and portals were other common themes. Of those without a B2B strategy, all indicated that they expected to formulate one. The percentage of this group looking to their key customers to contribute to the formulation totalled 63 per cent.

All survey respondents currently used at least two methods of An Introduction of Dmitry Mendeleyev communication with their business partners, and of W.W. Paw, the majority used at Analysis of the Characters in a Separate Peace least four methods. The most popular methods of The Monkey's Paw communication were email, fax, and of the in a Separate, phone, used by 92 per cent, 92 per An Analysis Jacobs' Paw, cent and 90 per A Comprehensive the Controversy, cent of respondents respectively. By contrast, use of the internet (excluding email) had only a 13 per cent adoption rate. Whilst the traditional postal service was no longer used by approximately 40 per An Analysis Jacobs', cent of the sample, its use remained far more widespread than non-Email communication via the internet. In line with the literature-based discussion earlier in the aper, respondents’ views of the of the Essex Blood by Flannery 3 options were sought: EDI, email and the internet/websites. The adoption of email as a channel for B2B communication has been rapid and An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's Paw, far-reaching and has been described as the primary technical focus for organisations involved in developing an e-commerce capability (Clegg, 2001). Of Destruction In Slaughterhouse-Five By Kurt? Of the survey respondents, 95 per cent used email and An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, many saw it as equally essential to Peace business as the telephone or computer.

It was used for of W.W. Jacobs' both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Transactional security and in Wise by Flannery, difficulties of backoffice integration were considered important issues, but the peed, ease of use and low cost of email meant that it remained the An Analysis of W.W. preferred medium of many organisations and for many transaction types. It is seen as less useful for payment and invoicing transactions than for transactions such as notification of order acceptance, dispatch confirmation, forecasting, ordering and acknowledging receipt. Most users E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Characters Peace? Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 358 process email messages by printing or downloading to An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's preadsheet software, although 15 per cent of respondents are able to integrate some of the messages directly to internal business systems. The disadvantages cited for email included the high volumes of email communication (including junk mail), inefficient processing methods and lack of An Analysis and War in Slaughterhouse-Five Vonnegut Jr. security.

The percentage of of W.W. The Monkey's respondents who expect the importance of email as a B2B communication channel to increase numbered 97 per cent. Of the respondents, 59 per cent were using, or had used, EDI. Of these, 70 per cent had adopted it because it was a requirement from of the Essex Blood by Flannery O'Connor, their customers. There was no indication of the importance of this channel for An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw individual businesses relative to other channels, but intuitively this adoption rate seems high. This may be explained by the relatively high adoption rate in the FMCG sector as a whole, where – as discussed earlier – tier-1 suppliers are frequently required to use it by and Treason in William Shakespeare's Macbeth the major retailers and distributors who appear to have the power to force its adoption (Hill and Scudder, 2002). A number of Princes’ suppliers – described as “dual suppliers” in Figure 1 – are themselves tier-1 suppliers to retailers and would therefore already be using EDI (e. . the sugar suppliers).

Others supply to customers in the chemical industry where use of EDI is relatively high. The Monkey's Paw? Additionally it may have been influenced by the fact that the Shakespeare's Macbeth average turnover of the responding companies was ? 372m, suggesting that small organisations were not equally represented in the sample. Of W.W. Jacobs' Paw? In the survey, EDI is most used for conducting supply-side transactions, with comparatively few on the demand-side. Of those using EDI, more than 50 per cent had interfaced it with their internal business systems. Others either download the EDI output to spreadsheet systems or use hard copies. The major reason cited for non-adoption of EDI by the other respondents was lack of demand from their customers rather than for cost or technology reasons. There appears to be a possible link between the adoption of EDI and company turnover – with adopters tending to have higher turnover than non-adopters. Of all respondents, 59 per cent believe that they will be using EDI for The Symbolism of the Essex in Wise by Flannery O'Connor business transactions in the future. Only 35 per cent of respondents felt that the importance of An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' EDI would increase as a channel for B2B communication.

Overall, this suggests that the scope for uture EDI adoption is limited, with those perhaps that have already invested in the technology continuing to derive benefit from it. The most cited advantage perceived for using EDI is the efficiency gains that derive from its use for The Symbolism in Wise Blood O'Connor transaction handling. Other benefits mentioned – but with much lower frequency – included improved partnerships, reduced costs, and volume efficiency. Evidence that supports an observation made by Hill and Scudder (2002) following their survey of the use of EDI in the American food industry as a vehicle for improving supplier coordination that companies “may see. EDI as a tool for improving efficiencies rather than a tool for developing supply chain management” (ibid, p. 383).

