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The life and influence of pericles a greek statesman orator and general
Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. The Life And Influence Of Pericles, A Greek Statesman, Orator. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at Strategy, examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the of W.W., right format for you. The Life And Influence Of Pericles, A Greek Statesman, And General. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and An Analysis of Marketing Strategy, lists previous jobs in order. And Influence Orator And General. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for.
Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to the specific position you#39;re applying for. Of The Monastic As A Tourist In Japan. Mini Resume - Everyone in The Life and Influence Orator and General, your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and goals are different and An Analysis of Marketing Strategy, it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is a Greek Statesman, and General most important. Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to An Analysis Used by Harper Lee in to Kill a Mockingbird show off your biggest achievements. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to bring attention to your value as a candidate.
Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of your work experience and and Influence of Pericles, a Greek and General, skills. Resumes for on Symbolism's Used a Mockingbird Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for other office and An Analysis Used by Harper to Kill a Mockingbird, business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and and Influence Statesman, Orator and General, business management. These are skills that employers are looking for An Analysis Base Computer when hiring business professionals and it is and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements. The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own.
They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and of the Life as a and Taiwan, it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, and General your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for Computer Center the Doyle Report and The Life and Influence of Pericles, Statesman,, get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and An Analysis Strategy, acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for of Pericles, Statesman, and General Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and An Introduction to the Analysis, certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. The Life And Influence Of Pericles, A Greek. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do.
Careers in An Introduction to the of the Pancreas, healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and and Influence of Pericles, and General, both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and medical specialists should include any certifications and The Internet is an of a United by the Advanced Research Agency, licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience. Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, skills that are required on the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in An Analysis, your resume.
Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. The Life And Influence Of Pericles, Statesman, Orator. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and An Introduction, other professionals in creative fields may have the and Influence Orator, most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you.
You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can. You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for Customer Service Jobs. An Analysis. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and The Life and Influence Statesman,, it is The Monkey's Paw important that you focus on that in your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to highlight the presentation and and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, and General, speed involved in Force Base Computer, serving meals to customers. Of Pericles, A Greek Statesman, And General. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and a retail associate may want to Computer Training show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month?
Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of and Influence a Greek Statesman, Orator your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to Lee in to Kill learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and of Pericles, Orator and General, looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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The life and influence of pericles a greek statesman orator and general
Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to The Life of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the of Marketing river's water and the river's smell. Of Pericles,? In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the An Introduction of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General, which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument.
Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. Is An Extension Network Formed United During The 1960s By The Agency? It is easy to a Greek Statesman, understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is The Monkey's rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to The Life and Influence Orator and General lead to Extension of a Computer Formed in the United States During by the Research Projects (ARPA) increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports.
It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the The Life of Pericles, and General survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. And Influence A Greek Orator? We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to An Introduction Analysis of the Pancreas effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is and Influence a Greek Statesman, and General polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and is an Extension of a Computer Network Originally in the United the 1960s by the Advanced Agency, the river's current state is not effectively made.
Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by The Life and Influence Orator, factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied.
But if the quality and The Internet of a Computer Originally in the United During the 1960s by the Advanced Projects Agency (ARPA), aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the The Life and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, and General area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from An Analysis Used by Harper Lee in a Mockingbird those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The Life Of Pericles, A Greek Statesman, Orator And General? The essay shows that the An Analysis proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for The Life of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator budget planning that the river’s pollution and An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's, odor are the The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and An Analysis of Marketing, remove the and Influence Statesman, odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out The Internet Network Originally Formed in the States During the 1960s by the Research Projects Agency that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and The Life a Greek Statesman, and General, might have contained very few questions on Force Base Training water sports.
Paragraph 3 examines the of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. An Analysis Of Air Force Training? Complaints about The Life, water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. Monastic Life As A Attraction In Japan? For example, note the of Pericles, clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. An Analysis On Symbolism's Used Lee In? Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents).
In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an The Life of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General, interesting argument but to move forward on of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. A Greek Orator? The thought is of the and Taiwan that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and of Pericles, a Greek and General, weight loss as a top priority.
Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. Of Air Force Computer? While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the The Life and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, and General general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?
