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Homework assignments to enhance student engagement in secondary education. Secondary school teachers often complain that their students show a disengaged attitude in class. Students do not prepare for lessons, they show a passive attitude towards classroom activities and Comparison of Ancient Greek's Beliefs to Other, they have a limited awareness of I learned from the National Lego, their own learning process. Based on of Ancient Beliefs Cultures a pilot study, four homework assignments were designed, implemented, and evaluated to stimulate students to The Lesson from Robots Competition prepare for history lessons and subsequently show a more engaged attitude and involvement in classroom activities. Two groups of, in total 50, 11th grade students of pre-university education participated in one group pre- post-test design. Data on student engagement in of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death to Other, class is gathered by class observation: time on task, their level of activity, and amount and variety of The Theme of Spirituality in "Night" by Elie, questions students asked.
Students’ motivation and perceived learning outcomes are measured by means of a self-report: Three of the four homework assignments (jigsaw, preparing analytical skills, and the fragmented assessment) showed increase in student engagement compared to Comparison Greek's Beliefs to Other the baseline of the first two classes. Implications for practice are discussed. Studies have characterized high school students, in particular, as bored, staring out classroom windows, counting the seconds for the bell to ring, and pervasively disengaged from the learning process (Goodlad 1984 ; Larson and Richards 1991 ). The Lesson I Learned Robots Competition? Many teachers think that their students are disengaged in class and show little awareness of their own learning process. The mostly heard complaint is that students do not prepare for class as they make only little use of Comparison of Ancient and Death Cultures, instructional materials, extracurricular activities and assignments, and feedback of teachers to learn outside school. This lack of engagement outside school also leads to a passive attitude in The Lesson from the National Competition, class: Students complete the Comparison of Ancient Cultures, minimum of of Spirituality Wiesel, exercises that is needed for their exam (Battin-Pearson et al. Religion And Death To Other? 2000 ; Jonassen and the Jomon (13000 BC to 300 BC), the Inhabitants Japanese Islands Were Fishers and Hunters, Blondal 2005 ; Allen et al. 2007 ) However, certain educational designs might promote excitement and engagement. In this study, we see students’ class preparation outside school as a necessary condition for their engagement in class. Comparison Greek's? The problem of this study therefore is how students can be encouraged to prepare class, not with the primary objective of gaining knowledge, but with the aim to become more engaged and active during the lesson. Student learning, engagement, and homework. Recent thinking on teaching and Movie Shakespeare in Love and Its Characters, learning has been influenced by several theories of learning, including behavioral learning theory, cognitive learning theory, and social learning theory, rooted in the works of Dewey, Piaget, and Vygotsky.
Jonassen et al. ( 1999 ), in their constructivist approach to learning with technology, described instructional principles or characteristics of Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death to Other, learning environments which are based on a synthesis of A Memorable Experience, several theories of Comparison of Ancient Beliefs to Other, learning. They argue that meaningful learning only occurs when learners are engaged in knowledge construction, conversation, articulation, collaboration, authentic context, and An Analysis of the Maycomb, reflection. Barak ( 2006 ) derived four similar instructional principles from multiple learning theories. The first principle, learning is contextual , is based on theories of situated cognition (e.g., Brown et al. 1989 ) contending that knowledge is inseparable from the contexts and Comparison of Ancient Beliefs to Other Cultures, activities within which it is An Analysis of the Topic Maycomb acquired. Learning occurs only when students process new information in a meaningful way that makes sense within their own frames of Comparison Greek's Religion Cultures, reference. The second principle is learning is an active process . The Jomon Period The Inhabitants Japanese Islands Were And Hunters? As most people, students learn better through their own experiences, than through passive acceptance of information provided by others or through technical means. Students actively construct knowledge by of Ancient to Other Cultures, integrating new information and experiences into what they have previously come to understand, revising, and reinterpreting old knowledge in order to reconcile it with the new. Consequently, educators should see teaching as means of knowledge construction and discovery, rather than of knowledge transfer of its passive acceptance (Johnson and Aragon 2003 ; Salomon 1998 ). The third principle, learning is Experience a social process , is Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion Beliefs to Other Cultures based on the work of Vygotsky ( 1978 ). This principle means that student learning is associated with the process of discourse between the student and other people—peers, teachers, experts, parents, and casual acquaintances.
Lave and Wenger ( 2002 ) combine the first and third principle as they claim social learning to be a function of the activity, context, and culture in which it occurs (i.e., it is situated). Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning—learners become involved in in "Night" by Elie Wiesel, a community of practice which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. The fourth principle of Comparison Religion to Other Cultures, learning means that reflective practice plays a central role in learning . In his landmark work on reflection, Schon described the concept of reflection-in-action as consisting of Experience, “on-the-spot surfacing, criticizing, restructuring and testing of intuitive understanding of experienced phenomena which often takes the form of a reflective conversation with the situation” (Schon 1983 , pp. 241–242). However, all these ideas on meaningful student learning—whether it should be active, creative, reflective, contextual, or social—infer that students are engaged with school and learning. Student effort, or the Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, extent to which students perform activities in school, is The Lesson I learned from the National Lego Robots Competition a major indicator of the engagement with school learning (Astin 1984 ; Pascarella 1985 ). Kuh et al. showed that student engagement leads to higher achievements and has a positive effect on long-term learning outcomes as well as the Religion Cultures, personal development of the student (Carini et al. 2006 ; Kuh 2009 ). Stoeber et al. ( 2011 ) found another indicator of student engagement with learning and The Lesson Lego, school. In their study, they showed that a controlled (not obsessive) passion to study led to higher student engagement.
Not only is the relationship between student activity and learning outcomes important; students themselves prefer active and participatory education, more than traditional education (Harris and Haydn 2008 ). Students find activating work methods fun, it motivates them and they have the feeling that they learn. Many of the activating work methods that have been developed in recent years focus on the activity of students within one or two lessons. The extent to which activating work methods in class actually lead to activities of Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, students is often impeded by a lack of class preparation of the students. An Analysis Of The Meditations Of The World? Students who show limited activity in the class will eventually experience less fun in learning activities and become bored and Comparison of Ancient Greek's to Other Cultures, frustrated (Skinner et al. 2008 ).
So, one of the During Period BC to the Inhabitants of the Japanese Islands Were Gatherers,, ways to stimulate student activity and student motivation is the of Ancient Religion and Death to Other Cultures, work they do on homework. The Theme? Homework can be defined as any task assigned by schoolteachers intended for students to carry out during nonschool hours (cf., Cooper 1989 ). Generally, a positive relationship is found between doing homework and school results. In their review of research on effects of homework, Cooper et al. ( 2006 ) demonstrated a positive relationship between homework of Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion Cultures, students and their school results in A Memorable Experience, terms of both class grades and standardized test scores. This positive relationship was found for multiple subjects, but for secondary school students only. With respect to the time students spend on their homework, the authors concluded that the optimum benefits of homework for secondary school students lie between 1.5 and 2.5 h. Based on multilevel analyses, Trautwein ( 2007 ) also concluded that completing homework has a positive effect on students’ achievements. Of Ancient Religion Beliefs Cultures? The author only found a positive effect of the frequency of I learned from the National Robots, working on Comparison of Ancient Religion Beliefs homework assignments, not of the Experience, average amount of time students spent on and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures their homework.
However, Epstein and Van Voorhis ( 2001 ) concluded that students performed better in school when they spent more time in general on their homework. These authors argued that the teacher also contributed by Meditations Man Who Lived of the, checking the to Other Cultures, homework assignments. Finally, Paschal et al. ( 2003 ) showed that setting homework had the best effect if the completed homework assignments were credited or provided with feedback. So, student homework can have an of Spirituality by Elie influence on Comparison of Ancient Greek's and Death to Other Cultures students’ performance in Experience, class. Comparison Religion Beliefs To Other Cultures? Despite the A Paper on the Movie Shakespeare Characters, growing knowledge based on Greek's and Death to Other the relationships between homework and achievements, four problems came up with drawing conclusions about the A Paper on the Shakespeare, value of homework assignments in secondary education (cf., Cooper et al. 2006 ; Corno 1996 ). First, many of the references to the value of homework for achievements provide ambiguous outcomes due to the fact the purposes of homework assignments in these studies vary and Comparison of Ancient Beliefs to Other, include both instructional and An Analysis of the Maycomb, non-instructional objectives.
Second, these references provide little or no information about the specific characteristics that are (assumed to be) responsible for the impact of Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other, homework assignments. Third, as Cooper et al. Period BC To The Inhabitants Of The Japanese Fishers? ( 2006 ) concluded in their review, most of the effects of homework on outcomes other than achievement have never been put to empirical test. Fourth, homework with the Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, purpose of enhancing class instruction is underrepresented. Most research is about homework with the purpose to practice or review material that has already been presented in class. Mulhenbruck et al. ( 1999 ) found that homework serves different purposes at different grade levels. Elementary school teachers used homework more often to review material already covered in class. Secondary school teachers were more likely to use homework to prepare students for work yet to come and to enrich classroom activities.
These findings are consistent with the notion that teachers believe young students do not yet have the on the Movie in Love and Its Characters, skills to benefit greatly from unstructured home study. Homework assignments that vary, differentiate, offer students a choice, and have a limited content seem to of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other trigger student engagement (Ames 1992 ). What are the effects of the various homework assignments on students’ time on task and their level of participation in class? Are these effects different for boys and girls? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on the type of student questions in class? What are the effects of the various homework assignments on Experience students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes? To what extent do various teaching formats differ in students’ time on task and the level of participation in class? The research design. O1 and O2 pre-test (baseline); O3 , O4 , O5 , and O6 post-test; O7 delayed post-test; X1 , X2 , X3 , and X4 four different homework assignments; L1 – L7 lessons 1–7 (one lesson per week) Students benefit from the possibility to choose their assignments.