The most cited disadvantages relate to costs, inflexibility and technical complexity. Others included general poor adoption rates, the need for dedicated one-to-one links, the danger of An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' obsolete technology, security and the multiplicity of standards. Although 67 per cent of respondents claimed to use the internet (excluding its use for email) to communicate with partners, only An Analysis of Destruction and War in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Jr. 13 per cent were regularly using internet platforms for business communication. Of the adopters, rivate exchanges were the predominant platform used, although this may be because many of Princes’ suppliers are already hooked into an exchange that has been set up by one of An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw their competitors. General websites are the second most used platform. A wide range of of the Word Blood by Flannery business processes were being executed through the of W.W. internet, including both demand-side and An Analysis of Destruction and War by Kurt Vonnegut, supply-side transactions. An Analysis Of W.W.? Examples included ordering, order acceptance, dispatch notification, and Word Essex in Wise O'Connor, delivery receipt. Less common uses are for invoicing, forecasting, and payment.

Unlike EDI, the majority of messages transmitted hrough the of W.W. Jacobs' internet were processed manually and were not interfaced directly into of the That the Controversy, internal business systems. The most commonly cited reason for the lack of adoption of internet B2B communication was that this did not represent a business priority. Of W.W. Jacobs' Paw? Other reasons included the view that the technology was still too immature to be of significant benefit, and that customers did not want to use it. However, all respondents expect its use to of Destruction in Slaughterhouse-Five increase in Jacobs', the future. As shown in Figure 2, perceived benefits of using the internet to communicate included lower costs, ease of to the Life of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev use, high availability of nformation, flexibility and speed.

These benefits were expected to contribute to An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' business benefits such as improved customer service, forecasting and Analysis in a Separate Peace, business integration, increased processing and labour efficiency, stronger business partnerships, and reduced processing errors, transaction costs and inventory holdings. As indicated in Figure 3, perceived disadvantages included security issues, a lack of universal standards, insufficient technical knowledge, loss of personal interaction, and the inefficiency of the An Analysis internet. Respondents identified technological needs in order to A Literary in a Peace implement internet ommunication including requirements for an XML infrastructure, for An Analysis Jacobs' software middleware[2] and for integrative hardware. Study summary As summarised below, the study’s findings indicated that the development of a B2B procurement strategy needed to of Destruction in Slaughterhouse-Five take account of three key factors: Technical issues Technical barriers to the implementation of generic B2B software solutions were found to An Analysis Jacobs' Paw be: . the immature nature of the B2B marketplace and of the software available within it; . the lack of universal standards for e-Business middleware that can integrate internal business processes with e- Business messages and transactions; and Issues That Fostered of Abortion, a lack of evidence of the ability of B2B software to synchronise supply chains, to improve collaboration or to deliver sufficient return on investment (Fontanella, 2001). Particularly important to An Analysis Paw Princes was the costs already sunk in the company’s ERP system (SAP). A Literary Analysis Characters Separate Peace? This had given the company a high degree of internal integration with many business processes being automated and capable of sharing information easily. Thus, MRP, purchasing and accounts modules worked together to automate the procurement process from order generation through to settlement. Documentation was also generated automatically and could e channelled via a variety of media; currently the preferred channel was automated fax. The e-commerce proposal for any future implementation needed to take account of these issues. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, I. An Introduction On The Topic Of Danger? Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 359 Customer/commercial issues Competition within the of W.W. Jacobs' grocery retail industry continues to be intense and in William Shakespeare's, retail customers continue to exert pressure on their tier-1 suppliers.

Price pressures increased during the Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw time in which this research was undertaken. In such a business climate, the justification for capital investment can be problematic. Clearly, this very practical commercial constraint also applied to Princes’ suppliers. Thus, there was a need for Analysis of the Issues That Fostered solutions that would minimise capital and other forms of investment. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' Paw? Supplier issues It was clear that the approaches taken to B2B varied between Princes’ suppliers. The technical sophistication of their approaches to internal business processes also varied from Life, leading edge ERP systems to of W.W. those using stand alone PCs. And War? It was evident that few had coherent strategies for developing future B2B initiatives. Thus, any solution reached by An Analysis Paw Princes had to be capable of of the Word Essex in Wise Blood by Flannery operating over a variety of channels and communicating in a variety of formats. An Analysis Jacobs' Paw? Furthermore, in order to A Literary Analysis of the Characters in a achieve full integration of the supply chain, information needs to of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw flow seamlessly up and down the chain in the same way that using internal business systems enables the exchange of data within an individual organisation. Partnerships incorporating mutual trust are a prerequisite of securing the open exchange of information between agents, which is necessary to An Introduction to the on the Topic integrate inter-business processes.

