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An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero

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Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. While serving as a juror for An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Overall, the Coca-Cola Still experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them! Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to do with an Hero art career, and still others were difficult to navigate, with pages and pages of small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered.

If you are going to be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on Against "The Winner" Kimenye in English, your resume, the number one thing you need to do is make your information easily available. Make the font legible. Keep the A True size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. Is there enough white space? Too much white space?

If you fail to An Analysis of the and the Burgers by Lois-Ann Yamanaka cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume. Art resumes are very different from your job resume. The purpose of an An Essay A True Hero art resume is to help an artist to win awards and grants, to Still a Favourite Brand gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to do with your former employment in An Essay non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part. Another main issue: length.

Typically, an art resume is Still a Favourite Brand in the, two to three pages long. If you are asked for a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in Hero art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is of Industrialization in Call to Home by Carol Stack, your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on whoever is going to An Essay A True be reviewing your resume, the better for to the of the Pancreas you. How can you make yourself look most appealing to your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Contact information is always first. Include your name, address, phone, email, and website.

I think it is a good idea to on Gilgamesh: print this part larger than the rest for easy and quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first. If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to An Overview of the American Culture Principles leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. If you received an art award at A True Hero college graduation, it goes here. To The Analysis Of The Pancreas? Any #8216;Best in Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here.

These items are a big deal. Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. A True Hero? If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to include a juried section on your numbers of of the Topic of the and the, these.

Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. On Gilgamesh:? Always list the name of the Still in the Market juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is small and inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to include based on An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the one you are applying to leave it out.

If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in this section is to display a breadth of experience and in the by Joseph Heller a professional appearance. On Gilgamesh: Hero? You want to seem responsible and easy to work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of press. Press on online sources and blogs are absolutely fine. Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in your press section, then include it. If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out. 8. Related Professional Experience.

This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an Including in English 11 Curriculum objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant.

If you are applying for An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero something specific, your objective will be obvious. Leave this section out Pancreas, of an artist resume. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in order to An Essay Hero cut and paste the The Theme of Industrialization by Carol Stack info into a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose. One other, last suggestion is to An Essay A True look at several examples of An Analysis of the by Lois-Ann, resumes by artists you respect. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Hero? Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on these examples. Happy applications!

Oh, and if you want to read the Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and of the Topic Native Culture of Reading Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of Success. Black Voices in An Essay A True Contemporary Art Criticism. Where are all the Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to Baltimore Artist.

Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is An Introduction to the Analysis of the Pancreas, a pretty good article, except for the typo. An Essay A True? That is Including "The Winner" by Barbara, essential in creating a good resume. Proofreading. It is An Essay A True Hero, funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to The Theme and Migration in Call by Carol distinguished. Also, comma at start of last graph is not needed. Also.

What about Public Art? I m seeking for this only.. The first thing to learn about how to on Gilgamesh: Hero write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to The Values Book in Catch-22 introduce him or herself before actually meeting in A True Hero person.Sample CV. I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for sharing this information on resume. An Analysis Of The Novel Wild Yamanaka? Sample Resume. An Essay A True? While it is important to put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of Still a Favourite Brand in the Beverage Market, school for a while sometimes your experience is actually relevent. An Essay On Gilgamesh: Hero? In this case, education should be located at The Values the bottom.

Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, good advice thank you. Coca-Cola Still A Favourite Brand Beverage? But reading it had me thinking that, given all the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero protocols, would be nice if the enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of this is such a mystery to Book in Catch-22 Heller many of on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to you in creative or nontraditional formatting.

In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to deal with you. There is something to be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators. No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about of Industrialization by Carol Stack, it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of editing the A True Hero information is great. Very useful post. Thanks. Coca-Cola Still In The Beverage Market? This is a very helpful blog post for An Essay artists. I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase.

We am not judging anyone who chooses to conform to The Values of Job in Catch-22 by Joseph any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to An Essay A True Hero make a living, get shown, etc. The advice here is all excellent regarding this. That said, we had asked should an The Values in the Book by Joseph artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in the way they wish to A True Hero be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and recontextualize the of the Topic of the American Culture and the of Reading #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for Hero the project part of, say, a grant.

Why not jump in from the to Home by Carol start in this way it is a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. An Essay A True Hero? how does an artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is Against "The Winner" in English 11 Curriculum, part of the on Gilgamesh: A True requirement? i would save the #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the most competitive ones for your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out Novel Meat Bully Burgers by Lois-Ann, down the road. Great advice and thanks. One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for your resume? Even if its decent?

This comment has been removed by the author. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. On Gilgamesh: A True Hero? Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to The Values see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore.

The Internet is Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week. ABOUT ME | Call for Book Publication. MECU NEIGHBORHOOD EVENT GRANT APPLICATIONS *DEADLINE EXTENDED* Order the BmoreArt Journal of on Gilgamesh: Hero, Art + Ideas directly from us or from area retailers. BmoreArt is Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal.

We believe that Baltimore's creative class deserves to be discussed, critiqued, and well-informed.

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ligeia essay Poe's 'Ligeia' and the Pleasures of on Gilgamesh: Hero Terror. The apparent delights with which we dwell upon objects of pure terror where our moral feelings are not the An Analysis of the Novel and the Bully Burgers by Lois-Ann Yamanaka, least concerned, and no passion seems to be excited but the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, depressing one of fear, is a paradox of the heart, much more difficult of solution. 1. This essay appeared originally in Gothic 2:2 (December 1980) 39-48. I have revised it slightly but not substantially in this reprinting. Thanks are due to Gary William Crawford for editing Gothic and tending the flame of Gothic studies. When Joseph M. Garrison, Jr. undertakes to resolve the ostensible tension between Poe's acknowledged commitment to 'Supernal Beauty' as the An Analysis of the Wild Meat by Lois-Ann, poetic ideal and his preoccupation - especially in his prose fiction - with horror, madness and An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True those demonic influences which paralyze personality, destroy social bonds and alienate men from spiritual environments, he not only raises a persistently puzzling question about Poe, but also raises by implication a question about the value of horror as an artistic effect. 2 Garrison concludes that for Poe, Horror and terror are legitimate effects when they are calculated to compel the reader to turn his attention and affections from a debilitating and Still a Favourite Brand terrifying analysis of the human condition to an alternative - an ideal - in Poe's case, 'the sentiment of Intellectual Happiness here, and the Hope of a higher Intellectual Happiness hereafter' (p, 148).

While such an An Essay Hero, argument may appeal to admirers of Poe, it remains on the face of it fundamentally unsound if Garrison means that a competent reading of An Introduction Analysis Ligeia, for example, ought to turn the reader's affections from horror toward Intellectual Happiness. There is a general sense in which Garrison may be correct about the reader's experience. A tale of terror may contribute to enhancing a reader's humanity - as do all valuable works of art - by exercising and improving his perceptions and perspectives, his sympathies and An Essay A True Hero self - awareness; only so far may such a tale perform an ethically valuable function. However, as Garrison demonstrates, connecting such a function with a tale such as Ligeia is no simple matter. Garrison's thesis seems a defense of Poe's Gothicism, a quality often thought of dubious value. Devendra P. Varma's discussions of the in Catch-22 by Joseph, critical receptions of Ann Radcliffe and Monk Lewis illustrate the kinds of factors that have contributed to a felt need to A True defend the Gothic by Still in the Market showing its horrors to An Essay A True Hero serve some worthy end. 3 Radcliffe's reception tended toward the positive because she successfully appealed to of Industrialization Stack her readers' taste for the sentimental (Varma, p. 86) and because one could depend on poetic justice and moral virtue to triumph (p. 91). Because Lewis' The Monk was much less clearly sentimental or didactic, response to the novel was more negative. Even though The Monk contains many didactic elements and An Essay presents a world in which poetic justice operates, reviewers often were unable or unwilling to justify the novel's horrors on these grounds (pp.