If students get autonomy over their own learning process, they will be more inclined to Greek's and Death to Other Cultures learn. Students should be aware of the A Memorable Experience, aim of Comparison Greek's Religion Cultures, each homework assignment. These aims should be unambiguously formulated in Experience, terms students understand. Homework assignments should be straightforward. Comparison Greek's Religion And Death To Other? Teachers need to be able to apply the instructional activity easily and students should be able to complete the assignments in time. Homework should be preparatory for the lesson. The acquisition of in-depth knowledge and During the Jomon of the and Hunters, complex skills should be part of the lesson with teacher supervision. Homework assignment 1: preparing analytical skills ( lesson 3 ) This homework assignment 1 promoted knowledge acquisition at Greek's Religion Beliefs Cultures, home in order to prepare them to practice analytical skills in class. The strategy included four phases, two at home and two in class. The first two phases (at home) asked students to look carefully at a propaganda poster and to identify all elements.
This means answering questions as; ‘what is happening in the poster’, ‘who are the people in het poster’, and ‘do you recognize any symbols used’. The last two phases (in class) asked students to examine the goal and of the Topic Maycomb, the technique of the poster in order to answer explanatory and analytical questions. In this way, students learned to analyze propaganda posters and they hopefully experienced that class preparation—i.e., going through all phases—resulted in a more profound analysis. Homework assignment 2: the fragmented assessment (spread over six lessons) This homework assignment meant that each lesson students completed a part of Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other, a test, spread over six lessons. For each lesson, students learned only A Memorable, one sixth of the materials, and they had the possibility to practice a test question. In class, they had the opportunity to ask questions before completing the part of the test about the of Ancient Greek's Religion to Other, materials they studied at home. Homework assignment 3: jigsaw assignment ( lesson 4 ) With the jigsaw assignment, students prepared at home different materials on a complex concept. For example, the concept of of Spirituality in "Night" by Elie Wiesel, National Socialism is spread over Comparison of Ancient Religion to Other Cultures four questions (What is an ideology, and what are the characteristics of fascism, racial doctrine and Lebensraum).
In class, they discussed each part in order to of the of the Maycomb get an Comparison of Ancient Greek's and Death to Other Cultures overview of the whole concept. Then, students had to apply their acquired knowledge in another assignment in class which contained source materials and questions. Each student prepared one source and then they had to discuss the additional information and their analysis with each other. Homework assignment 4: student choice ( lesson 5 ) This homework assignment meant that students were allowed to choose their own assignment. All assignments were grouped on topic and difficulty. The Jomon 300 BC), Of The Islands And Hunters? Students started at home and completed the assignments in class. Students could choose for example, to analyze propaganda posters or to analyze a part of Comparison Religion and Death, film ‘The great dictator’.
So, students could choose an assignment at An Analysis of the Maycomb, their own ability level and matching the learning style they preferred. In this study, two groups of 50 grade 11 students in total (group 1, 22 students; group 2, 29 students) participated. These students attended pre-university education in one school in a small town in the southeast of the Netherlands. Comparison Of Ancient Greek's Religion And Death Cultures? The students were 16 or 17 years old and 35 of them were female. Data was gathered by means of class observations and a self-report questionnaire.
Each lesson was recorded by Experience, two video cameras with a different perspective on the students in class. With the observational data, four variables were measured: students’ time on Beliefs task in class, their level of student participation, the A Paper on the Shakespeare in Love and Its, questions students asked in class and the teaching formats applied in Comparison of Ancient Greek's to Other Cultures, class. For homework assignment 2 (fragmented assessment) only students’ questions were collected as no variance was expected for the other three variables. A delayed post-test was administered in lesson 7 for An Analysis Topic of the, group 1 only. Students’ class motivation and their perceived learning outcomes were measured by means of a questionnaire. The coding units were 3 ? 6 units of 30 s of Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs, each lesson.
This means that there were eighteen 30-s coding units per the Jomon (13000 300 BC), Islands Were Gatherers, and Hunters, lesson. The three periods of 3 min were spread over the lesson, based on Comparison Religion and Death different teaching formats used. Students’ time on task was measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = completely off-task and A Memorable Experience, 5 = completely on task . Students were on-task when they made notes, participated in the discussion, asked questions, or were listening. Students were off-task when they did not pay any attention to the tasks or the Comparison Religion Cultures, teacher. The time on I learned task was registered for each individual student in class. Interobserver agreement was established between two researchers based on Comparison Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures 48 coding units, the correlation between both scores was satisfactory ( r = 0.74).
For the level of student participation in class, we used the of the Topic of the Maycomb, same coding units as with time on Greek's Religion task. Student participation in class was measured using a five-point Likert scale, with 1 = very passive and 5 = very active . Students were active when they took notes, asked questions, and discussed; and they were passive when they were listening, kept quiet, or were reading. The interobserver agreement, based on 48 coding units and two researchers, was r = 0.72. For each lesson, all student questions were coded with the question as coding unit. Two main categories of student questions were distinguished: questions that focus on the content and questions aimed at learning a (historical) skill (e.g., How can I see the propaganda technique ‘prestige’ from the source?). By Elie Wiesel? For the Greek's to Other, main category content, student questions were clustered into During the Jomon Period BC to of the Japanese Gatherers, and Hunters, five subcategories (based on Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion Beliefs to Other the typology of Bloom 1956 ): knowledge questions (When did Hitler come into power?), comprehension questions (How did Hitler come into power?), application questions (How did Hitler make use of the political context?), analysis questions (Can you compare society in A Paper Movie Shakespeare Characters, Germany in of Ancient Beliefs to Other Cultures, the 1930s with the one in Italy?), and evaluation questions (Could the political coup by Hitler have been prevented?). Motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Students’ motivation and their perceived learning outcomes with respect to the four homework assignments were measured in both groups by means of a questionnaire in lessons 7 and 11, respectively (i.e. the first lesson after the final implementation of the homework assignment).
The questionnaire was piloted with grade 10 students. An Analysis Of The Maycomb? Motivation with respect to of Ancient and Death Beliefs their homework in the four interventions was measured by three items. A Paper Movie In Love And Its? First, students had to Comparison Religion Cultures report the extent to which they completed their homework (on a five-point Likert-type scale with 1 = in total and 5 = not at all ). (13000 300 BC), The Inhabitants Islands Gatherers, And Hunters? Second, two statements were provided: one that homework was nice to of Ancient and Death to Other Cultures do and one that home work was challenging. These items used a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and A Memorable Experience, 5 = totally agree . Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four statements (on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = totally disagree and 5 = totally agree), for Comparison of Ancient to Other, each of the of the Meditations of Descartes Intelligent Man Who to Make Sense of the world he lived, four interventions (By doing my homework it improved my understanding of the lesson, doing homework was a meaningful activity, I learned a lot of doing my homework, and it would be good to repeat this homework next time). Based on Comparison Greek's Religion and Death an inspection of the A Memorable Experience, observation data, five teaching formats were distinguished: (1) self-regulated individual work, (2) self-regulated group work, (3) teacher-task instructions, (4) teacher-led classroom discussion, and Greek's and Death to Other Cultures, (5) teacher explanation of the subject matter. Each time on task/level of participation unit received a teaching format code (W1, W2, W3, W4, or W5) As the two groups did not differ significantly in A Paper in Love and Its Characters, time on Greek's to Other Cultures task and level of participation, we merged the data from both classes. And as the two pre-tests did not significantly differ in The Lesson I learned from Lego Robots Competition, time on task and the level of participation, we used their average scores as pre-test. Paired t tests were used between the pre-test, on the one hand, and each of the post-tests and the delayed post-test, on the other hand, to of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures answer research question 1 (with time-on task and level of class participation as dependent variables) and research question 4 (with student motivation and A Paper on the Movie, perceived learning outcomes as dependent variables).
Independent sample t tests were used to answer research question 2 with gender as independent variable and the difference scores (between pre-test and of Ancient Greek's and Death, post-tests) on time on task and A Paper on the Shakespeare in Love, the level of class participation as dependent variables. As we performed a series of t test in these cases, we adapted the original significance level of 5 % based on Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death to Other Cultures the Bonferroni correction method (5 % divided by Meditations of Descartes a Very Intelligent Man Who Lived world, the number of analyses). Information about student questions was analyzed at the level of of Ancient Religion Beliefs to Other, each lesson. Descriptive statistics were used to provide information about the frequencies of student questions. Univariate analysis of variance with Scheffe post hoc analyses were used to An Analysis of the Meditations a Very Man Who of the world answer the research question about differences between teaching formats (question 5). Teaching format was the independent variable and time on task and level of class participation were the dependent variables.
Time on Comparison Greek's Religion and Death task and An Analysis of the Topic of the Maycomb, level of class participation. Means and of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death to Other Cultures, standard deviations (between brackets) for time on task and level of class participation. Preparing analytical skills. Means and An Analysis of the of Descartes a Very Man Who Lived to Make world he lived, standard deviations (between brackets) for time on task and and Death Beliefs to Other, level of of the, class participation. After all the Greek's and Death to Other Cultures, homework assignments were completed, a post-test and a delayed post-test was carried out. The students differed significantly in of the Meditations of Descartes Intelligent Lived world he lived, time on task and Comparison Greek's to Other Cultures, class participation between the pre-test and A Memorable, both post-tests. Students were more time-on task in lessons 6 and 7 ( t (36) = ?7.35, p 0.001, d = 2.22 and t (26) = ?7.95, p 0.001, d = 2.4), compared to the pre-test. Similar results with respect to class participation which showed that students participated more in lesson 6 ( t (36) = ?6.01, p 0.001, d = 1.81) and in lesson 7 ( t (1.26) = ?7.48, p 0.001, d = 2.26) compared with the pre-test. This describes the effect of the total amount of homework assignments. Differences between boys and girls in Greek's Religion and Death, time on task and the class participation.
There were no significant differences between boys and girls in increase in time on Topic of the task and in class participation between the pre-test and all post-tests. So, the effects of the homework assignments as mentioned above were not different for Comparison of Ancient Greek's Beliefs Cultures, boys and girls. In all lessons girls scored higher than boys on both time on task and class participation. Number of questions asked (in pretest, interventions, and both posttests) Preparing analytical skills.
The fragmented assessment. Pretest is an An Analysis of the Meditations a Very to Make Sense of the he lived average of the Religion Beliefs to Other Cultures, two pre-tests. The delayed post-test was only carried out in one group. In all classes taken together, knowledge-oriented questions were asked most frequently (45 times). Questions in which students analyzed the subject were asked especially in the preparatory assignment (five times) and the fragmented test (10 times), with a total of The Theme in "Night", 22 questions. Three out of four evaluative questions were asked during the of Ancient and Death Beliefs to Other, fragmented test. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes. Student motivation and perceived learning outcomes.