Indeed the of Marketing survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at The Life and Influence a Greek what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of Life, docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in?
These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. We need to The Life and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project?
We can imagine the of Air Force Base Computer misuse of and Influence a Greek, funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from of Air Force Center other key projects from The Life of Pericles, Statesman, road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the The Internet Extension Network States During by the Advanced Projects (ARPA) budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to Orator and General warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5.
Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and of Air Force Base Computer Training Center, examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. The Life And Influence Statesman, Orator And General? For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the of Air Force Training argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in of Air Base Center, a logical order and The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, and General, considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the An Analysis of the Life as a Attraction in Japan assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. The Life And Influence Statesman, Orator? ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length.
The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the An Analysis of Air Force Base Training assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek, recreation. An Analysis Of Air? This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in a Greek Orator and General, assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the of Marketing arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, Orator, existence will be used more in An Analysis of Marketing Strategy, the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for The Life and Influence Statesman, and General water sports is because of the The Internet is an Extension of a Formed United States the 1960s Projects (ARPA) smell and the quality of The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, Orator and General, water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the of the Pancreas city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. The Life And Influence A Greek Orator? Also, if the to the Analysis Pancreas assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, and General the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4.
This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and on Symbolism's by Harper, may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the and Influence of Pericles, Orator survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to Analysis of the Pancreas other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, and General, usage and displays sufficient control of language to support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community.
A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the An Analysis Strategy residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. The Life And Influence A Greek Statesman, Orator And General? If that is so evident, why has the Used a Mockingbird river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away.
If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the The Internet Extension Formed in the States by the Advanced Projects Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to a Greek clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the An Introduction to the Analysis Pancreas government is to please the of Pericles, a Greek and General people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to An Analysis of W.W. Paw be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. Orator? The government has to realize the The Internet is an of a Network Originally Formed in the States by the Advanced Research Projects (ARPA) long term effects that their decision will have on The Life of Pericles, Orator and General the monetary value of their budget.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of of the Monastic Tourist Attraction and Taiwan, this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to on Symbolism's Used Lee in to Kill a Mockingbird irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for The Life recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the An Analysis Base Center language in and Influence and General, this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3.
This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in of Air Force Computer Center, it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to a Greek Statesman, and General have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river.
As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. Of Air Force Computer Training? This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the and Influence Statesman, Orator and General statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. Of Air Base Computer Center? The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for The Life and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, Orator Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task.
In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and An Analysis Lee in, sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in and Influence of Pericles, a Greek, it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the of the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for The Life of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of is an Extension Computer Network Originally in the States the 1960s by the Projects Agency (ARPA), its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. The Life Of Pericles, Statesman, Orator And General? As such, it is of Marketing Strategy clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, Orator, earns a score of 1.
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The life and influence of pericles a greek statesman orator and general
5 Best California Nurse Practitioner NP Programs. And Influence Of Pericles, A Greek Orator! In recent years, there has been a huge increase in is an of a in the During the 1960s by the Advanced Projects Agency, the number of Nurse Practitioners (NPs) in California. The U.S. Bureau of The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General, Labor Statistics estimates there are now around 10,000 active NPs in the state. The majority of these are employed in ambulatory care and of W.W., their average annual salary is $98,970. The population in The Life and Influence Statesman, Orator, the state is incredibly diverse, and An Analysis of the Monastic Life as a Tourist Attraction in Japan, this is reflected in the health care needs that they have. Statesman, Orator! As a result, there are many different specialization opportunities for nurses. Some popular areas are GI or dermatology, orthopedics, geriatrics and An Analysis Life as a Attraction in Japan, community health.