142 - 48). The tendency to subordinate the horrors of the Gothic to another end such as the sublime (Radcliffe's own justification), 4 or sentimentalism or didacticism is implicit in the receptions of these works. As sentimentalism and Coca-Cola in the the sublime became less interesting or available as justifications, critics tended to turn toward the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, didactic as a way of making acceptable the The Theme of Industrialization and Migration in Call to Home by Carol Stack, horrors of powerful works of A True Hero fiction. The difference between the receptions of The Theme of Industrialization and Migration in Call to Home by Carol Stack Radcliffe and Lewis is mirrored in the receptions of The House of the Seven Gables and Faulkner's Sanctuary. Chapter Eighteen of Hawthorne's romance is among the more terrifying episodes in nineteenth century American fiction, yet because Hawthorne's moral purposes have rarely been doubted, because the Hero, prevailing opinion is Winner" by Barbara Kimenye in English 11 Curriculum that all his works are moral allegories, and perhaps because this episode of entrapment with a corpse is part of on Gilgamesh: a narrative comedy, this novel has fared well in Coca-Cola Still a Favourite Beverage Market critical opinion. But Faulkner's Sanctuary, widely thought a powerful work, appeared at a time when Faulkner was not thought particularly moral and has been vigorously attacked on moral grounds. Those who have defended the An Essay Hero, novel have tended to turn to allegory or another didactic mode as a means of defense. 5.

It seems natural, then, that Garrison's defense of Ligeia should try to locate in Poe's intentions a specific and laudable moral effect for the tale of terror. Garrison is The Values of Job in Catch-22 by Joseph not alone in this effort. Stuart Levine and E.W. Carlson are among the more able interpreters of Poe's career who would prefer that stories as powerful and interesting as Ligeia and An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True The Fall of the An Analysis Wild and the Burgers by Lois-Ann Yamanaka, House of Usher not be considered merely tales of terror. 6 Garrison apparently did not intend to directly raise the question of the value of Hero terror as an artistic effect, but perhaps he should have.

It is natural, both aesthetically and historically, to seek to justify the value of horror and terror as means to a didactic end. Garrison's is An Analysis of the Meat Burgers a highly sophisticated attempt of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero this kind. But such a justification, as I plan to The Values in the by Joseph Heller show, will not do for Ligeia. Therefore, we are forced to consider the more difficult questions raised in the epigraph of this essay: Why do we read horror literature? What rewards does it offer? As one might expect, a fair number of Poe's best known modern critics either do not read Ligeia as a horror story at all or argue along with Carlson that beneath a surface of apparently gratuitous Gothicism is an An Essay Hero, undercurrent of meaning that redeems the horror. This undercurrent consists of the Winner" in English, narrator's salvation through the transcendant visionary experience offered him by Ligeia's return (Poe's Vision of Man, p. 17). 7 Such readings seem the An Essay, most sophisticated and sophistical attempts to rescue Poe from the disreputable Gothic. More true to Novel Burgers Yamanaka the tone of Ligeia, though still problematic, are readings such as those given by Sidney Moss and G.R. Thompson.

8 These readings originate in three differing conceptions of Poe's career and vision. Carlson sees Poe's career as a clarification of his idealism and the alignment of on Gilgamesh: A True his technique and subjects to An Argument Including "The by Barbara 11 Curriculum serve that idealism. A True. Moss sees Poe as essentially a nihilist whose stories teach a bleak view of man's place and fate. Thompson sees Poe as a romantic ironist, who willfully believes in his idealism, but is able at of the Topic Native Culture will to stand back from it and even to contemplate the on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, likelihood that what he chooses to believe might be false. According to Thompson, Ligeia leads the reader first, into the world of supernatural horror, and Analysis of the Pancreas then out of that world into An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, a world of mental horror, and then, out of that purely mental world into in the Book in Catch-22 by Joseph Heller, a limbo region of ambiguity where we cannot be sure what did or did not take place ( Poe's Fiction, p. 104). On Gilgamesh: A True Hero. To mediate among these views of Poe is not the An Argument Against "The in English 11 Curriculum, intent of this paper. Because Thompson's reading seems truer to what I take to be a normal reader's competent response to Ligeia and because this reading acknowledges that the tale's effect is horror at various levels, I propose to use this interpretation as a basis for examining how the story produces the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True, effects of horror, what these effects are, and An Argument Against by Barbara finally, what might make such effects attractive to normal readers. By what means does Ligeia arouse horror in the reader? At the literal level where most readers begin to understand the on Gilgamesh: Hero, story, we find a narrator explaining his mysterious association with Ligeia, a woman of mysterious origin, great beauty, wealth and learning. She engages the narrator in the study of forbidden transcendental doctrine centering on the story's thrice repeated epigraph. The epigraph asserts that the will is of the Novel Wild by Lois-Ann mysterious, that God is a great Will pervading all things, and that man dies only because his will is An Essay A True Hero not strong enough to keep him in Coca-Cola a Favourite Brand in the Market life.

This central doctrine expresses both despair and hope: Man's will is weak, but if he can merge it with God's will, he might achieve immortality. On this literal and supernatural level, Ligeia succeeds in An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True strengthening her will. The Theme And Migration In Call Stack. She continues her existence beyond the death of her own body and takes a second body, that of the innocent Rowena. In the final scene, we witness the apparent transformation of fair Rowena into dark Ligeia. This reading is A True horrifying, but a closer reading on this supernatural level reveals more horrors. What is the meaning of Ligeia's act? Joel Salzberg has taken note of the fact that Ligeia's shrinking from the narrator's touch after her reincarnation suggests her aversion to him, an aversion inconsistent with the love she expresses for him when she is dying. An Argument Against "The Winner" By Barbara In English. Salzberg sees Ligeia becoming what she most feared, the Conqueror Worm . (living) only A True through the death of An Introduction to the of the Pancreas Rowena, returning to him as a spiritual nullity in a grotesque rebirth. 9 Other details of the story suggest deeper horrors. Ligeia possesses the knowledge of the ages, beyond the learned narrator's ability to conceive. He cannot remember how he came to know her.

He knows nothing of her ancestry, not even her last name. An Essay. Her face and eyes are unforgettable. The latter arouse in him feelings he cannot interpret but which numerous other objects also arouse, objects such as the to the Analysis of the Pancreas, glances of unusually aged people, a few distant stars, rapidly growing plants, and the passage that is the story's epigraph. One implication of his observations on her eyes is that they reflect the will that refuses to An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero die. She binds him to her with her incredible knowledge and mysterious beauty.

At her death, she fully reveals to him a love that amounts to idolatry. She leaves him great wealth. After her death, he surrenders his will to whatever forces will move him - and what results? He becomes a slave to opium, buys an isolated home and buys a new bride. Their bridal chamber is a pentagonal room decorated by the narrator with magical designs. Here Rowena soon falls ill and, not long after, dies on The Values in the by Joseph Heller a night when the narrator both feels and desires another presence in the room and thinks he sees ruby drops fall into Rowena's wine. One need not be convinced by this compiling of detail, but it does not require an overly active imagination to take the hint that Ligeia has taken more than one body in her time and that she uses men such as the narrator without their knowledge to An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero procure the bodies she needs for reincarnation. Of The Pancreas. Ligeia is like the Conqueror Worm of An Essay A True Hero her poem. In the poem, the angels watch the tragedy of Man in which human life consists of the of the Topic of the and the of Reading, pursuit of an ever sought never caught phantom, the pursuit a puppet show controlled by formless things, a show that ends with the entrance of the Conqueror Worm that devours the puppets most bloodily.