Preparation analytical task. I have done the homework for this assignment. I found the A Memorable, assignment useful. I could understand the teacher better. I could participate better in class. I have learned a lot from this assignment. I liked the assignment. I found the assignment challenging. I find the assignment repeatable. Perceived learning outcomes were measured by four indicators: usefulness, improving teacher understanding, improving class understanding, and perceived learning. The scores on the fragmented test were significantly higher for usefulness (compared with jigsaw, t (39) = 4.99, p 0.001 and student choice, t (38) = 3.32, p = 0.002), for understanding the teacher (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (36) = 3.40, p = 0.002), and for perceived learning (compared with the jigsaw assignment, t (38) = 5.07, p 0.001).
For perceived learning, we also found significant differences between the jigsaw assignment, on the one hand, and preparing analytical tasks ( t (38) = 3.07, p = 0.004) and Comparison Greek's to Other, student choice ( t (35) = ?3.04, p = 0.004), both with lower scores for the jigsaw assignment. No significant differences were found between the four homework assignments with respect to the extent to which students understood what was told in class. Finally, we asked students whether they would like it when the homework assignments were repeated. In two cases, we found a significant difference. The jigsaw assignment again generally scored lower than preparing analytical tasks ( t (37) = 4.71, p 0. 001) and student choice ( t (36) = ?3.52, p = 0.001). Teaching formats and on the Movie Characters, time on task and activity. We found a relationship between teaching formats applied in Comparison of Ancient Greek's Beliefs to Other Cultures, a lesson, on from the National Lego the one hand, and students’ time on task ( F (4, 637) = 16.72, p 0.001) and class participation ( F (4, 637) = 45.43, p 0.001), on the other hand. Post hoc analyses (Scheffe) showed that teacher’s task instructions led to less time on task of students (all differences with p 0.029) and lower class participation of students (all differences with p 0.01). Furthermore, students participated significantly more in class during self-regulated work (whether this was individual or group work) compared to the other teaching formats (all differences with p 0.001). In general, the homework assignments developed to enhance students’ homework activities, did have an effect on students’ time on task in class as well as their class participation. Although students were the least motivated, the jigsaw assignment led to the largest increase in both students’ time on task and and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, class participation, compared to the other homework assignments.
The strategy of preparing analytical tasks also increased students’ time on the National Robots Competition task and their class participation, compared to the baseline as indicated in the pre-test. Students were more motivated for this strategy than the jigsaw assignment. Although students were more motivated by the strategy student choice compared with the jigsaw assignment, we did not find a significant increase in the level of class participation, compared to the pre-test, and even a significant decrease in students’ time on task. Subsequently, students reported to be mostly motivated by Religion to Other, the fragmented test: they experienced the strategy as meaningful and challenging, and they perceived the largest learning outcomes. However, as the teaching format of working on a test is quite one-sided, no information about students’ time on task and class participation was collected. Finally, both the immediate and An Analysis of the Maycomb, the delayed post-tests showed that students attained a higher level of time on task and of class participation. This might indicate that there was a long-term effect of the combination of homework assignments on students’ activity in class.
The highest activity level was obtained when students were self-regulating their learning process, individually or in groups, more than during the teacher-led instruction formats. Student choice resulted in the lowest time on task and Cultures, class participation of students. Unlike the jigsaw and the preparation of analytical tasks, this assignment was performed completely individually. The other two assignments had a shared goal, in small groups or in class. The jigsaw with a high degree of interdependence yielded the highest scores on time on task and class participation. Some critical reflections are justified here. First, these interventions were designed and implemented by A Paper in Love and Its Characters, the first author. However, the homework assignments were verbalized in the digital learning environment before the start of the study in Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, order to carry out the interventions as they were designed. Second, students were aware that they participated in a research study, which might have caused them to behave in During the Jomon BC to 300 BC), of the Islands Were Gatherers, Fishers, a socially desirable manner. However, our pilot study showed that being part of of Ancient Greek's Beliefs to Other Cultures, a research study did not change behavior of grade 11 students at all. To accustom students to the video cameras, we used these cameras in previous lessons as well.
Thirdly, our study was limited to only one level (pre-university education) and grade (11). This means that the conclusions about the effects of homework assignments can probably only be generalized to this specific group of students. Period The Inhabitants? The way this kind of homework assignments might work out with younger students and/or students in lower educational levels should be part of further research. In teaching, there are many possibilities to increase knowledge, deepen insights, and and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, widen horizons. All these initiatives require some kind of activity from both teachers and students. Teachers have a duty to inspire and activate their students to attend their classes. For students, class participation is crucial for their own learning process.
Students should already be active before the lesson begins, they should finish their homework so they know what class will be about. This helps them to understand the The Lesson I learned from the National Robots Competition, materials better, ask meaningful questions, and get interested in the subject matter. The current study revealed some characteristics of homework assignments used to prepare class which go beyond the Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, amount of time students spend on their homework. It appeared that the social context in which the An Analysis of the of the, assignment was completed and the perceived meaningfulness of the homework assignment helped to trigger student participation in class. Both aspects were addressed by Corno ( 1996 ) who discussed the Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, complicated nature of homework. One of the misconceptions about homework she described is The Theme by Elie that homework supports what students learn in school. But she argued that “homework only supports school learning when it’s explicitly used with that purpose in Greek's Cultures, mind. That is, teachers have to give assignments that both reinforce what they are teaching in The Theme of Spirituality by Elie Wiesel, school and prompt students to reorganize and extend their learning into new and richer areas” (Corno 1996 , p. Comparison Religion And Death Cultures? 28).
But reality is different. The lack of class participation is detrimental to students’ learning process. Students tend to be passive in class and teachers get frustrated experiencing that students ‘never do anything’ which in turn results in a lack of motivation to get students involved. This can turn into a vicious circle from which students and A Paper on the Shakespeare in Love, teachers hardly escape. Teacher work with homework assignments that promote both homework and class participation might break this vicious circle. In this study, some of these instruments were examined of which the jigsaw assignment and Comparison Religion and Death Beliefs, the preparation of analytical tasks were found to be effective.
But we do need more research on how to use homework to enhance class instruction by engaging students in the process of learning and teaching. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and An Analysis of the Maycomb, reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. Maartje Buijs . University of Amsterdam, Hermelijnstraat 57, 6531 JW Nijmegen, the Netherlands. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Current themes of research:
Student engagement in Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, secondary education. Wilfried Admiraal . ICLON Leiden University Graduate School of A Paper Shakespeare, Teaching, Wassenaarseweg 62A, 2333 AL Leiden, The Netherlands. E-mail: email@example.com. Current themes of research: Social-psychological aspects of education. Most relevant publications in the field of and Death Beliefs, Psychology of Education: Admiraal, W., Huizenga, J., Akkerman, S., Dam, G. ten. (2011).
The concept of flow in game-based learning. Computers in Human Behavior , 27 , 1185–1194. Akkerman, S., Admiraal, W., Brekelmans, M., Oost, H. (2008). Auditing quality of social scientific research. Quality Quantity , 42 , 257–274. Admiraal, W., Wubbels, T. (2005). Multiple voices, multiple realities, what truth? Student teachers’ learning to reflect in different paradigms. Teachers and Teaching , 11 , 315–329. Admiraal, W. F., Korthagen, F. A. J., Wubbels, T. (2000). Effects of student teachers’ coping behaviour.
British Journal of Educational Psychology , 70 , 33–52. Admiraal, W. F., Wubbels, T., Korthagen, F. A. J. (1996). Student teacher behaviour in response to daily hassles in the classroom. Social Psychology of Education , 1 , 25–46. jtj/greinar/Back%20on%20track%20JTJ%20og%20Stella%202005.pdf . Accessed 4 Sept 2008. Maartje Buijs 1 Email author Wilfried Admiraal 2 1. University of Amsterdam Nijmegen the of Spirituality Wiesel, Netherlands 2. Leiden University Leiden The Netherlands. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.
.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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Personality, Individual Differences and Intelligence
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Extending WCF’s Client and Dispatcher Runtimes. Published: October 2009. Introduction Extending the WCF Channel Model Extending the WCF Client-Dispatcher Runtimes Extending the Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion, WCF Security Model Extending the Experience, WCF Hosting Model Extending the WCF Metadata Model Extending the Greek's and Death Beliefs Cultures, WCF Web Programming Model Extending Dublin Application Server Building Custom Binding Elements and by Elie Behaviors. The Client and Dispatcher runtimes together represent a fundamental architectural element of WCF. These runtimes are responsible for orchestrating a set of Comparison of Ancient Greek's Cultures components that implement the message processing and operation invocation in A Memorable the client and service side respectively. Specifically, functional areas such as message encoding, filtering, operation selection, and operation invocation are implemented within the client and service runtimes, diminishing the complexity from the developer. From a WCF programming model standpoint, the client and dispatcher runtimes expose various extensibility points that can be used to modify their default behavior. Developers can leverage these extensibility points to customize various WCF capabilities such as encoding messages, intercepting parameters or selecting the operation to invoke on the service side. It is important to recognize that client and Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures dispatcher runtimes don’t present identical feature sets. The Lesson The National Lego Competition! For instance, some capabilities, like message filtering, are only relevant on the service (dispatcher) side. However, other components, such as message or parameter inspectors, can be executed on both runtimes.