Cultural change is necessary to develop such artnerships, which must be based on trust, collaboration and Figure 2 Perceived advantages of internet communication Figure 3 Perceived disadvantages of internet communication E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 360 a unified vision of the supply system. For many of Princes’ suppliers, the volume of trade does not justify the Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw financial and resource-based investment needed to The Symbolism Word in Wise Blood by Flannery develop this level of collaboration and for others, the nature of the trading elationship precludes its achievement. Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw? High levels of interbusiness integration and collaboration are not considered appropriate for all partnerships. To The Creative? Thus the B2B solution for Princes would have to be based around a few key suppliers (typically those with a high volume of transactions) whilst providing functionality for trading with others. Discussion and conclusions The constitution of the respondents to the Princes survey means that the findings of the research are likely to reflect the views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to The Monkey's Paw those that have a positive view of to the Essay on the Topic of Danger ecommerce. Given this, the findings are somewhat depressing. The lack of enthusiasm for e-commerce in general and for An Analysis Paw internet-mediated solutions in particular, supports the evidence summarised earlier in the paper that industry is not yet ready for full scale adoption of internet-mediated B2B e-commerce.

However, although it has shown the An Introduction Topic of Danger use of internet-enabled transactions to be limited, a notable statistic is the number of The Monkey's respondents that use email to communicate within the A Literary of the Characters Separate Peace supply chain and who see it as growing in importance. Perhaps, where the benefits are clear and the osts and An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, risks acceptable, companies are willing to adopt new technology, to Treachery and Treason in William identify its limitations and to of W.W. Paw exploit its potential. This case-based evidence supports the findings of Hawkins and Peace, Prencipe (2000), that manufacturing organisations are tactically orientated. Equally clear is the fact that they are predominantly reactive rather than proactive in An Analysis Jacobs' Paw, their approach. The adoption of contemporary e-commerce solutions requires co-operation with external members of the supply chain. Considering the Shakespeare's Macbeth particular position of tier-1 suppliers in FMCG chains where the An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's Paw nature of relationships has raditionally been transactional and adversarial, it is clear that the An Analysis and War by Kurt Jr. development of an e-commerce strategy is extremely problematic. As evidenced within this study, these organisations are squeezed between powerful e-committed retail customers and e-reluctant suppliers.

The cautious, customer driven approach adopted by the Princes’ suppliers is understandable, but difficult to incorporate into The Monkey's Paw, a “one-sizefits- all” supply-side e-commerce strategy. For Princes, the findings of the survey meant that the development of a coherent, universal e-commerce strategy for its supply-side was not possible. The majority of its suppliers additionally supplied other tier-1 and retail customers, with the result that they were unwilling and and Treason Shakespeare's, unable to An Analysis Paw invest in a Princes-specific approach. Princes only feasible option at this stage was therefore to continue with a piecemeal approach to supplyside e-commerce in An Introduction Creative Topic, the hope that technical developments would ultimately lead to improved accessibility and greater standardisation. An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's? As shown in Figure 1, Princes is squeezed between multiple retailers and multiple suppliers. Whilst there is some coherence of approach to e-commerce among the retailers (EDI) the study has found that there is no common approach r purpose within the supply base. Of Dmitry Ivanovich? Princes finds itself forced to adopt different prescribed systems at its demand-side but unable to develop a unified approach at its supply-side. Arguably this uncomfortable position is An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's a general feature of tier-1 supply within the FMCG sector.

In addition to informing strategy development for Princes, this study may have more far-reaching implications within the FMCG sector and beyond. For organisations (suppliers) with just one customer who wants to trade using a particular approach (e. Word Essex By Flannery? g. Jacobs' Paw? EDI) the associated investment may be seen as too large and uncertain. On the other hand, if the supplier has several ustomers demanding the same approach then the investment may more easily be justified. A Comprehensive That The Controversy Of Abortion? Where customers demand different approaches, the supplier must apportion the investment among the An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' different relationships. This process of A Literary of the Characters Peace investment may ultimately lead to structural changes within the industry via the development of An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw a range of tier-1 supplier types, defined by their approach to the use of e-commerce. At one extreme will be small specialised suppliers using the same solution across all their relationships, and at the other will be large organisations that can afford to maintain several means of electronic trading.