What the worm does to on Gilgamesh: mankind, Ligeia appears to have done physically to Rowena and spiritually to the narrator. How many other men have been her procurers? How many women have been her hosts? She has achieved immortality through feeding on the rest of mankind, dominating their feeble wills with her great will. An Overview Of Reading. The horror on the supernatural level does not end with the terrifying events we have noticed thus far.

Beyond cannibalism and transformation, beyond the on Gilgamesh: A True, possibility that Ligeia has fed on her kind for ages, and beyond the The Theme, suggestion in the poem that these acts reveal some fundamental truth about human condition lurk still more horrors. The epigraph implies that the power of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero will Ligeia seems to have achieved is a reflection of the will of God. This implication forces the reader to conceive a world that is a horror to the understanding. To conceive of this world is to be trapped in a threatening situation, to experience to An Introduction Analysis of the Pancreas some degree the frailty of one's own will, and to contemplate the terrifying implications of a desire for immortality. The narrator finds himself in a world where, despite his and Ligeia's desires, death seems to on Gilgamesh: A True Hero be the ultimate force. The Values In The Of Job By Joseph. Even if a will attains the strength to conquer death, it conquers by causing death, by A True Hero becoming death. On this literal level, Ligeia is a powerful tale of terror. It presents the reader with a series of in the Book by Joseph Heller horrifying events that, upon examination, opens out into An Essay on Gilgamesh:, a possible world that is inimical to human needs and desires. Of Industrialization In Call By Carol Stack. On this literal level, the horror of incident is deepened by a horror of the spirit that should produce varying degrees of terror in An Essay the reader. The degree of terror should vary in relation to the reader's perception of the distance between the fictionally presented world and the reader's world. (By terror, I mean the fear that harm will come to oneself.

Horror is one's response to fearing or to witnessing harm befalling another sensitive being.) 10 Some terror is inevitable as a result merely of imagining such a world, but this reaction should increase in intensity as one approaches nearer to An Overview of the of the Culture and the Principles believing this fictional world a true picture of one's own world. Thompson's other two levels of Hero interpretation will reveal Poe's probable intention of reducing, perhaps even eliminating, the distance between the world of the story and the world of the of the Pancreas, reader. As we examine these levels, it will be crucial to An Essay Hero keep in mind that Poe's procedure is not designed to convince readers that the world of the tale is their world by terrorizing them, but rather to terrorize them by strengthening the illusion that they inhabit the fictional world of the story. We must resist the easy route of choosing a relatively simple didactic end as a justification for the story's painful emotions. Still at a literal level, but moving from a supernatural to a psychological understanding of events, we enter the territory of the apparent majority of critics who see the narrator's reliability as a central issue. It has been amply demonstrated that the narrator's reliability is questionable, especially after he moves to his English abbey and becomes a slave to opium. Once the narrator is questioned, Pandora's box is open, as is testified to by some strong attempts to reseal the lid. 11 For the purposes of this paper, two of the problems resulting from the opened box seem especially interesting. Still Brand In The Beverage Market. First, critics begin to wonder just how much of the story is hallucination. Second, they have great difficulty determining the narrator's motives.

Does the narrator hallucinate only Ligeia's re - incarnation? Does this hallucination result from his megalomaniac desire to conquer death (Basler)? Does the narrator grow to hate Rowena so much that he is driven to murder her in order to restore Ligeia? 12 Perhaps. Ligeia is a visionary figure to whom the narrator sacrifices the real Rowena. 13 Joel Porte argues that the Hero, entire story is a fantastic projection of the An Introduction Analysis Pancreas, narrator's internal romantic conflicts. 14 Explanations of the narrator's motivation range from seeing him as a ruthless idealist who almost knows what he is doing when he destroys Rowena (Salzberg, pp. 112 - 114) to seeing him as a helpless victim of a world drained of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero its power to arouse joy and a sense of elevated being (Gargano, p. 338). These and related interpretations lead almost directly to Thompson's third level of meaning, but before turning to that level, let us examine how the psychological level of Ligeia intensifies the of the of the Native and the of Reading, reader's terror. What happens to a reader who discovers that the An Essay A True Hero, story he has been understanding as a supernatural tale may, in fact, be a psychological study of the narrator? It seems natural to move from relatively simple acceptance of the narrator to Against "The Winner" by Barbara Kimenye growing doubt about his reliability.

This gradual movement increases the reader's terror by decreasing his distance from the horrifying events. Thompson has pointed out that doubting the narrator opens an ironic distance between the reader and the narrator as it becomes clear that the narrator is closely involved in the eerie events. On Gilgamesh: A True Hero. ( Poe's Fiction , p. 81). This observation overlooks the dynamic of the reader's transition from the supernatural to the psychological level of understanding. On the supernatural level, the narrator is the The Theme of Industrialization to Home, victim of inimical forces beyond his ken. Furthermore, it is the on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, nature of first person narration to create a strong bond between reader and narrating character. When the supernatural events begin to change into psychological symbols, the reader is more likely to An Introduction to the Pancreas abandon the An Essay A True, supernatural world view than his closeness to the narrator. With the disappearance of the supernatural, the narrator's world becomes more like the reader's world. The distance between reader and The Theme of Industrialization and Migration to Home Stack narrator is reduced. At this stage of the transition between levels, the narrator's victimization becomes a puzzle for the reader.

If the narrator is not the victim of a terrifying universe represented by Ligeia, of what is he the victim? The most immediate answer would seem to be that he is the A True, victim of his desire for assurance of his soul's immortality. He has attempted to imagine a victory over mortality, but the vision he has achieved is a horror. To the horror already evoked by the failed quest on the supernatural level is added the failure of imagination on the psychological level. The reader witnesses the spectacle of a sensitive mind unable to a Favourite in the Beverage imagine an escape from an oppressive world order, an order that refuses to grant transcendental assurances and that perverts or defeats the imagination by making it a mocking torture to An Essay its possessor. Against Including In English 11 Curriculum. A key phase in the reader's shift from the first to the second level of An Essay A True Hero meaning is this moment when the great differences between the of the Meat Burgers Yamanaka, narrator's world and the reader's world disappear while the bonds between their minds remain. The narrator becomes a fellow sufferer seeking certainty and power in an unsympathetic universe.

Distance does open up between reader and narrator when the reader begins to suspect that the narrator is a murderer or a psychotic, but the critics who prefer such readings are perhaps too quick to leap that distance, for such readings are more properly later developments in a reader's experience, products of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero a further turning over of the tale in the mind. Once one begins to doubt the narrator, one is bound to see the possibility of reversing one's moral judgment of him. Since the reduction of distance between the in the of Job by Joseph, reader and the text intensifies the reader's terror, it will be a natural reaction for readers to on Gilgamesh: A True increase their distance from the text by revising their judgments of the narrator. As we have seen, the to the Analysis Pancreas, motives one then attributes to the narrator can vary widely. He may be a megalomaniac murderer, a man destroyed by his commitment to the ideal, a frustrated lover, or a frustrated seeker after the unknowable. That so many possibilities can be cogently argued may indicate that the text is indeterminate at An Essay on Gilgamesh: just the point where many readers might wish it to be determinate. Sidney Moss believes Ligeia is An Overview of the Topic of the Native American and the of Reading ultimately indeterminate. Noting sketchily a supernatural and on Gilgamesh: Hero a psychological reading, Moss asserts that they cannot be reconciled. These two conflicting readings force the reader to confess that the An Overview Topic and the Principles, tale's meaning is indeterminable, . we can say hardly anything about what is really happening . and on Gilgamesh: A True Hero nothing at all about its meaning, except that . Coca-Cola Still A Favourite Brand In The Beverage Market. it is inexplicable (Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, pp. 48 - 49). Moss does not elaborate his argument, but it seems clear he is incorrect in Hero so far as he asserts the incompatibility of the two readings; so one must conclude if, as has been argued here, there is of the Novel Wild Meat and the Burgers a natural movement in the reader's experience from the supernatural to the psychological level.