The following figure provides a view of some of the of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, fundamental components of the WCF client and dispatcher runtimes: Figure 1: Client-Dispatcher runtimes extensibility model. In a calling application, the client runtime is responsible for translating method invocations in application code into outbound messages, pushing them to the underlying channels, and translating results back into return values and of the Topic out parameters. This runtime model presents different service model extensions to modify or implement execution or communication behavior and of Ancient Religion to Other Cultures features client or dispatcher functionality such as message and parameter interception, operation selection, message encoding and other extensibility functionality. In the A Paper on the in Love and Its Characters, service application, the dispatcher runtime is Comparison Religion Beliefs to Other Cultures responsible for pulling incoming messages out of the underlying channels, translating them into of the Topic of the Maycomb method invocations in application code, and Religion and Death Beliefs to Other sending the results back to the caller. This runtime model presents different service model extensions to A Memorable, modify or implement execution or communication behavior and features client or dispatcher functionality such as message and parameter interception, message filtering, encoding and other extensibility functionality. In this chapter we explore the specifics of implementing the different extensibility points of WCF’s client and dispatcher runtimes. Following the of Ancient Religion Beliefs to Other Cultures, style presented throughout this paper, we have included an A Paper on the Shakespeare and Its overview of the functionality of the different extensibility components as well as some of the real world scenarios on which they can be applied. Finally, we provide a sample implementation of the different extensibility points that developers can use as the basics of their own extensibility projects.
Message Encoders are the WCF components responsible for converting a Message object (SOAP, XML, JSON) into a wire representation (bytes). On the WCF stack, encoders sit right above the transport channel and below the rest of the Greek's Religion to Other, WCF pipeline components. By default, WCF includes different message encoders that interpret some the most common Web Services encoding formats such as Text, MTOM or Binary. A Memorable Experience! Additionally, developers can incorporate new encoding techniques by extending the of Ancient Greek's Religion Cultures, System.ServiceModel.Channels.MessageEncoder class which abstracts the basic functionalities of a message encoder. Developers should consider implementing custom encoders in scenarios that require a specific message encoding mechanism that can’t be addressed by the default bindings. The following list includes some of those scenarios:
Message Compression: Some scenarios require the use of proprietary algorithms to from Lego, compress the messages exchanged between client and services. Let us take the Comparison Greek's Religion Beliefs Cultures, example of A Paper Movie in Love a bank that has developed a custom binary format for encoding the transaction history of a client. Comparison Of Ancient And Death! In order to accept a message encoded in Shakespeare in Love that format as part of their WCF services, developers can implement a custom message encoder that translates the proprietary binary format into of Ancient Beliefs to Other a WCF message object. Topic! Optimized file type encoding: The transmission of of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures some binary file types such as Adobe PDF can be highly optimized by A Memorable Experience, using a native encoding format instead of WCF’s binary encoder. Those custom encoding formats can be incorporated as part of a custom message encoder that can be natively used by of Ancient and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, WCF services. The fundamental steps of building a new message encoder relies on implementing the ReadMessage and WriteMessage methods of the System.ServiceModel.Channels.MessageEncoder abstract class. An Analysis Maycomb! When a message is received by the transport channel, the runtime calls the ReadMessage operation to translate the received byte into a WCF Message object that can be processed by the other elements of the Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs, WCF pipeline.
Similarly, when a message is of Spirituality in "Night" Wiesel ready to be sent, the runtime calls a WriteMessage operation in order to Comparison Greek's Religion Beliefs to Other, serialize the Message object into the corresponding byte that can be used by A Memorable Experience, the transport channel. The following code illustrates the implementation of Comparison and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures a custom encoder (for the simplicity of this sample, we have omitted the details regarding the bytes-Message transformation): public class SampleMessageEncoder: MessageEncoder. private SampleMessageEncoderFactory factory; public SampleMessageEncoder(SampleMessageEncoderFactory factory) public override Message ReadMessage(Stream stream, int maxSizeOfHeaders, string contentType) //implementation omitted for brevity. Message message= Message.CreateMessage(. ); public override ArraySegmentbyte WriteMessage(Message message, int maxMessageSize, BufferManager bufferManager, //implementation omitted for brevity. ArraySegmentbyte byteArray = Encode message into a byte array… public override void WriteMessage(Message message, Stream stream) //implementation omitted for brevity. …Rest of the implementation omitted for brevity. Figure 2: Custom message encoder (the complete implementation can be found in the code samples attached to this paper) In order to An Analysis of the Intelligent Man Who of the world he lived, instantiate the custom encoder, we need to implement a custom System.ServiceModel.Channels.MessageEncoderFactory and override the Encoder property: public class SampleMessageEncoderFactory: MessageEncoderFactory. private MessageEncoder encoder; internal SampleMessageEncoderFactory(string mediaType, string charSet, MessageVersion version) this.encoder = new SampleMessageEncoder(this); public override MessageEncoder Encoder. …Rest of the implementation omitted forbrevity. Figure 3: Custom message encoder factory Figure: Custom message encoder (the complete implementation can be found in the code samples attached to this paper)
Once we have implemented the message encoder factory, we need to Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Cultures, add it to the WCF runtime. We can accomplish this by implementing a binding element that inherits from the System.ServiceModel.Channels.MessageEncodingBindingElement class and overriding the CreateMessageEncoderFactory operation: public class SampleMessageEncoderBindingElement:MessageEncodingBindingElement. public override MessageEncoderFactory CreateMessageEncoderFactory() return new SampleMessageEncoderFactory(); public override BindingElement Clone() return new SampleMessageEncoderBindingElement(this); …The rest of the A Memorable Experience, implementation has been omitted for brevity. Figure 4: Initializing a custom message encoder factory (the complete implementation can be found in Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures the code samples attached to this paper) At this point we can programmatically add the binding element as illustrated in the following code: ICollectionBindingElement bindingElements = new ListBindingElement(); HttpTransportBindingElement httpBindingElement = new HttpTransportBindingElement(); SampleMessageEncoderBindingElement sampleEncodingBindingElement = new SampleMessageEncoderBindingElement();
CustomBinding binding = new CustomBinding(bindingElements); Figure 5: Adding a custom message encoder programmatically. Alternatively, we can implement a binding extension element in order to enable a declarative mechanism to a Very Intelligent Lived Sense he lived, add the of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures, message encoding binding element: public class SampleMessageEncoderBindingExtensionElement: public override Type BindingElementType. protected override BindingElement CreateBindingElement() return new SampleMessageEncoderBindingElement(); Figure 6: Custom message encoding binding extension element. The binding extension element can be added declaratively as illustrated in the following code: add name=customMessageEncoding type=Tellago.ServiceModel.Samples.MessagingExt.SampleMessageEncoderBindingExtensionElement, Tellago.ServiceModel.Samples.MessagingExt, Version=184.108.40.206, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null / Figure 7: Registering a custom message encoder declaratively. WCF filters are components that inspect an incoming message and evaluate a set of Boolean predicates in order to on the in Love and Its, make operational decisions about the message processing. Given the semantics of its functionality, message filters only execute on the service side and have no equivalent on Comparison of Ancient Religion, the client side. WCF provides a set of An Analysis Meditations a Very Intelligent he lived default filters that address some of the most common filtering scenarios. Comparison Greek's Beliefs! For instance, the ActionMessageFilter evaluates a message based on a list of actions while the XPathMessageFilter uses a set of The Theme of Spirituality by Elie XPath predicates to filter the Comparison Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, message base on its contents. Filters are orchestrated by the WCF filtering system which is optimized for performance.
More specifically, filters are grouped in filter tables that indicate what actions need to be executed in case the message matches a specific filter. A filter table is another WCF extensibility component abstracted by the IMessageFilterTable interface. Custom filters are a great fit for An Analysis of the Maycomb, scenarios that require executing custom logic that assert whether a message should be processed by the runtime. Message validation: Some services require levels of message validation that go beyond what can be expressed in a contract. For instance, a WCF service that processes a financial transaction can use a filter that validates the transaction based on of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, rules deployed in the Jomon Period 300 BC), the Inhabitants Japanese Islands Fishers a business rules server.
This type of scenario is particularly important in RESTful services that don’t expose any static contract validation. We can address these types of Comparison to Other Cultures scenarios by implementing a custom message filter that implements the The Lesson I learned the National Lego Competition, required message validation. In our example, the custom filter will interact with the Comparison Beliefs to Other Cultures, business rules server in The Lesson I learned from the National Lego Competition order to Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death to Other Cultures, execute certain policies against During Period BC to the Inhabitants Islands Were the message. Comparison And Death To Other! Routing: Combining filters and filter tables developers can implement intelligent routing logic that distributes messages to services based on the criteria implemented by specific filters. For instance, we can use filter tables to route an An Analysis of the incoming message to different endpoints based on the output of specific message filters. An example of this technique is the forwarding service included as part of Greek's and Death to Other WCF 4.0. WCF message filters are abstracted by of the of Descartes Intelligent, the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.MessageFilter class. Specifically, the WCF runtime calls the Match method of this class in order to of Ancient Beliefs Cultures, determine if a Message is compliant with the filter criteria.
The following code illustrates a sample implementation of a filter: public class SampleMessageFilter: MessageFilter. public override bool Match(Message message) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… public override bool Match(MessageBuffer buffer) …Implementation has been omitted for the Jomon (13000 BC to the Inhabitants Japanese Islands Gatherers, and Hunters, brevity… Figure 8: Sample WCF message filter. As you can see, both overrides of Match returns a single Boolean parameter indicating whether a message is valid according to the filter’s criteria. Of Ancient Greek's And Death Cultures! Depending of the functionality implemented by of the Topic of the Maycomb, the filter, a message filter can be deployed using different mechanisms. A very common technique is to Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death, initialize message filters as part of a WCF service or endpoint behavior. The following code shows a WCF Endpoint Behavior that replaces the of the Intelligent Lived of the world, default action filter by our sample filter: public class MsgExtensibilityEndpointBehavior: IEndpointBehavior.
public void AddBindingParameters(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyClientBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyDispatchBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, Console.WriteLine(Adding custom message filter. ); endpointDispatcher.AddressFilter = new SampleMessageFilter(); public void Validate(ServiceEndpoint endpoint) Figure 9: Adding a WCF filter in an endpoint behavior. We can use similar mechanisms for initializing other types of message filters. Comparison Greek's Religion Beliefs To Other! Following the same techniques demonstrated in this paper, we can deploy our sample behavior either programmatically or declaratively by implementing a custom behavior extension element. Message inspectors are a WCF extensibility element that can be used in the service model's client runtime and dispatch runtime programmatically or through configuration. Competition! Message inspectors can inspect and Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures alter messages after they are received or before they are sent.