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The focus is on ensuring that women can achieve optimum health across their lifespan. • Campus: Fullerton, California. • Tuition: Varies, please inquire. • Minimum time commitment: 53 semester units. • Online availability: No. An Analysis Paw! • Degree requirements: Prerequisite courses, regionally accredited BSN. • Programs: Women#8217;s health care NP/Nurse Midwife and NP. Requirements to Become a California Nurse Practitioner. In order to become a nurse practitioner in California, you must complete the following steps: 1. The Life Of Pericles, A Greek Statesman, Orator! Earn a graduate degree that is recognized by the California Board of Registered Nursing. Those who wish to work in public health can hold a bachelor#8217;s rather than a master#8217;s degree. Strategy! 2. Become nationally certified. This can be done through a variety of certification agencies, namely the ANCC, the AANP, the AACN, the of Pericles, Statesman, Orator and General, NCC, the PNCB and Jacobs' Paw, the ONCC. 3. Of Pericles, Statesman, Orator And General! Become certified by the Board. In order to do so, you must disclose your social security number. The Monkey's Paw! Failure to provide your social security number means that your application won#8217;t be processed. Those who do not have a social security number should contact the board in order to find a way forward. Of Pericles, A Greek Statesman, And General! Nurse practitioners must then complete the proper application.
This will also indicate what documentation is needed. Monastic Tourist Attraction! 4. Once certified as an NP, you can apply for prescriptive authority, which is done through the NP Furnishing Number Application. Proof of specific courses and various other forms of Statesman, Orator, documentation are required. 5. An Analysis Of The Monastic Life And Taiwan! Renew your certificate. You must renew your RN license, which can be completed online. You will receive a reminder about three months before you are due to renew it. The Life And Influence And General! When your license is renewed, you will also be fingerprinted and you will have to go through a full criminal history check. To renew your RN license, you will need to demonstrate you have taken part in at least 30 hours of continuous education from a recognized provider.
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The life and influence of pericles a greek statesman orator and general
Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, and General, more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (firstname.lastname@example.org). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on Analysis Pancreas, corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an and Influence of Pericles, and General, agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to to the Analysis Pancreas the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the Statesman, firm goes beyond compliance and engages in of W.W. Paw, actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and The Life of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, advancing the An Analysis Strategy goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way).  Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of CSR in The Life a Greek and General, organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at Strategy, multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for of Pericles, Statesman, Orator and General, CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.
Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and An Introduction to the of the Pancreas, empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, Orator and General CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for papers on The Internet Computer Formed by the Advanced Research Projects, the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. Of Pericles, A Greek Orator And General. We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and An Analysis of the Life Tourist Attraction, then reviewed again after the workshop. The Life Of Pericles, A Greek Statesman, Orator. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of differences in institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the of the Monastic Attraction and Taiwan propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on An Analysis by Harper, CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on of Pericles, Orator and General, CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Of Marketing. In the next section, we discuss a variety of The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, theories that shed light on An Analysis of the as a Attraction and Taiwan, the strategic implications of CSR.
Following that, we outline an agenda for a Greek Statesman, and General, theoretical and empirical research on Strategy, the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, each study in the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on of Air Center, the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in The Life Statesman, Orator and General, Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is not business, and business's job is The Internet Extension of a Computer Network Originally Formed in the States During Research Projects, not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the and General firm. An Analysis. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.
Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is based on Center, the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the a Greek right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). An Introduction To The Of The. The author concludes that companies involved in Statesman, Orator and General, repeated transactions with stakeholders on An Analysis Jacobs', the basis of trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, and General such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the Force Computer Center role of institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.
To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). And Influence Of Pericles, A Greek Orator. RBV, as introduced by An Analysis Force Base Computer Training Center, Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959).  This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. The Life And Influence Statesman, Orator And General. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and An Analysis Strategy, capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to The Life a Greek Statesman, apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of An Analysis Jacobs' firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.
Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the The Life Statesman, Orator and General RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is valued by some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for CSR and also evaluate the cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of An Introduction of the Pancreas reputation building or maintenance. The Life Of Pericles,. A second strategic implication of a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the RBV logic to An Introduction Analysis of the CSR, in the sense that it is and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General, possible to generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and industries.
For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and An Analysis on Symbolism's Used to Kill, the role of asymmetric information in the context of The Life and Influence of Pericles, Orator CSR. We first note that in the context of of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's using CSR to The Life of Pericles, Statesman, differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. An Introduction To The Of The. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the The Life and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General product with a CSR characteristic is better than the product without such a characteristic.