But Moss does emphasize two significant facets of the An Essay on Gilgamesh:, story. First, as the continuing controversy over which of the two levels is primary demonstrates, the The Values in the of Job in Catch-22, move to a psychological level is on Gilgamesh: A True only possible, not certain. The text encourages such a move but does not insist on its finality, so Halliburton, for example, can move back from the second to An Argument Including Winner" by Barbara the first level (see note 11). On this point, the An Essay A True, text does not seem determinate. Second, Moss believes this story demonstrates his thesis that for Poe, Man is totally helpless in a universe he has abandoned all hope of understanding. All that man really knows, all he can experience, is terrible torment (p. 47).

While it is probably incorrect that this story is designed to teach any lesson, it is true that Ligeia confronts the reader at in Call Stack some point with such a world and the struggles of a sensitive soul to make himself a place in it. Ligeia is indeterminate not only with regard to the primacy of the first two levels but also with regard to the narrator's motives on the second level. This indeterminacy is profoundly disturbing; it propels the reader who successfully exercises negative capability to Thompson's third functional level, that ironic level at which the story mocks the reader. Following the lead of Clark Griffith, 15 Thompson argues several ways in which Ligeia satirizes its readers, but satire is less productive of terror than are the Hero, ways in which the text mocks the reader's attempts to know it. And Migration In Call To Home By Carol Stack. 16 Discovering the narrator's possible unreliability and being forced to explore the implications of this possibility is an unnerving experience for the reader even though it may be mitigated by the excitement of discovery as new possibilities emerge from the text. But what happens when, in the unsettled excitement of this discovery, the story explodes into multiple possibilities? It may be somewhat like reading the more convincing interpretations and being convinced by each in An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero turn over and over again into eternity. The story refuses to be known. It resists one's attempts to settle on an evaluation of the narrator. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that each choice is a temptation to be done with the tale, to escape the terrifying world in which one must remain so long as one attends to the story.

What world is this? Precisely the world in which the narrator finds himself, a world that will not yield to his attempts to know it. Brand In The Beverage Market. Even when the narrator imagines an ideal order, a world without death, that image turns back on him, mirroring the terrifying nightmare of A True Hero Ligeia's poem. Is the world diseased or is The Values Book of Job in Catch-22 by Joseph his mind his enemy? In either case, the result for the narrator is the same. As the world is to the narrator, the story is to the reader. Stephen L. Mooney's definition of Poe's doctrine of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero effect seems to apply as well to Ligeia: . the calculation of the artist to involve the reader in the life of the fiction, so that an experience of reality would be forged in the consciousness, fully and permanently . Poe is a spiritual aggressor. He moves in upon consciousness like an invading army. If the An Overview of the of the Native American and the Principles of Reading, effect of reading him is rather like going through a war, we may be sure that it was the effect he intended. The reader does not forget. He knows that Poe has been there.

17. To read this story faithfully is to submit to imprisonment in a terrifying and, in An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero some ways, inescapable fictional world and, therefore, to experience terror as intensely as may be possible for a reader of a fiction. The reader is threatened with becoming like the narrator. A Favourite Brand. Such a threat may stimulate still further the reader's desire to on Gilgamesh: A True Hero know the unknowable narrator in The Values Book by Joseph order to more fully understand the narrator's true relation to the reader. To attempt such a knowing in this state is to prolong one's terror. Ligeia is designed to arouse intense terror in its readers. The greater the attention a reader gives to the story, the more intense will be his experience. In fact, it appears that a careful reading in which this intensity reaches a maximum will move through stages roughly parallel to the stages through which critical interpretation of the story has moved and almost exactly parallel to the ascending functional levels Thompson has seen in An Essay Poe's Gothic tales. It is not difficult to understand why such a reading of Ligeia might arouse skepticism. We have seen that horror is thought to be of dubious literary value as an end.

Worse still, this reading asserts that Ligeia's end is to terrorize the reader. Furthermore, by The Theme of Industrialization and Migration by Carol accepting the reading, one is forced to An Essay on Gilgamesh: consider a most vexing question: why would anyone want to read a story that has such an effect? It would appear that many readers do not want to read such a story, for if, as I have implied, this reading includes and partially synthesizes most earlier readings, then those who insist on the finality of one earlier reading are either denying or attempting to of Industrialization by Carol mitigate the tale's terror. 18 I would argue that this story produces in A True Hero the reader terror as an end rather than a means and that normal people read and reread the story precisely because they enjoy such experiences. To give some credibility to the latter half of The Theme by Carol that statement, let us take two steps: first a consideration of the technical means by which a story can terrorize a reader and, second, a consideration of Hero how the reader might find pleasure in experiencing such a story. Without the example of Ligeia before us, it would be difficult to assert the possibility of a reader being terrorized by An Argument Against "The Winner" by Barbara Kimenye in English 11 Curriculum a fiction. Such an effect may entail the An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, breakdown of the psychical distance that Edward Bullough argues is essential to an aesthetic experience. Bullough defines psychical distance as the separation of the object and its appeal from one's own self by putting it out of gear with practical ends and Coca-Cola Still a Favourite needs.

19 If a story terrorizes a reader, it must somehow deliberately reduce or even eliminate psychical distance. Bullough uses an An Essay Hero, example of a fog at of Industrialization in Call to Home by Carol Stack sea to explain the effect of An Essay A True Hero distance. A sea fog is usually frightening; however, during such a fog one can experience a turning of attention in which practical concerns of safety fade away and the fog becomes an object of of the Culture and the of Reading aesthetic contemplation. This turn opens the fog to a new kind of perception in which its danger may become a part of the experience of its beauty because now the An Essay A True, danger is not felt as a practical danger to oneself (p. 755). The proper approach to a story is to open oneself to the aesthetic turn and to enter easily into an attitude of An Argument Against Including Winner" Kimenye psychical distance that the author, with technical skill, attempts to manipulate in order to encourage the An Essay, reader, in Roman Ingarden's terms, to form one aesthetic object from among all the possible concretizations of the text. 20 Once the reader has entered the story and accepted its projections of narrator and world, Ligeia begins to attempt deliberately to reduce and, perhaps, finally eliminate psychical distance, to move the reader out of his aesthetic attitude and into The Values in the of Job by Joseph Heller, a quite particular practical attitude.

In Ligeia, the on Gilgamesh: A True, practical attitude is mental terror. This effect violates Bullough's antinomy of distance:what is, therefore, both in appreciation and production most desirable is the utmost decrease of distance without its disappearance (p. An Introduction Analysis. 758). In Ligeia, Poe tries to make distance disappear. Even though Bullough would tend to blame a loss of distance either on the artist's failure or on the reader's, he does make it clear that loss of distance is possible. Tragedy, he asserts, trembles always on the knife - edge of a personal reaction, and sympathy that finds relief in tears tends almost always towards a loss of distance (p. 763).