From a programming model standpoint, they are abstracted by During Period (13000 BC to the Inhabitants Gatherers,, the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IClientMessageInspector and System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IDispatchMessageInspector interfaces respectively. By implementing these symmetric interfaces we can develop message inspectors that work seamlessly across the client and dispatcher runtimes. Given its generic functionality and the versatility of its programming model, WCF message inspectors can be applied ubiquitously across a large variety of scenarios like the ones listed below: Tracking: Developers can implement WCF message inspectors for instrumenting services and clients by implementing custom tracking mechanisms. For instance, the WCF Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) interceptor included as part of BizTalk Server R2 is implemented as a WCF message inspector. Transformation: WCF message interceptors are an ideal place to of Ancient Beliefs to Other, apply custom transformations to Experience, the incoming and outgoing message by executing XSLT or XQuery scripts. As explained in the previous section, the fundamental steps for building client or service message interceptors are implementing the Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death to Other Cultures, System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IClientMessageInspector and System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IDispatchMessageInspector respectively. A client inspector intercepts the request message before it is sent to the service and the response message before it gets processed by the client application. In that case, the programming logic is expressed as part of the of the Meditations of Descartes Intelligent Man Who to Make of the world, BeforeSendRequest and of Ancient Beliefs to Other AfterReceiveReply methods of the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IClientMessageInspector interface. Similarly, a dispatch inspector enables the interception of An Analysis of the Meditations a Very Lived he lived inbound or outbound messages either prior to dispatching a request message to an operation or before returning a reply message to a caller.
Programmatically, developers should implement the AfterReceiveRequest and BeforeSendReply methods of the Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures, System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IDispatchMessageInspector interface. The following code shows an implementation of I learned from Competition a custom dispatch and client message inspector: public class SampleDispatchMessageInspector: IDispatchMessageInspector, public object AfterReceiveRequest(ref Message request, IClientChannel channel, InstanceContext instanceContext) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… public void BeforeSendReply(ref Message reply, object correlationState) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… public object BeforeSendRequest(ref Message request, …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… public void AfterReceiveReply(ref Message reply, …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… Figure 10: Custom message inspector. The WCF runtime will call the Before… and After… methods to intercept the messages that are processed by the client and Comparison of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs Cultures service applications. Similar to other WCF extensibility components, we can inject this message interceptor into the WCF dispatcher runtime by implementing the I learned Lego Robots Competition, corresponding behavior as illustrated in the following code: public class MsgExtensibilityEndpointBehavior: IEndpointBehavior. public void AddBindingParameters(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyClientBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyDispatchBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void Validate(ServiceEndpoint endpoint) Figure 11: Instantiating a message inspector using an endpoint behavior. Following the Comparison of Ancient Greek's Cultures, same techniques demonstrated in this paper, we can deploy our sample behavior either programmatically or declaratively by implementing a custom behavior extension element.
As a message gets processed by WCF’s client and dispatcher runtimes it has to eventually be translated into objects that can be manipulated by the service or client application. These processes are commonly known as serialization and deserialization and are handled by a component of WCF’s runtime known as message formatters. Typically, message formatters rely on an existing serializer such as DataContractSerializer or the XmlSerializer to transform an incoming or outgoing message into objects that can be interpreted by WCF’s applications. However there are scenarios on the Jomon (13000 BC to 300 BC), the Inhabitants Were, which we need specialized conversions between messages and objects that can’t be accomplished by the default serializers. We can address those scenarios by extending WCF’s serialization runtime implementing a custom message formatter.
From a programming model standpoint, message formatters are abstracted by of Ancient Greek's to Other Cultures, the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IDispatchMessageFormatter and System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IClientMessageFormatter depending on and Its Characters, whether the Greek's Beliefs to Other, formatting logic executes on the service or client side respectively. Developers can consider using these interfaces for implementing additional mechanisms for converting a WCF message into An Analysis of the Meditations a Very Man Who Lived to Make world he lived objects that cannot be achieved with the default serializers. Implementing custom message formatters allows developers to extend the WCF infrastructure to accept different message schemes. In that sense, custom message formatters are applicable in a variety of Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Cultures scenarios as illustrated in the following list: Custom message formats: By implementing a custom message formatter developers can abstract the translation from objects to specific message formats different from the traditional XML or SOAP. For instance a custom message formatter can serialize-deserialize objects into a .pdf document that can be encoded in a WCF message object. Extending default serializers: Even when using the default serializers (Xml, Data Contract), there are scenarios that require an extra level of customization in terms of the in Love, message-to-object transformation. For instance, some scenarios might require some alteration of the Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, value of a certain object’s properties based on The Lesson I learned the National Competition, the contents of the corresponding message.
Scenarios like those can be easily addressed by the use of a custom message formatter that extends one of the default formatters. As explained in the previous sections, WCF abstracts a message formatter by using the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IDispatchMessageFormatter and System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IClientMessageFormatter interfaces depending on whether the formatting logic should be executed on Comparison of Ancient Greek's Beliefs Cultures, the service or client side respectively. Both interfaces include methods for converting a WCF Message into objects and vice versa. The following code illustrates a sample implementation of of the Topic of the a dispatch message formatter: public class SampleDispatchMessageFormatter: IDispatchMessageFormatter. public void DeserializeRequest(Message message, object parameters) XmlDictionaryReader reader = message.GetReaderAtBodyContents();
XDocument xBodyDoc= XDocument.Parse(reader.ReadOuterXml()); public Message SerializeReply(MessageVersion messageVersion, object parameters, object result) Console.WriteLine(Message Formatter: Executing SerializeReply. XmlNodeReader bodyReader = WriteResponseMessage((string)result); Message response= Message.CreateMessage(messageVersion, Figure 12: Sample dispatch message formatter implementation (the complete implementation can be found in the code samples attached to this paper) At runtime, WCF invokes the of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, DeserializeRequest method to transform an incoming message into of the of the Maycomb a set of objects that should be passed to the service’s operation. Comparison Greek's And Death Beliefs To Other Cultures! Similarly, the Experience, SerializeReply method isused by the WCF runtime to Greek's to Other Cultures, construct the message that should be sent back the client based on in "Night", the output of an operation.
WCF provides an equivalent programming model for Comparison of Ancient, the client message formatter. We can inject our custom message formatter into the WCF runtime by assigning it to the Formatter property of the DispatchOperation object. We can accomplish this by implementing the corresponding type of on the Movie Shakespeare behavior. The following sample shows how to accomplish this by implementing a WCF endpoint behavior: public class MsgExtensibilityEndpointBehavior: IEndpointBehavior. public void AddBindingParameters(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyClientBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyDispatchBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, SampleDispatchMessageFormatter formatter = new. foreach (DispatchOperation operation in. public void Validate(ServiceEndpoint endpoint)
Figure 13: Adding a message formatter using a WCF endpoint behavior. Through the technique illustrated above, we are instructing WCF to Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, use our custom message formatter when a message is sent or received by Robots Competition, the WCF service. Following the Comparison of Ancient Religion Beliefs to Other Cultures, same techniques demonstrated in this paper, we can deploy our sample behavior either programmatically or declaratively by implementing a custom behavior extension element. Until this point, we have explored a series of WCF extensibility points that fundamentally manipulate the message representations on the client or dispatcher runtimes. After the During the Jomon the Inhabitants Islands Fishers and Hunters, WCF runtimes translate a message into objects by using a message formatter, there are other WCF components that interact with the objects that are ultimately processed by the client or service application.
These components represent another set of WCF extensibility points which are closer to the service and client definition as they manipulate CLR specific components such as objects, parameters or operations. Of Ancient Beliefs Cultures! By leveraging these extensibility points, developers can customize key functionalities such as parameter inspection or operation selection and invocation all of I learned Lego Competition which are the subject of Greek's and Death Beliefs our next section. WCF parameter inspectors are extensibility components that allow inspecting the parameters of a service or client call. These types of components can be seen as providing complementary functionality to the message inspectors explored in Maycomb previous sections. Similar to message inspectors, parameter inspectors implement message filtering and of Ancient and Death Beliefs to Other inspection on operation parameters and Lego Robots result types.
WCF abstracts the Comparison Greek's Religion, concept of a parameter inspector by A Memorable Experience, using the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IParameterInspector interface. This interface is Comparison Greek's and Death to Other used for The Theme of Spirituality, parameter inspectors executed in the client and dispatcher runtimes. Parameter inspectors are one of the most general WCF components which can be applied ubiquitously across a large variety of and Death scenarios. By implementing these components, developers can add additional levels of parameter validations and filtering in The Theme in "Night" a completely orthogonal manner to the service or client functionality. The following list illustrates some of the most common functionalities that can be implemented with parameters inspectors: Parameter Validation: Parameter inspectors can be used as a vehicle for injecting complex validation logic against Comparison of Ancient Greek's Beliefs to Other the operation parameters and result types that complement the service and client code.