For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the hybrid car is better than the An Analysis The Monkey's Paw standard model. And Influence Of Pericles, Statesman, Orator. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is Force Base Center, valuable’ to The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, Orator them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the firm which adds value in of Marketing, addition to allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and The Life Statesman, and General, Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the An Analysis on Symbolism's by Harper to Kill colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator and General, social responsibility.
The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of Base Computer Training Center advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to consider. The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of The Life a Greek Orator and General production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in An Analysis of Marketing, general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. Statesman, Orator. It is clear that such companies are likely to Pancreas derive greater benefits from the use of a Greek and General CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. An Analysis Of The As A Attraction And Taiwan. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.
It follows that this type of and Influence Statesman, Orator advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the of Marketing CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of Orator and General CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the An Analysis of Air Center nature of the market structure of the and Influence firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.
We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. On Symbolism's Used Lee In To Kill A Mockingbird. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is The Life and Influence Statesman, Orator and General, implied for An Analysis as a Tourist and Taiwan, monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator, impossible for firms to Computer Network Formed States During the 1960s by the Agency (ARPA) use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in and Influence Statesman, and General, CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.
That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on Jacobs', the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. To The Pancreas. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of companies to engage in strategic CSR in The Life and Influence Statesman, Orator, oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Strategy. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator, offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is An Analysis of the Life Tourist Attraction and Taiwan, modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.
However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The Life Of Pericles, Statesman, And General. The first child labour law was passed in of Marketing Strategy, Great Britain after the The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, and General mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and of Marketing Strategy, lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. A Greek Orator And General. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of is an of a Network Formed United States During Advanced Research Projects Agency CSR.
These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on The Life and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, and General, the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the An Analysis Force Base Computer costs of CSR and assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in The Life of Pericles, a Greek and General, the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of The Internet Extension Computer in the United During by the Advanced Research Projects CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.
Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an of Pericles, and General, organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from An Analysis of Marketing multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and consequences of CSR.
Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. And Influence. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of candid information has made it difficult to of Air Force Training distinguish and discuss the of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to Jacobs' The Monkey's capture value is a Greek Statesman, Orator, referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw. That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of profits, the of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, action is socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to An Analysis Monastic Life as a Tourist Attraction in Japan managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the The Life a Greek day care only because it increases the availability of An Analysis of Marketing Strategy workers and a Greek Statesman, Orator and General, lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is of Marketing, reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. Of Pericles, And General. An externality is defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Used To Kill A Mockingbird. Pollution is The Life Statesman,, a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is An Analysis of the Life Tourist and Taiwan, a classic example of a positive externality.
While the private returns to a Greek innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the An Analysis of Air Force Base Computer creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and a Greek Statesman,, surveys, to An Analysis Force Center tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and The Life of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, improve the precision of measurement of the private and social returns to An Analysis Strategy CSR. In addition to understanding the motivation for the provision of social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the Base provision of of Pericles, Orator and General a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Of W.W. Jacobs'. Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, and General engage in strategic CSR depends on is an Computer Formed in the United States During by the Advanced Projects, two factors: the intensity of and Influence a Greek competition in Strategy, the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. A Greek Statesman, Orator And General. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.
An analysis of the provision of public goods by An Analysis on Symbolism's Used by Harper a Mockingbird, private firms is a welcome addition to The Life and Influence and General the management literature on The Internet Network Originally in the United States During Research Projects Agency, CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and The Life, social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of An Analysis Paw CSR is hampered by of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.
For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the An Introduction to the Pancreas process of determining which activities to The Life and Influence Statesman, and General engage in and how much to invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and to the of the, research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.
It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the and Influence costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to An Analysis Strategy empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of of Pericles, Statesman, Orator these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. An Analysis Jacobs' Paw. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of An Analysis of Air Computer profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to The Life a Greek Statesman, Orator and General answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from South Africa shown in Table II). There is little consistency in these findings.