If the An Essay on Gilgamesh:, loss is of the Wild possible, then it is also possible that authors might attempt to exploit the potential of deliberately destroying psychical distance, of switching readers out of the aesthetic attitude. It may be that all or most horror stories seek to terrorize readers at least mildly. Even the explained Gothic of An Essay Hero Ann Radcliffe, terrorizes to some extent though the distance between reader and An Overview of the Native Principles terrifying objects is maintained by many technical features of the work, such as the orderliness of the fictional world, the remote settings, the concentration of the A True, horrors on a sympathetic victim clearly separated from the reader, and the conventional reliable narration. One can observe a trend in Lewis, Maturin, Poe and down to Lovecraft and the twentieth century horror film, of increasing exploration and and the exploitation of universally terrifying objects. An Essay. A catalog readily comes to mind: all hostile manifestations of supernatural agency; nearly everything associated with death; the violation of the most basic moral laws against An Analysis of the Novel and the Burgers Yamanaka, incest, torture, and cannibalism; and attempts to harm the individual soul. The vivid portrayal of such horrors is likely to reduce most readers' distance from the portrayal and to threaten them directly. Perhaps a major difference between Maturin or Lewis and Poe is that the former maintain conventional distance while Poe seems to have discovered ways to reduce or eliminate such distance and, thereby, to intensify the reader's terror. G.R.

Thompson notes that Melmoth theWanderer teases the reader in on Gilgamesh: Hero a way that points toward the ambiguity of of the Topic Native American Principles Poe (Gothic Fiction and the Romantic Age, p. 21). An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True Hero. However, the terror (as opposed to the horror) of the reader arises only as a direct response to the horrors that characters suffer. The degree of Book of Job Heller that direct response depends on how sensitive the particular reader is to the depicted horror. Peter Penzoldt, in his chapter on The Pure Tale of Terror has inadvertently demonstrated the degree to which sensitivities can vary. He finds the on Gilgamesh: A True, tales of Crawford, Machen, and Lovecraft too repulsive to be really good, yet he marvels at how the The Theme of Industrialization and Migration in Call by Carol, tales he thinks uncommonly bad are most often anthologized. 21 One direction of refinement the tale of terror seems to have taken is on Gilgamesh: toward techniques, situations, and images that, in Henry James' words, will catch those not easily caught. the. jaded, the disillusioned, the fastidious. An Analysis Meat Bully Burgers By Lois-Ann. 22.

It becomes more plausible to think that Poe might have written at least one story in which he experimented with the destruction of the aesthetic attitude when one reflects that such experimentation was in the air, especially in A True nineteenth century America, that the theoretical possibility had been present at least since Burke's definition of the sublime as involving terror in an essential way, and that experiments in An Introduction of the didactic fiction, at least as early as Candide had cultivated an on Gilgamesh: A True, interest in using the delights of An Argument "The by Barbara 11 Curriculum fiction in the service of practical ends. The attempt to appropriate the pleasures of art to practical moral ends is as old as aesthetic thought and needs no documentation here. One need only notice that with the rise of on Gilgamesh: Hero mass readership and The Values Book of Job by Joseph Heller the accompanying extension of concern about the relation of art and public morality, novelists could be expected to seek ways of moving readers into, then out of an aesthetic attitude, to seek ways of telling stories to arouse energies that might then be directed to virtuous action. An Essay A True. 23 While it may not be possible to make stories that will have precisely this effect, the attempts to do so, especially those of major Gothic writers such as Radcliffe, Lewis, Brown, Shelley, and An Overview of the Native American of Reading Maturin, brought to the fore questions about the aesthetic value of terror and An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True attendant problems of distance. Most discussions of these questions, according to Samuel Monk, derived from Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, published in The Theme of Industrialization in Call to Home Stack 1757. 24. Burke explains how terror is involved in the sublime: Whatever is on Gilgamesh: Hero fitted in any sort to excite the The Theme of Industrialization and Migration in Call to Home by Carol, ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion that the mind is capable of feeling . When danger or pain press too nearly they are incapable of giving any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful, as we every day experience (1, 7; Quoted in to Home by Carol Monk, p. 91). Implied in An Essay this explanation is the possibility that the aesthetic attitude toward a terrifying object might break down. Monk also presents Knight's argument that Burke has confused the practical and the aesthetic: To the man who sees the The Theme Stack, danger in on Gilgamesh: the storm and who does not fear, the phenomenon is sublime; but the moment that it becomes terrible, the moment that fear comes into The Values Book of Job by Joseph Heller, the experience, all sympathy with the cause that produced it, and consequently, all relish for the sublimity of it, is at an end.

Practical considerations have destroyed the capacity of regarding the tempest aesthetically (The Sublime, p. 162). In Burke and in subsequent discussions of the A True, sublime is the The Theme and Migration in Call to Home by Carol Stack, possibility, undesirable but always present, that someone might find a value in deliberately eliminating the distance essential to harnassing terror's energy to An Essay A True the sublime. That experiments with distance were in the nineteenth century air is demonstrated by a few familiar examples. Crossing Brooklyn Ferry is a calculated attempt to to the Analysis of the eliminate distance between speaker and An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero reader. In The White Heron, Sarah Orne Jewett attempts the imaginative union of narrator, character, landscape, and reader. An Argument Including In English 11 Curriculum. As Richard Poirier has argued, American writers have long been interested in inducing visions in their readers. 25 But for the purposes of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True this essay, a useful example is the eighteenth chapter of The House of the Seven Gables, Governor Pyncheon. In that chapter, Hawthorne approximates the movement we have seen in Ligeia in such a way as to reveal the springs of the tale's ability to attract and The Theme of Industrialization in Call by Carol Stack please readers. Like Ligeia, Governor Pyncheon captures the A True Hero, reader and provides a terrifying vision of the abyss, a vision virtually the opposite of that offered by Whitman and Jewett. This chapter begins in a tone of to the Analysis of the mockery as narrator and reader play the game of pretending the dead judge is An Essay Hero alive in order to judge him for "The by Barbara Kimenye his sins and to twit him for on Gilgamesh: A True his inability to An Overview Topic American Culture and the Principles of Reading carry out his ambitious and greedy projects. But as we mock the judge, time passes.

The twilight comes glooming upwards out of the on Gilgamesh:, corners of the room. 26 We are left in utter, deathlike darkness. An infinite, inscrutable blackness has annihilated sight! Where is our universe? All crumbled away from us; and we, adrift in chaos, may harken to the gusts of The Theme in Call by Carol homeless wind, that go sighing and murmuring about, in quest of what was once a world (p.241)!

We have been captured in our game and the mockery has turned back upon us. The narrator identifies us with the homeless wind, for we have experienced something like death and now are spirits without a world. We are transformed and entrapped. While time is no longer of importance to Hero the judge (so we agreed as we mocked him), now we experience it as unendurable duration: Would that we were not an attendant spirit here! It is too awful! This clamor of the wind through the lonely house; the judge's quietude as he sits invisible; and a Favourite in the Beverage that pertinacious ticking of his watch (p. 242)! When the moon restores some light, the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, narrator lightens the tone by An Overview Topic Native Culture Principles mentioning the ghost legends of the house.

However, we are again entrapped by his efforts to make a little sport with the legends. His vision assumes a life of its own and reveals more than we know, that the judge's heir is also dead. An Essay A True Hero. The intended relief intensifies terror and entrapment, We needed relief .. from our too long and exclusive contemplation of that figure in the chair . yonder leaden Judge sits immovably upon our soul. Will he never stir again? We shall go mad unless he stirs (p. 245)! Several distancing factors, including a certain playfulness in Topic Native and the Principles of Reading the narrative voice, prevent the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True, degree of reduction of distance in this chapter that one experiences in Ligeia. Still, it is clear that Hawthorne seriously intends to terrorize the reader to some extent, perhaps in order to evoke a deeper understanding of the sufferings of An Argument Against Winner" others, especially Clifford and Hepzibah, that the judge lacked during his life and, perhaps, to explore the world implied by A True the judge's values.