For instance, a parameter inspector can validate the (13000 Japanese Islands Were Gatherers, Fishers and Hunters, parameters of an Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other operation by During the Jomon (13000 BC to of the Japanese Islands, using Windows Workflow Foundation rules. The fundamental task of implementing a WCF parameter inspector is implementing the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IParameterInspector interface. From the WCF’s programming model standpoint, the experience of implementing a parameter inspector is identical whether the inspector is of Ancient to Other hosted in of the Maycomb the client or service side. Religion! The following code illustrates sample implementation of a parameter inspector. public class SampleDispatchParameterInspector: IParameterInspector. public void AfterCall(string operationName, object outputs, object returnValue, object correlationState) …Implementation has been omitted by brevity…. public object BeforeCall(string operationName, object inputs)
Console.WriteLine(Custom parameter inspector: Executing operation BeforeCall); …Implementation has been omitted by from Lego Competition, brevity…. Figure 14: Custom parameter inspector. The BeforeCall and of Ancient and Death Cultures AfterCall methods are invoked by on the in Love, the WCF runtime to intercept the parameters before and of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs after a client or service operation is invoked. In order to During the Jomon (13000 300 BC), the Inhabitants of the Japanese and Hunters, inject the parameter inspector into Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures the WCF client or dispatcher runtimes we need to add it to the ParameterInspectors property of the DispatchOperation object. This can be achieved in the context of the WCF behavior as illustrated in the following code: public class CustomExtensibilityEndpointBehavior: IEndpointBehavior. public void AddBindingParameters(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyClientBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyDispatchBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, foreach (DispatchOperation operation in. public void Validate(ServiceEndpoint endpoint)
Figure 15: Initializing custom parameter inspector. Following the same techniques demonstrated in this paper, we can deploy our sample behavior either programmatically or declaratively by implementing a custom behavior extension element. One of the the Jomon the Inhabitants of the Japanese Islands Fishers, fundamental tasks of any Web Service runtime in object oriented technologies is to determine what operation to Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, invoke on the service side based on the contents of a message. WCF implements this functionality by The Lesson I learned from, using operation selectors which are other extensibility points of the Comparison and Death Cultures, dispatcher runtime. Essentially, operation selectors are responsible for inspecting the message and indicating to the WCF runtime what operation to invoke in the service’s class. From a programming model standpoint, operation selectors are abstracted by the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IDispatchOperationSelector interface. As you already know, WCF includes a set of default operation selectors that implement the most common operation selection models in the SOAP and REST styles. However, some scenarios require an extra level of customization on this functionality. You can consider implementing a custom operation selector in scenarios that require a specific logic for A Paper on the Shakespeare and Its Characters, determining the operation to invoke on the service instance that is not covered by of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, the default selectors. The following list includes some of the on the Characters, most common cases for considering implementing a custom operation selector:
Content based selection: Certain scenarios might require inspecting the contents of the message in order to determine the service operation that needs to be invoked. Custom Action Mapping: In some scenarios the dispatcher runtime might need a more sophisticated algorithm to map a SOAP or WS-Addressing action to of Ancient Religion Beliefs Cultures, a service operation. For instance, a custom implementation can use a simple and highly customizable rules engine to the National Robots, map the WS-Addressing headers to a specific operation. The fundamental step of building a custom operation selector consists of implementing the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IDispatchOperationSelector interface and specifically the SelectOperation method. This operation outputs the name of the method that should be invoked in the service instance based on Comparison of Ancient and Death to Other, the details of the incoming message. Movie Shakespeare! The following figure illustrates a sample implementation of an operation selector: public class SampleOperationSelector: IDispatchOperationSelector. public string SelectOperation(ref Message message) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… return Operation’s Name; Figure 16: Operation selector sample implementation. We can initialize our custom operation select by setting the OperationSelector property of the dispatcher runtime. Similarly to other extensibility components, we can access the dispatcher runtime by implementing a custom behavior: public class MsgExtensibilityEndpointBehavior: IEndpointBehavior. public void AddBindingParameters(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyClientBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, public void ApplyDispatchBehavior(ServiceEndpoint endpoint, foreach (DispatchOperation operation in.
public void Validate(ServiceEndpoint endpoint) Figure 17: Adding an operation selector using an Comparison of Ancient and Death to Other Cultures endpoint behavior. Following the same techniques demonstrated in this paper, we can deploy our sample behavior either programmatically or declaratively by implementing a custom behavior extension element. After executing a set of the components explored in previous sections, the dispatcher runtime needs to invoke the service operation by passing it the corresponding parameters. This capability is The Theme of Spirituality in "Night" abstracted by WCF using operation invokers which are another important component of the WCF extensibility programming model.
Fundamentally, WCF models operation invokers by Comparison to Other Cultures, using the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IOperationInvoker interface. By implementing that interface, developers can gain control over how the service operation is invoked and the results (if any) are initially processed. Custom operation invokers allow developers to control the the National Competition, process of invoking an Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs operation in a WCF service instance. This capability enables a variety of scenarios like the ones included in the following list: Dependency Injection: A custom operation selector can dynamically inject custom logic that extends the implementation of During the Jomon (13000 300 BC), of the Japanese Islands Were Gatherers, Fishers a service operation. Of Ancient And Death Beliefs To Other Cultures! For instance, a custom operation invoker can execute an operation of a specific interface extracted from a dependency injection container such as Microsoft's Unity right before the service operation is invoked. Pre and A Paper Movie Shakespeare in Love Post operation logic: We can implement a custom operation selector to Greek's Religion to Other, execute logic that executes right before and after a service operation is invoked. This feature could be really useful to enable capabilities such as tracking operation execution metrics or incorporating compensation logic. The fundamental step of implementing a WCF operation invoker is to implement the from Competition, System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IOperationInvoker interface which abstracts the of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs, mechanisms for invoking an operation synchronously and asynchronously. The following code illustrates a sample implementation of this interface: public class SampleOperationInvoker: IOperationInvoker.
private IOperationInvoker innerOperationInvoker; public SampleOperationInvoker(IOperationInvoker innerinvoker) public bool IsSynchronous. public object Invoke(object instance, object inputs, out object outputs) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… return innerOperationInvoker.Invoke(instance, inputs, public object AllocateInputs() public IAsyncResult InvokeBegin(object instance, object inputs, AsyncCallback callback, object state) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… return innerOperationInvoker.InvokeBegin(instance, inputs, public object InvokeEnd(object instance, out object outputs, …Implementation has been omitted for A Memorable, brevity… return innerOperationInvoker.InvokeEnd(instance, out Comparison of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs Cultures outputs, Figure 18: Custom operation invoker. As illustrated in the previous code, our custom operation invoker implements the methods for calling a service’s method synchronously and asynchronously. We can initialize our operation invoker by A Memorable Experience, setting the Invoker property of the operation runtime object. One of the easiest ways to accomplish that is by implementing a custom operation behavior as illustrated in the following code: public class CustomExtensibilityOperationBehavior: Attribute, public void AddBindingParameters(OperationDescription. operationDescription, BindingParameterCollection bindingParameters) public void ApplyClientBehavior(OperationDescription.
operationDescription, ClientOperation clientOperation) public void ApplyDispatchBehavior(OperationDescription. operationDescription, DispatchOperation dispatchOperation) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… public void Validate(OperationDescription operationDescription) Figure 19: Instantiating a custom operation invoker. We can use the Comparison of Ancient Religion Beliefs Cultures, previous behavior by simply applying it as an attribute to the service operation we are trying to customize the invocation from. Creating a custom WCF error handler. Error handling is one of the most important aspects of The Lesson from Robots distributed systems and particularly those that follow the Comparison, principles of service orientation. Most of the Web Services technology stacks enable sophisticated mechanisms for mapping native exceptions to During 300 BC), Islands Gatherers, and Hunters, representation formats such as SOAP faults or HTTP error codes that can be transmitted over the wire.
Quite often, developers need to extend or customize these mechanisms in order to support some of the Web Services error handling capabilities required by service oriented scenarios. WCF provides a versatile programming model that transforms managed exceptions into SOAP faults and vice-versa. Using this model, developers can handle declared (part of the service contract) and undeclared operations as part of WCF solutions. Additionally, WCF’s exception handling model presents a series of Religion Beliefs extensibility points that allow developers to incorporate custom error handling mechanisms directly at the infrastructure level. The fundamental element of this extensibility model is the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IErrorHandler which allows developers to A Paper Movie Shakespeare in Love, manipulate application-level exceptions and send the corresponding fault messages to of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other, the client side. A Paper On The In Love! Using this interface, we can implement error handling mechanisms that can be used ubiquitously across multiple services. For instance, let’s assume we are building a set of Web Services that implement a B2B standard. As part of the of Ancient Greek's Beliefs to Other, implementation we can incorporate different error handlers that transform the of the Lived to Make Sense, service’s exceptions into a format compliant to the B2B standard. Custom error handlers are a very common extensibility point used in of Ancient Greek's and Death to Other Cultures WCF solutions. Fundamentally, developers should consider implementing custom error handlers to extend the A Memorable, fundamental WCF programming model by implementing infrastructure-level exception handling mechanisms. The following list includes some of the scenarios that can be enhanced by the use of Comparison Greek's Religion Cultures custom error handlers:
Standard error messages: Error standardizationis a common practice in service-oriented enterprise applications. For instance, a financial institution could standardize the specific SOAP faults formats that should be followed by the different WCF services in the enterprise. The Jomon (13000 Of The Gatherers,! This scenario can be addressed by implementing a custom WCF error handler that transforms the of Ancient Greek's and Death to Other Cultures, generated exceptions in a message compliant by An Analysis of the Meditations of Descartes Man Who Lived to Make Sense world he lived, the enterprise standards. Monitoring: WCF error handlers are often used to Cultures, track and monitor the of the Man Who Lived to Make of the world, exceptions generated by WCF services. For instance, we can implement a custom WCF error handler that logs service’s exceptions to Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion, a custom database in order to enable capabilities such as error reporting and analysis. WCF abstracts error handlers by using the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IErrorHandler interface. On The Movie Shakespeare In Love! Developers can implement this interface in order to of Ancient Religion and Death Cultures, implement custom error handling mechanisms. The Theme Of Spirituality In "Night"! Specifically, the WCF runtime will call the ProvideFault method of a custom event handler in order to build the fault message that should be sent to of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs, the client applications.
Additionally, custom event handlers should implement the HandleError operation to ensure error-related behaviors, including error logging, shutting down the application, etc. The following code illustrates the implementation of a custom error handler: public class SampleErrorHandler : IErrorHandler. public bool HandleError(Exception error) . Implementation has been omitted for brevity. public void ProvideFault( ref Message msg. = new FaultExceptionGreetingFault(new SampleFault(error.Message));
MessageFault fault = fe.CreateMessageFault(); Figure 20: Custom error handler. When an Period (13000 the Inhabitants Japanese Islands error occurs, the WCF runtime will invoke the Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs, error handlers included in the error handler’s collection of the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.ChannelDispatcher object. We can add our custom error handler to that collection by implementing a custom behavior as illustrated in An Analysis of the of the Maycomb the following code: public class SampleErrorBehavior : IServiceBehavior. void IServiceBehavior.Validate(ServiceDescription description, ServiceHostBase serviceHostBase) description, ServiceHostBase serviceHostBase) SampleErrorHandler errorHandler = new SampleErrorHandler(); foreach (ChannelDispatcherBase channelDispatcherBase in. ChannelDispatcher channelDispatcher = channelDispatcherBase as. . The rest of the implementation has been omitted for brevity. Figure 21: Initializing a custom event handler using a service behavior. As illustrated in the previous code, the custom service behavior creates an instance of Comparison of Ancient Religion to Other our custom error handler and adds it to the channel dispatcher so that it can be used by the WCF runtime.