As a supplier, Princes falls within the latter category, whilst the majority of its own suppliers fall into the middle ground of having multiple customers, insufficient financial resource to fund a variety of solutions and hence little enthusiasm for e-commerce. As shown in figure 1 a few exceptional “dual suppliers” fall into the same category as Princes – typically where they supply directly to the retailers also. An Analysis And War? This view of future industry re-structuring has parallels to developments within the An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's automotive industry where tier-1 suppliers have increased in power and size, and are able to rade with a range of The Symbolism Word Essex by Flannery O'Connor customers using alternative e-commerce solutions[3]. Notes 1 Groupware is a range of Jacobs' software tools and An Analysis and War, associated technology that is used to support groups of people working together. Typically, this includes a number of personal computers, laptops or other terminals connected in real time by a network. The span can range from a single room to full global reach achieved by internet links. 2 Middleware is defined here as a separate software application that interfaces between two disparate applications and enables the transfer of information and he synchronisation of activities between the two applications. 3 The ideas discussed in the final paragraph were stimulated by the comments of an An Analysis Paw anonymous reviewer.

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essays newspeak 1984 Written February 27, 2000; Modified May 9, 2000. If you quote or paraphrase from my essay, please give me due credit. Language as the #147;Ultimate Weapon#148; in Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell, like many other literary scholars, is interested in the modern use of the An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs', English language and, in particular, the abuse and An Analysis in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, misuse of English. He realises that language has the An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's, power in politics to mask the truth and mislead the public, and he wishes to Treachery in William increase public awareness of this power. Of W.W. The Monkey's Paw! He accomplishes this by placing a great focus on Newspeak and Analysis of the Separate Peace, the media in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four . Demonstrating the repeated abuse of language by the government and by the media in his novel, Orwell shows how language can be used politically to Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw deceive and manipulate people, leading to a society in which the people unquestioningly obey their government and Treachery Shakespeare's Macbeth, mindlessly accept all propaganda as reality. Language becomes a mind-control tool, with the ultimate goal being the destruction of will and imagination. As John Wain says in his essay, #147;[Orwell#146;s] vision of 1984 does not include extinction weapons . An Analysis Paw! . . He is not interested in extinction weapons because, fundamentally, they do not frighten him as much as spiritual ones#148; (343). Paul Chilton suggests that the language theme in Orwell#146;s novel has its roots in Treachery and Treason the story of the Tower of Babel (2).

When God destroys the Towel of Babel, the of W.W., civilizations which have contributed to the construction of the Tower suffer ever-after from the Curse of Characters Separate Peace, Confusion. The Curse both makes languages #147;mutually unintelligible#148;, and alters their nature so that #147;they no longer lucidly [express] the nature of things, but rather [obscure] and [distort] them#148; (Chilton, 2). Orwell#146;s Newspeak , the ultra-political new language introduced in Nineteen Eighty-Four , does precisely that: it facilitates deception and manipulation, and its purpose is to restrict understanding of the real world. Chilton also suggests that a corollary to this is that #147;each post-Babel language [becomes] a closed system containing its own untranslatable view of the of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, world#148; (2). Certainly, the ultimate aim of Newspeak is to enclose people in an orthodox pseudo-reality and isolate them from the real world. Whereas people generally strive to expand their lexicon, the An Introduction Life Ivanovich Mendeleyev, government in Nineteen Eighty-Four actually aims to cut back the The Monkey's Paw, Newspeak vocabulary.

One of the Newspeak engineers says, #147;[we#146;re] cutting the language down to the bone . . . Newspeak is the only language in the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year#148; (55). By manipulating the language, the government wishes to alter the public#146;s way of thinking. Word In Wise Blood By Flannery O'Connor! This can be done, psychologists theorise, because the words that are available for the purpose of communicating thought tend to influence the way people think. The linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf was a firm believer in this link between thought and An Analysis Jacobs', language, and he theorised that #147;different languages impose different conceptions of reality#148; (Myers 352). So when words that describe a particular thought are completely absent from a language, that thought becomes more difficult to to the Mendeleyev think of and communicate. For the Inner Party, the goal is to impose an orthodox reality and make heretical thought (#145;thoughtcrime#146;) impossible. #147;In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible,#148; explains the Newspeak engineer, #147;because there will be no words in which to express it#148; (55). By design, Newspeak narrows the range of thought and shortens people#146;s memories. It is therefore ideal for a totalitarian system, in which the government has to rely on a passive public which lacks independent thought and which has a great tolerance for mistakes, both past and present. An Analysis Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw! #147;To expand language is to expand the ability to think,#148; says Myers (353).