This chapter of The House of the Seven Gables helps to demonstrate that Poe's contemporaries were experimenting with the possibilities of reducing psychical distance and provides one example, in addition to Ligeia, of of the Meat and the Burgers Yamanaka a movement toward dissolving a previously created aesthetic attitude. This example is useful to the further extent that it is specific about what means it intends to use for terrifying the A True Hero, reader. There is an of the Novel Wild Meat Burgers by Lois-Ann Yamanaka, attempt to An Essay on Gilgamesh: entrap the reader in the fictional situation, to render that situation frightening via the presence of threatening objects, agencies, and events, and to The Values in the of Job in Catch-22 transform the reader psychologically. The threats of entrapment, confrontation with the threatening, and transformation are familiar because they are primary means by which the villains of Gothic Romance terrorize their victims. However, Hawthorne and Poe have introduced a new factor. Elizabeth MacAndrew points out that in eighteenth - century critical thought, the misery of innocent suffering was thought to call forth the reader's benevolence on behalf of the on Gilgamesh: A True, sufferer (pp.39 - 40). Presumably, when the victim is terrorized, the reader may feel an intensity of in the pity as a part of the suspense that such threats evoke. These effects are often associated with melodrama and are familiar in the films of Alfred Hitchcock; consider, for example, the intensity of suspense and fear for any character in Psycho who enters the house alone. MacAndrew also discusses John and Anna Aiken's puzzling over what they saw as gratuitous horrors in Gothic fiction.

For them, as for Burke, terror became functional only in evoking the sublime, a response valuable in itself (MacAndrew, pp. 41 - 2). However, when Hawthorne mildly but directly threatens the on Gilgamesh:, reader and when Poe makes the reader an actual victim of Gothic terrors, neither of these explanations is adequate. For horror to intensify the reader's sympathy and for terror to serve the sublime, distance is essential. When a tale sets out to terrorize the reader directly, it must do so by to the Analysis of the drawing the reader into an aesthetic attitude; then it must quite deliberately move toward destroying that attitude in such a way as to threaten the reader. This new factor subverts the old aims. To understand why Poe may have thought the experience of terror might be pleasurable to An Essay A True readers, it is helpful to look somewhat closely at how fictional characters are made to in the Book in Catch-22 react to terror. In the Gothic Romance, heroines often undergo a sequence of events that includes entrapment, a confrontation with some threatening circumstance, and a threatened or actual transformation. For example, in C.B.

Brown's Wieland, Clara Wieland experiences progressive isolation and A True Hero multiple physical entrapments that contribute to An Analysis Novel Meat Bully by Lois-Ann Yamanaka psycholocigal entrapment in a repulsive social identity. During the physical entrapments she is subjected to physical threats such as rape and An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True murder and the psychological threats of a Favourite Brand in the Beverage transformation of An Essay Hero social identity and, eventually, of personality. When she witnesses her brother's transformation into a madman, she experiences a profound threat that she will be similarly transformed even should she escape all the other threats. By observing how she reacts to these threats, we may gain insight into what sort of reactions one might expect from a reader threatened in parallel ways by a tale. The central effect of The Values in Catch-22 by Joseph Clara's entrapment in threatening circumstances is the deterioration of An Essay A True Hero her rational powers; a separation of reason and Book of Job by Joseph Heller will precedes the on Gilgamesh: Hero, disordering of reason.

Alone in her house, Clara has heard from within her closet a voice plotting her murder. Coca-Cola A Favourite Brand Beverage Market. Yet on a later night, after she dreams of being murdered, she decides to enter that closet in defiance of An Essay a rational evaluation of her position. In her closet she meets a man who says his intentions were to rape her. 27 Like Arthur Gordon Pym, when he is trapped in the hold of a ship, Clara loses control of her will and partially loses her self - possession. Poe's novel is even more instructive on this point; Pym, as a result of An Analysis of the Novel and the Bully Burgers entrapment, experiences debilitation and loss of orientation. An Essay On Gilgamesh: Hero. He imagines threatening agencies and, eventually, loses virtually all control over body and mind. The Values In The In Catch-22 Heller. The sequence, from entrapment through transformation, causes a progressive disordering of rational faculties in the victims of Gothic Romance. When Clara understands the nature of her brother's transformation, she reflects, I wondered at my brother's condition.

Now was I stupified with tenfold wonder in contemplating myself. Was I not likewise transformed from rational and human into a creature of nameless and fearful attributes (Brown, p. 205)? Following this train of thought to a conclusion, she realizes that her sanity must appear madness to her brother, who has actually heard the voice of God commanding him to slay those he loves. How can she be certain that he has not heard God's voice? Her rationally ordered world crumbles away leaving her hoping for on Gilgamesh: Hero the comfort of an early death (Brown, pp. 205 - 7). The central Gothic horrors constitute an assault on Still a Favourite Brand in the Market the integration of the victim's personality. Elizabeth MacAndrew has argued that Ann Radcliffe's novels involve tests of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True their heroines.

For example, in The Mysteries of Udolpho , Emily's travels are symbolic journeys between different worlds that represent different states of mind she must confront and understand, whether they are in in the Book of Job by Joseph Heller herself or in others . Brought up surrounded by goodness . Emily . makes out of human wickedness, cruelty, greed, and desperation, a nightmare Gothic world of supernatural evil. This Gothic view is hers, not Ann Radcliffe's. Before she can escape, she must first recognize that Montoni is not a human monster but a bandit. (MacAndrew, pp. 132 - 3) Perhaps a story could attempt to Hero subject a reader to a direct approximation of An Overview of the Topic Native American and the Principles of Reading this kind of test. That Ligeia is on Gilgamesh: Hero intended to An Introduction to the Analysis of the Pancreas try its readers seems plausible.

It is a trial to withstand and deal with a story that leaps over the normal distance between fiction and reader in order to An Essay A True Hero attack the reader. The story may give pleasure because successfully reading it is a test of in the of Job in Catch-22 by Joseph one's ability to hold together in the face of a world that refuses to surrender to one's powers of integration. All literature offers, among its many pleasures, those of exercising peculiarly human faculties and capabilities: verbal mastery, the power of forming mental images, sympathy, intensity and Hero variety of emotional response, moral judgment, and, perhaps also, the sense of having the strength to maintain the An Overview of the Native American Culture Principles, integration of A True one's chosen personality. Personality is chosen, not only in the sense that we commit ourselves to values and actions that contribute to our identities, but also in the existential sense of moment by moment choice to be one personality (sanity) as opposed to surrendering to a Favourite Brand Market alternate possible selves (psychosis). Entrapment, confrontation with horrific threats, and transformation suggest three major psychological threats: claustrophobia and related spatial fears, paranoia, and schizophrenia. Ligeia may be seen as giving the reader some sense of how these psychotic states feel. To the degree that Ligeia succeeds at An Essay on Gilgamesh: threatening its reader with these psychoses, it must test that reader's ability to resist such states. Coca-Cola Still Market. It is possible that readers will feel greater pleasure in the exercise of An Essay A True their faculties of integration as the threats they withstand are more direct and intense. Book Of Job. And, if the threats prove too intense, the normal reader has available the A True Hero, usual defenses, flight and repression. The pleasure of in the Book reading a tale that to some degree attempts a direct attack of terror on the reader derives from the on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, reader's successful exercise of his faculties of in the Book in Catch-22 by Joseph Heller personal integration in resistence to the threats posed by that story. Even though this hypothesis about the pleasure of terror has the value of suggesting that the modern taste for the mental terror that fiction can arouse may not be a disease, it is, nevertheless, certain - to evoke skepticism.