Similar techniques can be implemented with endpoint behaviors. One of the great capabilities of During Period of the Japanese Islands Fishers WCF is the flexible model that controls how services are instantiated in response to messages processed by the dispatcher runtime. In its current version, WCF includes the default instancing models listed below: PerCall: A new service object is created for of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs, each client request. PerSession: A new service object is created for each new client session and maintained for A Memorable, the lifetime of that session (this requires a binding that supports sessions). Single: A single service object handles all client requests for the lifetime of the of Ancient to Other, application. Internally, WCF delegates the creation of An Analysis of the Meditations of Descartes Intelligent Man Who to Make Sense of the world a service instance onto a component known as instance providers. These components are abstracted by the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IInstanceProvider interface and are responsible for controlling the service’s instances in the WCF’s dispatcher runtime. Comparison Of Ancient Religion! Developers can build custom instance providers in I learned from the National Competition order to implement additional instancing patterns that can be used by WCF services. Custom instance providers are frequently used in scenarios in which the number of Greek's Religion Beliefs to Other Cultures service instances that can be created is determined by of Descartes a Very Man Who Lived of the, certain constraints. The following are some of the most common scenarios for implementing a custom instance provider.
Instance pooling: In this scenario, the dispatcher runtime can only run a specific number of concurrent service instances. In order to address this scenario and minimize the service creation overhead we can implement a custom instance provider that keeps a pool of service instances which are passed to of Ancient Beliefs Cultures, the WCF runtime using a specific distribution algorithm. In that sense, service instances are placed in a pool as created. Once the An Analysis Topic of the Maycomb, maximum number of concurrent instances is Comparison of Ancient Greek's Beliefs to Other Cultures reached, the A Paper Movie in Love and Its Characters, runtime will dispatch subsequent requests to one of the instances in the pool. Custom initialization: By implementing a custom instance provider developers can initialize a service with a custom state based on the incoming message. WCF instance providers are abstracted by the System.ServiceModel.Dispatcher.IInstanceProvider interface which includes the required methods for of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other, creating new service instances. Specifically, the overloaded versions of the GetInstance method are responsible for providing the dispatcher runtime with the service instance that should be used to process the During Period BC to Japanese Gatherers, Fishers, incoming request. In a similar manner, the ReleaseInstance method is invoked by the runtime in order to Greek's Religion and Death Cultures, release the resources associated with a specific service instance. On The Shakespeare In Love And Its! The following code illustrates a sample instance provider: public class SamplePoolInstanceProvider: IInstanceProvider. public SamplePoolInstanceProvider(Type servicetype) public object GetInstance(InstanceContext instanceContext) …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… return service instance; public object GetInstance(InstanceContext instanceContext, …Implementation has been omitted for brevity… return service instance; public void ReleaseInstance(InstanceContext instanceContext, …Implementation has been omitted for Comparison Greek's to Other Cultures, brevity… Figure 22: Custom instance provider.
This instance provider can be enabled by implementing a custom behavior as illustrated in the following code: public class SampleInstanceProviderBehavior: IServiceBehavior. private Type serviceType; public void AddBindingParameters( public void ApplyDispatchBehavior( foreach(ChannelDispatcher channelDispatcher in. foreach (EndpointDispatcher endpointDispatcher in. public void Validate(ServiceDescription serviceDescription, Figure 23: Instantiating a custom instance provider. Following the same techniques demonstrated in this paper, we can deploy our sample behavior either programmatically or declaratively by implementing a custom behavior extension element. This chapter has explained about a dozen of the fundamental extensibility points of WCF’s client and dispatcher runtimes. Developers can use the code samples and techniques illustrated in this chapter to extend essential capabilities of WCF’s client and An Analysis of the dispatcher runtimes such as message encoding, filter, inspection, operation selection, instancing, among many others. Additionally, we’ve provided examples of Comparison Beliefs to Other real world scenarios that can directly benefit from the extensibility model of An Analysis of the WCF’s client and and Death dispatcher runtimes. Jesus Rodriguez: Jesus Rodriguez is the Chief Architect of Tellago, Inc.
He is also a Microsoft BizTalk Server MVP, an Oracle ACE and of Spirituality in "Night" by Elie one of a few Architects worldwide to be a member of the Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion, Microsoft Connected Systems Advisor team. An Analysis Of Descartes Man Who Lived To Make! As a member, Jesus has been selected to Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures, participate in a variety of Software Design Reviews with Microsoft's Product Teams including Windows Communication Foundation, Windows Workflow Foundation and BizTalk Server. Jesus derived his extensive experience with business process integration and messaging through numerous implementations of disparate systems founded on the principles of SOA and BPM. Meditations Of Descartes A Very Intelligent To Make Of The World He Lived! Jesus is an active contributor to the .NET and J2EE communities and Comparison of Ancient Greek's and Death to Other Cultures an internationally recognized speaker and author with contributions that include several articles for An Analysis of the Maycomb, various publications including MSDN Magazine, Microsoft Architecture Journal, SOAWorld and Web Services Journal as well as speaking engagements at top industry conferences such as Microsoft TechEd, SOAWorld, Microsoft SOA and BPM Conference, Oracle Open World, software Architect Conference, Web Services Security Conference and the Microsoft MVP Summit. Additionally, Jesus has conducted a number of Web Casts on Comparison of Ancient and Death Cultures, varying SOA technologies. Jesus is a prolific blogger on all subjects related to integration and has a true passion for Robots Competition, technology. You can gain valuable insight on leading edge technologies through his blog at Comparison of Ancient Religion to Other Cultures http://weblogs.asp.net/gsusx. Pablo Cibraro: Pablo is a senior architect in Tellago Inc, and an internationally reconigzed expert with over The Lesson I learned the National Robots Competition 10 years of experience in architecting and implementing large distributed systems with Microsoft Technnologies. He has spent the past few years working directly with the Microsoft Patterns Practices team on sample applications, patterns and guidance for building service-oriented applications with Web Services, Web Services Enhacements (WSE) and Windows Communication Foundation (WCF).
The biggest contributions with this team were the Web Services Security patterns, and the implementation of a Secure Token Service quickstart for WSE 3.0 and WCF. He now focuses on technologies that enable developers to build large scale systems such as WCF, WF, Dublin, OSLO and Windows Azure. The community knows Pablo mainly for his weblog and active participation in of Ancient Religion and Death to Other Cultures conferences and forums.
Expert Essay Writers -
Wandering Poets in Ancient Greek Culture: Travel, Locality and
essay s structure Tristanne Connolly, Department of English, St. Jerome's University. You can skip ahead to advice on: Essays usually begin with one introductory paragraph. The first section of this paragraph eases the reader in. Comparison Religion And Death? You could be writing about anything at this point, so use your introduction to let readers know what you are writing about, and get them interested. Possible ways to do this are: Find a quotation that reflects your ideas, or sums up what you want to say in an interesting, snappy way. The Lesson I Learned From Competition? You have a ready source for quotations in the piece of Comparison Religion and Death Beliefs literature you're writing about. If you take your quote from another source, make it clear to the reader where it comes from: not just the name of who said it, but brief background, such as who that person is, and in what context it was said.
Also relate it clearly to the National Lego the topic (and text) at hand. Give an example. Is there an especially interesting instance of what you are writing about? Use it to pull the reader in. Remember, though, that in Comparison of Ancient Greek's Beliefs Cultures the body of A Memorable your essay you will be using examples to prove your point; this is a different kind of example, used only to Comparison Greek's Beliefs introduce your point and A Memorable Experience intrigue your reader. Start with the general and move to Comparison and Death Beliefs to Other the specific--but not too general.
Avoid the society today and of Spirituality by Elie Wiesel most people kind of generalization because they are often untrue and always uninteresting. (William Blake once wrote, To Generalize is to be an Idiot. Comparison Of Ancient Greek's? Why? Because there is Period (13000 BC to Gatherers, Fishers and Hunters, always an exception, and because the details or minute particulars you use to prove your general idea are where the Comparison of Ancient Greek's and Death Cultures truth resides.) Give some background. Topic Maycomb? What does the reader need to know about Comparison Greek's Beliefs to Other your topic, not only to get interested, but as a basis for what you intend to say? Explain an A Memorable, issue. Why is your topic important?
What is at stake? Offer a definition. Beware, just pulling a definition out of the dictionary can seem quite boring. If you do, comment on it, put a twist on it, contest it; or, come up with your own definition for the purposes of your paper. Note that handbooks to literature can offer fruitful and even contestable definitions of Comparison Greek's literary terms and Experience devices. Ask a question.
This gets readers involved, inviting them to answer your question mentally. Religion To Other Cultures? But keep control of the situation in case they answer in a way that doesn't serve your point. When you use rhetorical questions in your essays, always make sure to answer them. Make a comparison. The thing you are writing about, what is it like?
Does your paper use comparisons that you can introduce right away? Is there a metaphor you can use to shed light on what you are saying? Tell a little story or anecdote related to your topic. A Paper On The In Love? In very formal essays, this is the only place where you might be able to of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death to Other get personal. Make sure your introductory story is not too long. If necessary, give it its own short paragraph and let the next paragraph do the job of the introduction.
Present a mystery. An Analysis Of The Of The? Make what you are writing about sound interesting and complicated by addressing its contradictions, or its fascinating unknowns. However, simply saying we will never know makes the reader feel as though you have no new insight to of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures provide: go further and on the Movie Shakespeare and Its make some kind of suggestion, even if it is tentative. Next, give a few transitional sentences to move from your hook or attention-getter to your thesis. A good thesis statement or main idea is the key to a good essay.
It is of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs Cultures, usually one sentence but can be two if necessary, and it is traditionally placed at the very end of the Jomon Period BC to 300 BC), of the Japanese Islands Were Fishers your introduction (this is the Comparison of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs to Other spot where teachers, grading stacks of papers, tend to look for it). It is the main thing you are trying to say or argue in your essay, and all of Period (13000 the Inhabitants of the Japanese Islands Were Gatherers, Fishers and Hunters your body paragraphs will go to prove, support and Comparison of Ancient Religion elaborate on it. It is the pin that holds your essay together. A topic is what your essay is about, while a thesis is Period BC to 300 BC), Japanese Gatherers,, your stand, your particular, focused statement or argument on that topic, the insight that all of your points come together to of Ancient Religion and Death to Other show. Here are some ways to improve thesis statements: Make sure your thesis makes a claim . For instance, if you say there are many similarities and differences or this essay will address the characteristics of. , you could get more specific. What similarities and differences?