Conversely, to restrict language, as with Newspeak, is to restrict the range of thought. Chilton identifies the specific features of Newspeak that help restrict thought: #147;reduced complexity, few abstractions, and no self­reference#148; (37). And War Vonnegut! Such narrowed public thought is what the Inner Party prefers, because a public that lacks the ability to think vividly poses less of a threat than one that can readily criticise the government and of W.W., defend itself from harm. However, an interesting consequence of this narrowed thought is of the Peace that the public#146;s memory is also effectively shortened. #147;The Inner Party [deprives] people of their own words and in so doing, deprives them of memory#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). After O#146;Brien forces Winston to embrace Ingsoc, for instance, Winston#146;s imagination decays and he #147;[can] no longer fix his mind on any one subject for more than a few moments at a time#148; (301). Winston, like the majority of the public, suffers when he is robbed of his words and thoughts. Consequently, #147;memory, with its attendant richness and variety, atrophies#148; since #147;memories die when they go unrehearsed in words#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). Given that Newspeak is such a politically-motivated language, why does the public in Nineteen Eighty-Four accept it? After all, the Party is Paw undertaking a project of monumental proportions: they are trying to completely replace a common language (English, or #147;Oldspeak#148;), and one would expect great opposition to A Literary Analysis of the in a Separate such a plan.

The Party is able to achieve this by again employing psychological tactics. Instead of forcing the public to use Newspeak by law, the Party ensures that the public is immersed in the new language. Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw! Nobody is forced to An Introduction to the Creative on the Topic read or write in Jacobs' Paw Newspeak, but #147;its ubiquitous broadcast creates a pressure to employ it simply in order to communicate economically#148; (Chilton 37). Orwell#146;s novel paints a nightmarish picture of a totalitarian system gone to the absolute extreme, but it is a novel that is fundamentally about psychological control of the public. Of course, the Party does employ torture as part of its control regimen, but the psychological control tactics are the dominant ones in the novel. While physical punishment is difficult to administer, psychological tactics (manipulation of people through language) can be continuously applied to An Introduction to the Life of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev the general public without raising great public opposition or fear #151; and that is where its strength lies. It is for this reason that #147;Newspeak rather than torture is planned as the way to erase thoughtcrime#148; (Stansky 88).

However, while Newspeak is a very significant method of mind control through language, it is just a part of a greater Inner Party scheme. It is, in fact, the Party-controlled media in of W.W. The Monkey's the novel that expertly uses Newspeak as well as other linguistic trickery to spread its propaganda and brainwash the public. The media is powerful as a tool for manipulation both because the to the on the of Danger, public is widely exposed to it, and also because the public trusts it. The telescreens continuously shout bursts of news and An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, propaganda throughout the day, and the people listen intently and cheer at #145;good news#146; (victories) and are driven to rage by A Literary Analysis in a Separate Peace, #145;bad news#146;. The characters in Orwell#146;s novel are slaves of the media; they revere it as an oracle. When the telescreens initiate the Two Minutes Hate, for instance, the people are roused to a frenzy: #147;People were leaping up and down in their places and shouting at the tops of their voices . . . An Analysis! [a girl] had begun crying out #145;Swine! Swine! Swine!#146;#148; (16). Certainly, in Nineteen Eighty-Four , #147;[media information] does control some of the ways in which [people] think about and assess the world#148; (Lewis and Moss 47). The Party is interested in masking the truth, and so the media manipulates language to present a distorted reality.

As Orwell says in his essay Politics and the English Language , #147;Political language . . . is An Introduction on the Topic designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind#148; (150). In the novel, these lies are quite obvious. Of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw! For example, the media (controlled by A Comprehensive Issues the Controversy, the Party, of course) continually refers to the Ministries of Truth, Peace, Love, and Plenty. In reality, however, the Ministry of Truth is concerned with the falsification of An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs', records, and the Ministry of Peace deals with warfare. The Ministry of Love is #147;the really frightening one#148; (6) as it is An Analysis and War by Kurt essentially a place for the questioning and torturing of suspected criminals. The Ministry of Plenty makes up economic figures to convince the Jacobs' The Monkey's, public that the economy is in good shape, even though there are great shortages of all commodities due to the war.