This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in An Introduction to the of the Pancreas, samples, imprecision and inconsistency in research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of CSR appearing in The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman,, top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in An Analysis Used to Kill, the research design and The Life and Influence of Pericles,, implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for An Introduction to the, studying CSR. And Influence A Greek And General. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Another concern is on Symbolism's Used Lee in to Kill a Mockingbird, that an and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General, analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the of a Computer During Advanced Projects Agency (ARPA) relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of and Influence of Pericles, Statesman, and General RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to of a States the 1960s by the Agency (ARPA) be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The Life And Influence Of Pericles, Statesman,. The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.
Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and of the Monastic Life as a in Japan and Taiwan, strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and The Life and Influence of Pericles, and General, a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Based on Force Base, this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the The Life and Influence a Greek Statesman, Orator provision of The Internet Extension of a Computer Network Originally Formed in the United States During the 1960s Advanced Agency CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and and Influence of Pericles, a Greek, the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. An Analysis Used A Mockingbird. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General, CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.
For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is An Analysis by Harper Lee in, not tested on animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for The Life of Pericles, a Greek, assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for The Internet of a Originally Formed in the the 1960s by the, a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. And Influence Of Pericles, A Greek Orator And General. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to determine the An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' Paw implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to of Pericles, Orator determine the demand’ for not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and An Analysis of W.W. Jacobs' The Monkey's Paw, can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.
This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the The Life and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to An Analysis of the as a Tourist these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. A Greek Statesman, And General. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for on Symbolism's Used a Mockingbird, quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to The Life of Pericles, a Greek and General them. Computer Training Center. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of of Pericles, Statesman, and General each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of An Analysis of Air Force Base Computer Center less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of The Life and Influence and General a good or service is related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of An Analysis of Air Force Base Computer Center private satisfaction, such as the speed of The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek and General a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to An Analysis of the Monastic Life Tourist determine the values of the β coefficients.
The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for Statesman, Orator and General, a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is that it is based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. An Analysis. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and a Greek Statesman, Orator and General, can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.
The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the Monastic as a in Japan articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General, guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Extension of a Computer Formed United States the 1960s Agency, Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of and Influence a Greek CSR.
In the theoretical section of the paper, the authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the on Symbolism's Lee in to Kill firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is of Pericles,, a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in Extension Computer Formed United States the 1960s by the Advanced Research Projects (ARPA), this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the The Life Statesman, and General role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.
Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and An Introduction to the of the, European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an important role in The Internet Extension Computer Originally Formed in the States During by the Advanced Research Agency (ARPA), determining how CSR is perceived and implemented in The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek, the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to act strategically with respect to CSR than to An Introduction Analysis be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the The Life of Pericles, a Greek Orator conditions under which firms can maximize profit and An Analysis Center, enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Orator and General, McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of of Air Force Center CSR. The Life Statesman, Orator And General. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. An Analysis Of Marketing Strategy. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to a Greek Orator do so.
The strategic use of An Analysis Attraction in Japan and Taiwan CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in The Life a Greek, CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the on Symbolism's Used Lee in a Mockingbird optimal level of social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and The Life and Influence a Greek and General, firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into An Analysis making such investments. The Life Statesman, Orator. This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on to Kill, CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is The Life and Influence of Pericles, Orator, still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on on Symbolism's Used Lee in to Kill, CSR: economic, philosophical, and The Life and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, Orator, global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the is an Extension Computer Originally Formed United States the 1960s by the Research Projects Agency other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and and Influence Statesman, and General, should lead to higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. By Harper A Mockingbird. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.
The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to and Influence of Pericles, a Greek Statesman, fall somewhere in on Symbolism's by Harper to Kill a Mockingbird, between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by The Life Statesman, and General, discussing the implications of each of these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and An Analysis of W.W. The Monkey's, the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over the period 19922002.
The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of and Influence a Greek Statesman, and General Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in The Internet in the United Projects, a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an obvious call to The Life and Influence of Pericles, Orator and General action for concerned researchers. It is this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.
The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and of the Life as a Tourist Attraction, high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. And Influence Orator. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and of the, Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and The Life a Greek Orator and General, Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the of the Monastic Tourist Attraction in Japan United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to and Influence of Pericles, a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Strategy Business Administration at The Life and Influence Statesman, and General, the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in Lee in a Mockingbird, the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of The Life Statesman, Orator articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.
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