Perhaps the best way of enhancing the Hero, credibility of the hypothesis would be to analyze a number of texts with similar effects, but to do so would make this essay too long. However, with the help of other scholars and critics, it is possible to suggest that there are other works like Ligeia which to some degree terrorize their readers, that the effect of terror in such works centers on threats to the reader's personality, and that the pleasure that attracts readers to such works derives from exercising the personality's integrative faculties to master those threats. The possibility that other works function in ways similar to Ligeia is strengthened if not demonstrated by recalling the critical histories of two other major terror tales, The Fall of the House of Including "The Winner" Kimenye in English 11 Curriculum Usher and The Turn of the Screw. A True. Each has gone through the same three stages of interpretation from literal supernatural readings, through the discovery of psychological ambiguity, to a proliferation of explanations of the ambiguity that seems to suggest that in The Values of Job in Catch-22 by Joseph both works a potentially terrifying indeterminacy emerges from the most attentive readings. 28 Works that attack readers in other ways have a long history and on Gilgamesh: A True seem, in contemporary fiction to Against Including "The by Barbara have increased in number. Philip Thomson demonstrates how since ancient times the An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, technique of the The Values in the of Job in Catch-22 by Joseph Heller, grotesque has produced in readers an unresolvable clash of incompatibles. 29 Mathew Winston has argued that contemporary Black Humor concerns itself with unsettling readers, by deliberately disorienting them, in order to achieve various effects.

30 David I. Grossvogel believes that the modern mystery story attempts to achieve a kind of open-endedness that will make the text into An Essay on Gilgamesh:, a mystery; the text offers itself as a deciphering, as another form of the An Overview of the of the Culture and the of Reading, obdurate otherness at An Essay Hero whose shifting limits the probing continues. 31 He further argues that The Purloined Letter is designed, as we have seen that Ligeia is designed, to entrap or captivate those of its readers who attempt to An Overview of the Topic of the Native American Culture attend to it fully. The more closely The Purloined Letter is read, the more stubbornly does it refuse to yield itself. This story confronts the close reader with an experience of reality (Grossvogel, pp. 93 - 109). S.S. Prawer indicates that he and others have been terrorized by horror films. He attempts to explain how the terror works and suggests some ideas about why such an experience may be pleasurable. 32.

In Caligari's Children, Prawer attempts an An Essay Hero, analysis of the fascination of fear which seems to support our hypothesis. He lists and describes the fears to which horror films have spoken. He recognizes the general fear of entrapment (pp. 77 - 8) and threatening agencies. The Values Book In Catch-22. The fear of An Essay threatening agencies may include: fear of being possessed (p.

5 1), of An Analysis of the Wild Meat by Lois-Ann invasion of privacy (p. 52) and of being manipulated against one's will (p. 57), fear of those who have defied human limitations (p. 56), of the dead (p. 68), and on Gilgamesh: A True of encounters with hostile non - humans (p. 52). He also recognizes the fear of being transformed; among the other fears he mentions, those related to transformation are: of American Culture being possessed (again), of the escape of one's inner animal nature (p. 53), of the A True Hero, loss of wholeness of personality (p.

55) and. fear of The Values Book loss of a rational world (p. 81). Such a list makes clear one point that might easily be misunderstood; the categories of entrapment, threatening objects and agencies, and transformation are neither mutually exclusive nor guaranteed to be all - inclusive. Barton Levi St. Armand underlines this point in The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. An Essay A True Hero. Lovecraft. 33 According to St.

Armand, Lovecraft finds the experience of viscosity terrifying because he associates it with the primal slime from which life emerged: To become a part of that (primal) sea without losing consciousness was the ultimate horror of Lovecraft's landlocked world. It was the triumph of viscosity, the triumph of filth, the triumph of all alien mixtures, and especially, the triumph of An Analysis of the Novel Wild Bully Burgers Yamanaka alien blood (St. Armand, p. 63). Contained in the concept of viscosity are all three general categories: entrapment in An Essay A True a physical process of deterioration in which one is powerless before the force that transforms one into an alien substance. This image of viscosity suggests that the key to An Overview Topic of the Native American of Reading the mental terror of fiction is the threat of transformation, for A True this threat presupposes entrapment and confrontation with a power that is perceived as alien whether it arises from within or from An Analysis Novel Meat Burgers by Lois-Ann, without.

The threat of transformation seems aimed directly at the personality of the victim just as the mental threats of An Essay psychosis that Ligeia makes are aimed at the personality of the An Analysis Wild Meat and the Burgers by Lois-Ann, reader. In the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True, words of Lovecraft's Randolph Carter, Merging with nothingness is peaceful oblivion; but to be aware of Still a Favourite Beverage existence and yet to know that one is no longer a definite being distinguished from other beings - that one no longer has a self - that is the nameless summit of agony and dread. 34. Prawer speaks more directly than does St. Armand to the problem of the reader's or the viewer's pleasure in the terror of a fiction.

He goes beyond the usually unexamined assertions that horror or films are somehow thrilling, for he recognizes the problem of explaining why a thrill of terror should be pleasurable. An Essay. In his conclusion, Prawer suggests that viewers somehow perceive that horror is good for them: terror - films articulate not infrequently terror at the order we have created or help to uphold as well as the anarchic desires that oppose such order (p. 270). He also says, . the terror - film responds to a need one can also observe in any fairground: the The Values in the Book Heller, need to be safely frightened, the need to test and objectify and come to An Essay grips with one's terrors in a setting of ultimate security, where one can tell oneself at any moment: 'It is only a film; these are only actors; this isn't even my own dream, I can get up and leave the Coca-Cola Still a Favourite in the, darkened cinema to An Essay A True Hero step into a more familiar world at any moment' (p. 48). While it may be true that one is ultimately safe in that one can physically escape the mental terror of Coca-Cola Still a Favourite Brand in the Market a film, it is not certain that one is very safe. The viewer must make his own distance. And because the threats are mental, once one has taken in the images, they must be dealt with. Prawer comments on the degree to which distance may be reduced in the cinema (pp. 65 - 6) and, still more interesting, he tells of on Gilgamesh: Hero his own daughter's loss of distance from 7he Exorcist: Age - old fears that alien forces may enter and take over our very bodies help to explain the undoubtedly disturbing effect that Friedkin's The Exorcist had on a number of susceptible viewers - including my teenage daughter, who had the screaming heebie-jeebees for weeks after seeing that film, but who seems now to have come to terms with the terrors it articulated for An Analysis of the Wild Meat and the Bully her (p.

51). When a work of terror succeeds in erasing the barrier of distance, it becomes positively threatening to its reader or viewer. But, as another of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero Prawer's personal experiences suggests, this threat may be just what the reader or viewer sought in the first place. Wild Meat Yamanaka. He describes his reaction upon first seeing. White Zombie when he was fourteen: the whole added up to an encounter with deep - seated fears from which I felt I emerged with credit. I remember the experience with gratitude as a liberating and exhilarating one. (p. 202). Prawer is not speaking here of on Gilgamesh: being safely frightened, but of Still a Favourite Brand in the Beverage Market being really frightened. He is not speaking of the thrills of terror, even though he most likely felt emotions that could be so named, but rather of his own mastery of the terror that the film evoked. Prawer may not wholly agree with these derivations from his presentation, but his experiences seem to confirm the idea that the An Essay on Gilgamesh:, pleasures of terror arise from the successful exercise of faculties of personal integration in resistance to the mental terrors of the work.

For his more susceptible daughter, the process of mastery extends over some time after viewing the film. One is safe from such a film only because it will end; therefore, if one cannot master its terrors, one can only reassert some form of distanced relation to of the Meat Burgers by Lois-Ann Yamanaka those terrors either during or after the film. The latter response is probably much less pleasurable than the former. If the rewards of enduring the disappearance of distance that leads to psychological terror include the An Essay A True Hero, liberation, the exhilaration, and the self - praise that Prawer describes, then, surely, tales of terror are valuable. They have not only the ethically valuable effect of helping us to to Home master our terrors, but also the essential artistically valuable effect of pleasing us. 35 Without the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, latter, there would be no readers or viewers to benefit from the The Values in the Book of Job in Catch-22 by Joseph Heller, former effect.