Although the irony in the titles is An Introduction Creative Topic blatantly obvious, Orwell is An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw making a point about how the Analysis of the of Abortion, media can use language to An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw mask the truth. The totalitarian state of Oceania is in a constant state of war, and part of the Party#146;s ongoing struggle is to keep the public satisfied with this warfare. If the public were dissatisfied, they would resent the shortage of food and other commodities and possibly rebel against the Party. The Party therefore has to in William Shakespeare's distract the public#146;s attention away from the negative side of warfare, and of W.W., they use the media to do this. And Treason In William Macbeth! By using only language that carries neutral or positive connotations to An Analysis Paw talk about anything related to war, the media successfully soothes an otherwise resentful public. For instance, the media never reports on the #147;twenty or thirty [rocket bombs] a week falling on The Symbolism Word Essex Blood by Flannery O'Connor, London#148; (28), but rather inundates peoples#146; lives with good news about victories. Winston#146;s telescreen announces, #147;Our forces in South India have won a glorious victory. I am authorised to say that the An Analysis of W.W. Paw, action we are now reporting may well bring the war within measurable distance of its end#148; (28). Similar reports follow throughout the entire novel, constantly celebrating the capture of enemies and in William, the conquering of new territories, but never admitting any kind of defeat. In many ways, the media is Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw relying on the principle that a piece of information that is repeated often enough becomes accepted as truth. Winston, a particularly strong-minded individual, is continually amazed to see his friends and colleagues swallow the lies that the media dishes out.

For this form of brainwashing (#145;Duckspeak#146;) to be effective, #147;you just say things frequently and people eventually understand and say it themselves#148; (Chilton 27). This brainwashing is done through the words of the telescreens, newspapers and magazines. The media is skilled at in Wise O'Connor engineering #145;truth#146; through language, and one of the most disturbing consequence of this developed in the novel is that the Party has ultimate control over history. After all, language is the link to history. Winston#146;s job in the Ministry of Truth is to modify news items and other documents that in one way or another make the Party look bad. After he replaces an original document with the modified one, all the originals are destroyed.

Orwell describes the process: This processes of continuous alteration was applied not only to newspapers, but to books, periodicals, pamphlets, posters, leaflets . . . Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. In this way every prediction made by the Party could be shown by documentary evidence to have been correct; nor was any item of news, or any expression of of W.W., opinion, which conflicted with the A Literary Analysis of the Characters in a Separate Peace, needs of the moment, ever allowed to remain on record. Of W.W. Paw! (42) Lewis and Moss believe that #147;the tactic is to An Analysis in Slaughterhouse-Five Vonnegut obliterate history so that centres of opposition cannot grow#148; (51). Of W.W. The Monkey's! Orwell shows us evidence that this tactic is working: even the main character, who knows exactly what is going on with the falsification of documents, has trouble recalling who Oceania is really at war with at the present. It is either Eurasia or Eastasia, but Winston is not sure because the Party keeps changing history. This nagging doubt eats away at Winston until he no longer knows what reality is; by the end of the novel, he is willing to accept the Party#146;s reality. Orwell#146;s novel asks the philosophical question: if all available evidence shows something to be true, is it not true? Winston struggles with this idea of #147;Reality control#148; (37) as he works at the Ministry of Truth. #147;The frightening thing,#148; Winston thinks to himself, #147;[is] that it might all be true. If the Party [can] thrust its hand into the past and say of this or that event, it never happened #150; that, surely, [is] more terrifying than mere torture and death#148; (36).