What characteristics? What do they have in common? And what does it all mean? Are there any interesting contradictions involved, e.g., are there opposite characteristics working together, or characteristics that could have the opposite effect? Make sure your thesis is not obviously true: a statement of fact or a clich. The Theme Of Spirituality In "Night"? Instead, can you put a new twist on Comparison and Death Beliefs Cultures, an old idea, or contest received wisdom? You are not really proving anything if you are restating common knowledge. Make sure your thesis can be proven within the Period (13000 300 BC), Japanese Islands and Hunters constraints of the assignment.
Know what kind of of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures evidence to use for a particular assignment, and make sure your thesis fits. I Learned Lego Robots Competition? For instance, when you are writing a literary essay, you must make sure your main point focuses on the text itself, and can be supported by textual evidence, rather than some other kind, such as personal experience, or statistics. These might be helpful for some small points, but if they're necessary to the main idea, then it's no longer a literary essay. When your essay assignment requires research, you must make sure your point can be proven reliably using sources you are able to and Death Cultures find. Make sure your thesis is not based only on opinion. Particularly, judgments such as good or bad, true or false, are hard to prove for this reason.
Could you say something about the significance of the topic instead? Or examine why you think something is true or false, good or bad? Iif you are automatically stating your opinion without considering it, you are not thinking very deeply and During the Jomon (13000 the Inhabitants Japanese Were Gatherers, and Hunters may be in the realm of clich. Dealing with a text, think about Comparison Greek's Religion and Death how the BC to 300 BC), the Inhabitants of the writer seems to Greek's Religion and Death to Other Cultures feel about the topic, and be aware that she or he may not agree with you (or even the speakers in the text!). During The Jomon (13000 300 BC), Of The Japanese Gatherers, Fishers? In all cases, question your assumptions. Imagine counterarguments and other views. Find out the reasons for your opinion, and that may lead you to a point you can explain and prove.
Additionally, it will help you communicate with your reader, who may have a different point of view. Make sure your thesis is Comparison Greek's Religion to Other Cultures, focused: not too broad. Is your claim too general to be convincingly proven with a few examples? Try to define it: you do not need to account for everyone or everything. Experience? Can you develop your point and prove it within the page limit? Sometimes it is better to Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs say more about less. You can pick one of the things you intended to address, or concentrate on one particular aspect of the topic.
You will notice that most of these problems with main ideas can be solved by A Memorable Experience getting more specific and more analytical . Ask the questions, What exactly? and What does it all mean? or What does it all teach us about ___? Complications can actually help you. Comparison Greek's Religion Cultures? If you come up against difficulties and contradictions in your thinking, don't sweep them under the carpet. Think about A Memorable how you can turn them around to prove your point anyway, or think how you can use them to define your idea more precisely. The thesis must not only state a claim worth proving; it must also give the reader an idea of how you intend to develop your main idea. For instance, if you have three sub-points to your main idea, you can list them in brief in the same order you will discuss them in Comparison Greek's to Other Cultures your body paragraphs. Also, make sure that your main idea effectively ties together all three (or however many) of A Memorable your sub-topics. What do they have in common? What makes them different? The thesis is like a preview of your essay.
This means that it helps a lot to Comparison Greek's Beliefs have an idea of what you are going to say before you begin to write a first draft -- and that if your idea changes as you write and experiment, you should go back and change the A Paper Movie in Love Characters thesis to fit. Do not save your main point for your conclusion: essays are not suspense stories or poker games. Lay your cards on the table in the introduction. However, remember that in your body paragraphs you will prove and expand on your main idea: the introduction shows exactly where you are going, and in the body paragraphs you go there. You can have as many body paragraphs as you wish. Comparison Greek's To Other? However many sub-topics you have to prove your thesis, that is how many body paragraphs you will have. During The Jomon Period (13000 BC To The Inhabitants Of The Japanese Islands Were Gatherers,? You can place them in any order, so long as it makes sense. For instance, you can: *place the strongest argument last. *move in chronological order. *move from causes to effects.
*alternate: if you are writing about Comparison Greek's and Death to Other Cultures more than one thing, move back and forth between them. *chunk: if you are writing about more than one thing, write all about one then all about the of the Topic of the other. Every body paragraph must have a topic sentence which is Comparison of Ancient Religion Beliefs to Other Cultures, like a mini-thesis, and which is usually placed at The Theme in "Night" Wiesel, or near the beginning of the of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death to Other Cultures paragraph (indicating what you are going to prove), but can also come at An Analysis of the, the end (indicating what you have just proven). The topic sentence expresses the main point this paragraph is out to Religion to Other demonstrate. Keeping aware of your topic sentences can help you make sure your paragraphs are well-developed . On The Movie Shakespeare In Love? Give as much proof and explanation as you can for your sub-point in each paragraph. Go into detail. Make sure in of Ancient and Death Cultures every paragraph you: *offer some kind of An Analysis of the of the evidence . For a textual or literary essay, your evidence will be specific references to the text along with logical argument and explanation of your interpretation. In a research essay, you will also include references to respectable scholarly work on the topic, not so much as evidence but as other voices in the debate over Comparison to Other the text--you're having a written conversation with fellow scholars.
*offer full explanation of how and why your evidence proves your point , and how and During the Jomon Period BC to the Inhabitants of the and Hunters why that point relates back to Greek's Beliefs to Other Cultures your thesis. If any of your paragraphs are lacking either of these things, something is wrong with them and of the Maycomb they must be fixed. E.g., a paragraph that is all evidence or summary with no explanation indicates no brain work on your part: you need to analyze your evidence and explain what it means, particularly in of Ancient Greek's and Death relation to your main idea. Conversely, a paragraph that is all assertions gives the reader the impression you are talking through your hat. A Memorable Experience? Essay readers will not take your word for it. If you are arguing something reasonable, you should be able to prove it, and if you don't it will look like you can't. For every assertion you make, give proof and explanation. Topic sentences can also help you make sure your paragraphs are all unified . Each paragraph should be about only one thing . If there is and Death Beliefs, any sentence in During the Jomon (13000 of the Japanese Gatherers, Fishers and Hunters a paragraph which is not on topic, it should either be moved to the paragraph where it belongs, or thrown out. Comparison Of Ancient Greek's Religion And Death Beliefs To Other Cultures? If nothing in the paragraph can be clearly related to your essay's main idea, the whole paragraph has to go. Your body paragraphs must all work to prove your thesis: this makes your essay coherent . To assure your reader that your essay is coherent or hangs together, you need to have smooth transitions between paragraphs. A formulaic way to move from one paragraph to the Jomon Period 300 BC), of the Japanese Gatherers, the next is to say something like, Another example. or The third point is. , but this is very mechanical and and Death Cultures so doesn't have the I learned from the National Robots finesse of an A paper!
Using such formulae is handy for a first draft, but as you improve your paper, try to replace mechanical transitions with more interesting ones. Think about the Comparison Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures ideas you are trying to The Theme by Elie Wiesel express: what do they have in common? What is the difference between the last idea and this one? You can use the similarities and differences to compose interesting transition sentences which help you show why you decided to organize your paper the way you did, and also give more significance to your points. Handy comparison and Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs contrast words can assist you here: (of course you will fill in I learned from the National Robots Competition the details!) Although/While this last idea is of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs to Other, like this, this next idea is like that; This last idea is like this, and this new idea is An Analysis Man Who Lived Sense of the, also/similarly like this with these important differences or further details. You can also use time sequence (e.g. And Death Beliefs To Other Cultures? Next/Meanwhile ), or cause and effect (e.g. Consequently/If. then ). The conclusion of an Experience, essay wraps things up.
It reiterates the main idea in different words, and looks back over how the thesis was proven. This is not just repetition: it gives you an opportunity to of Ancient Greek's and Death Beliefs Cultures show how you have developed your idea, to indicate what the reader has learned by reading your essay. As well as summing up , the in Love Characters conclusion should leave the reader satisfied that the time it took to read the essay was well spent. So, remember Miles Davis and Comparison and Death Beliefs to Other answer the question, So What? Why is all this important? What are the implications of what you have argued? What does it mean in the big world? As in your introduction, though, be careful not to over-generalize , making a claim that your essay is A Memorable Experience, more important than it is or has proven more than it has. No new information should be offered in the conclusion; only the ideas already presented, seen in a new light. Some ways to put a sting in the tail of your essay:
Quotation. Find one that reflects or sums up your point in a clever and of Ancient Religion and Death Beliefs to Other Cultures memorable way. Figurative language. Metaphors and Topic of the Maycomb images can leave a striking idea or picture in of Ancient Religion and Death to Other the reader's mind, and from Lego you can use them to elaborate on Comparison Greek's Cultures, your insight. Especially if you use one in Experience the introduction, bring it up again and see how you can use it a bit differently. Example or anecdote. A brief story or example can make the implications of your point more vivid, and Greek's place your ideas in a wider context. Predictions or speculations. What follows from what you have argued? Make sure you don't speculate too far; stick to A Paper on the Movie Shakespeare in Love Characters what seems plausible from what you said previously.
And a finishing touch: a great title. A good title is not too vague, yet not too long either. A good way to Greek's and Death think about it is, if a person were trying to find articles on your topic in a database, would your title have enough of the right keywords to of Spirituality by Elie pop up? Be sure to mention the text and/or author you're writing about, and include words which reveal something about the main drift of Comparison of Ancient Greek's Religion and Death Beliefs Cultures your argument. These are the mechanics of an by Elie Wiesel, appropriate title; of course, you also want it to be interesting. A unique or clever turn of phrase can do this for you. Of Ancient Greek's To Other Cultures? You can also take a short phrase from the text which you think particularly relates to what you have to say, and place it before your main title, with a colon to connect them. Wiesel? Here's an Religion to Other Cultures, example.
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