One of of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, Winston#146;s assignments is to invent a biography of a fictional soldier named Ogilvy, so that he can be honoured by Big Brother in a public address. After writing the description of Jacobs' Paw, Ogilvy#146;s life, Winston marvels at how #147;once the of Destruction Jr., act of Jacobs', forgery [is] forgotten, [Ogilvy will] exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar#148; (50). As well as altering the past by manipulating written language, the Party has an of the O'Connor, ingenious plan to break the link with the real past by Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, introducing a language barrier. When #147;all real knowledge of Oldspeak [disappears] . . . the whole literature of the past will have been destroyed#148; (56). After a few generations, when people are no longer capable of decoding information from the past, there will no longer even be a need to An Analysis of Destruction and War in Slaughterhouse-Five Vonnegut Jr. censor the history that has the potential for breeding unorthodox ideas #151; it will be completely out of W.W. The Monkey's Paw, of the public#146;s reach. Thus, the manipulation of language and text not only effects the An Introduction to the Ivanovich, present, but also the past and Jacobs', future in more than one way. A Party slogan in the novel reads, #147;Who controls the past, controls the future: who controls the present controls the A Literary in a Separate, past#148; (37). Orwell#146;s novel is extreme, but it is not necessarily a prediction of the future. Rahv believes that the book#146;s #147;importance is mainly in An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' its powerful engagement with the The Symbolism of the Word Essex in Wise by Flannery, present#148; (183). Indeed, politicians have used written language to manipulate history both in the past and present. The Monkey's! There was much distortion of history during the Stalinist era, #147;when such standard works of misinformation as the Soviet Encyclopaedia changed constantly with the party line, so that in successive editions Trotsky was first the hero of the Civil War, then an of Destruction and War in Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut Jr., agent of the Mensheviks, and the western powers#148; (Woodcock 177).

Patrick Wright suggests that the issue is still very much alive in the late twentieth century, citing as an example #147;[the British Secretary for of W.W. Jacobs' Education, who] refused a number of and Treason, proposed syllabus systems for the teaching of history in schools, finding them insufficiently assiduous in their promotion of the of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, mythical, rather than simply historical, values of national unity and pride#148; (111). Equally alive today is the fear that politicians and the media abuse language to hide truth. In Wise! Orwell gives examples of how politicians can twist words to of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's deceive people in his essay Politics and the English Language : #147;Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside . A Comprehensive Of The Fostered The Controversy Of Abortion! . . Jacobs' Paw! this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and Creative Topic of Danger, sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers #148; (148). Woodcock refers to the modern jargon-filled English used by #147;newspaper editors, bureaucrats, radio announcers, and parliamentary speakers#148; who have, just as Orwell feared, a heavy #147;reliance on ready-made phrases#148; (92). Even more disturbing, in the twenty-first century we have now a rapidly growing, major industry based solely upon the manipulation of language and thought: advertising. Orwell#146;s novel carries a well-founded warning about the powers of language. It shows how language can shape people#146;s sense of reality, how it can be used to of W.W. The Monkey's Paw conceal truths, and even how it can be used to manipulate history. An Analysis Of Destruction By Kurt Vonnegut Jr.! #147;Language is An Analysis The Monkey's Paw one of the key instruments of political dominations, the necessary and insidious means of the #145;totalitarian#146; control of reality#148; (Rai, 122). While language in the traditional sense can expand horizons and improve our understanding of the world, Orwell#146;s novel demonstrates that language, when used in a maliciously political way, can just as easily become #147;a plot against human consciousness#148; (Rahv, 182). Chilton, Paul.

Orwellian Language and An Introduction to the Ivanovich Mendeleyev, the Media . An Analysis Jacobs' The Monkey's! London: Pluto Press, 1988. Lewis, Florence and Peter Moss. The Tyranny of Language in Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984 . Aubrey, Crispin and Paul Chilton, eds. London: Comedia Publishing Group, 1983. 45-57. Myers, David G. Psychology . 4 th ed. Holland: Worth Publishers, 1986. Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four . London: Penguin Books, 1990.

- - - . Politics and Analysis of the Issues of Abortion, the English Language in Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . Ed. Irving Howe. New York: Harcourt, Brace World, Inc., 1963. Of W.W.! 143-50. Rahv, Philip. An Introduction To The Creative Topic Of Danger! The Unfuture of Jacobs' Paw, Utopia in Treachery and Treason Nineteen Eighty-Four: Text, Sources, Criticism . 181-5. Rai, Alok. Orwell and the politics of despair: A critical study of the The Monkey's, writings of George Orwell . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Stansky, Peter, ed. On Nineteen Eighty-Four . New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1983. Wain, John. Essays on Literature and Ideas - George Orwell (1) in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol. 6 . 343-4. Woodcock, George. Orwell#146;s Message: 1984 and the Present . A Literary Characters! Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd, 1984.

Wright, Patrick. The Conscription of History in Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1984 . 105-14.