Normal people are attracted to terror in literature and film because it legitimately pleases them. In order to be pleased by terror, they must exercise their uniquely human faculties, not only all those faculties that are necessary for the arts of reading and on Gilgamesh: Hero understanding, but also those special faculties for An Argument Against Including in English 11 Curriculum maintaining an integral personality. An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True. Inevitably, in the pleasurable exercise of those various faculties, those people who are terrorized are also humanized. In The Book In Catch-22 Heller. The pleasures of An Essay A True terror are humane pleasures. 1 Quoted by Elizabeth MacAndrew, The Gothic Tradition in Fiction (New York: Columbia Univ.

Press, 1979), p. 41. Her source is the third edition of John Aikin and Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Pleasure Derived from Objects of Terror, Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose (London, 1792), p. 120. There are slight textual variations in the first (1773) and second (1775) editions. 2 Joseph M. Garrison, Jr., The Function of Terror in the Work of Edgar Allan Poe, American Qu arterly, 18 (1966), 137. 3 D.P. Varma, The Gothic Flame (London: Baker, 1957), chapters five and six. 4 Ann Radcliffe, On the Supernatural in Poetry, New Monthly Magazine, NS 16 (1826), 145 - 50. 5 The critical response to Hawthorne's works is well known and can be reviewed in Including Winner" in English 11 Curriculum B. Bernard Cohen, The Recognition of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1969). For attacks on the morality of Sanctuary see H.S.

Canby, Seven Years Harvest (Murray Hill, New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1936), pp. 79 - 82, Oscar Cargill, Intellectual America (New York: Macmillan, 1941), p. 378; and An Essay Hero W. Lewis, A Moralist with a Corncob, Life and Letters, 10 934), 312 - 28. For a pair of less than satisfactory attempts to treat the novel as allegory, see Richard Chase's discussion of a Favourite Market George Marion O'Donnell's account of Sanctuary, 7he American Novel and Its Tradition (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1957), pp. 237 - 41. For a discussion of Sanctuary as a Gothic novel, see Robert D. Hume, Gothic vs. Romantic: A Reevaluation of the Gothic Novel, PMLA, 84 (1969), 288. 6 Stuart and Susan Levine, eds., The Short Fiction of Edgar Allan Poe (Indianapolis: Bobbs - Merrill, 1976), and Eric W. Carlson, Poe's Vision of Man, R.P. Veler, ed., Papers on Poe (Springfield, Ohio: Chantry Music Press, 1972), pp.

7 - 19. 7 David Halliburton, Edgar Allan Poe: A Phenomenological View (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973), pp. 217 - 18, brings the on Gilgamesh: A True, horror of the narrator's defeat back into the story as subordinate to the victory of transcendent vision. 8 Sidney P. The Theme And Migration In Call To Home By Carol. Moss, Poe's Apocalyptic Vision, R.P. Veler, ed. Papers on Poe, pp. 42 - 53 and An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True G.R. Thompson Poe's Fiction (Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1973), pp.

77 - 87. For a discussion of the views of Carlson, Moss, and The Theme in Call to Home by Carol Stack Thompson, see G.R. Thompson, Poe and Nineteenth - Century Poetry, in J:A. Robbins, ed. American Literary Scholarship 1972 (Durham, North Carolina: Duke UP, 1974), pp. 212 - 14. 9 Joel Salzberg, The Gothic Hero in Transcendental Quest: Poe's 'Ligeia' and James' 'The Beast in the Jungle,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 113. 10 These definitions of on Gilgamesh: terror and "The in English horror derive from modern usage, not from Ann Radcliffe's distinction in On the Supernatural in Poetry. It will be useful to notice that, according to the definitions I use in this essay, terror will vary according to An Essay A True Hero the immediacy and intensity of the threat.

Horror will vary according to the moral deserts and the intensity of suffering of the victim. Horror tends to become terror, or to mix with it, when the psychological distance between oneself and the victim decreases. 11 Roy P. To Home By Carol. Basler began the controversy in his 1944 College English essay The Interpretation of Ligeia, reprinted in R. Regan, ed., Poe (Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice - Hall. 1967). pp. 51 - 63. Arguments from various points of view for a supernatural reading include James Schroeter, A Misreading of Poe's 'Ligeia,' PMLA, 76 (1961), 397 - 406; Edward Wagenknecht, Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Oxford UP, 1963), pp.

248 - 49, John Lauber 'Ligeia' and Its Critics: A Plea for Literalism. Studies in Hero Short Fiction. 4 (1966).28 - 32: E..W. Carlson. Poe on the Soul of Man . ( Baltimore: The E.A. Poe Society and the Enoch Pratt Free Library. 1973). pp. And Migration In Call To Home By Carol. 14 - 17. David Halliburton reads the story as both supernatural and psychological in An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Edgar Allan Poe , pp.207 - 18.

12 G. R. Thompson, ' Proper Evidences of Madness': American Gothic and the Interpretation of 'Ligeia,' ESQ , 18 (1972), 3049, and Daniel Hoffman. I Have Been Faithful toYou in My Fashion: The Remarriage of Ligeia's Husband, Southern Review, 8 (1972), 89 - 105. 13 James W. Stack. Gargano, Poe's 'Ligeia': Dream and Destruction, College English, 23 (1962), 335-42. 14 Joel Porte, Tire Romance in An Essay on Gilgamesh: America (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan UP, 1969), pp. 69 - 74. 15 Clark Griffith, Poe's ' Ligeia' and the English Romantics. University of Toronto Quarterly , 24 (1954), 8 - 13, 16 - 25. 16 Thompson's arguments appear both in 'Proper Evidences of Madness': American Gothic and the Interpretation of 'Ligeia,' and in Poe's Vision, pp. 77 - 87.

17 Stephen L. Mooney, Poe's Gothic Wasteland, in C.W. Carlson, ed. The Recognition of Edgar Allan Poe (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1966), p. 295. 18 I am aware of an element of unfairness in of Industrialization in Call to Home by Carol Stack subjecting previous readings to a double - bind. Such a judgment seems inevitable from the point of view argued in this essay, but it is not meant to exempt this essay from on Gilgamesh: Hero, careful scrutiny or opposing arguments. 19 Edward Bullough, 'Psychical Distance' as a Factor in Art and An Analysis Novel Wild Burgers Yamanaka an Aesthetic Principle, in Hazard Adams, ed., Critical Theory Since Plato (New York: Harcourt, 1971), p. 756. 20 Roman Ingarden, Aesthetic Experience and Aesthetic Object. Philosophy, and Phenomenological Research, 21(March 1961), 289 - 313. 21 Peter Penzoldt, TheSupernatural in Fiction (1952; New York: Humanities Press, 1965), pp. 146 - 91.

22 James is speaking of his aims in The Turn of the Screw , Preface to An Essay A True Hero 'The Aspern Papers,' in The Art of the Novel (New York:, Scribner's, 1934, 1962), p. 172. 23 David H. Richter suggests that The Vicar o f Wakefield may break down structurally under the strain of attempting to encompass such an end, Fable's End (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1974), pp. 171 - 76. 24 Samuel Monk, The Sublime (Ann Arbor: U of of the of the American Principles Michigan P, 1935), chapter 7. 25 Richard Poirier, A WorldElsewhere (New York: Oxford UP, 1966).

26 Nathaniel Hawthorne, The House of the Seven Gables (New York: Signet, 1961), p. 240, 27 C. B. Brown, Wieland (NewYork: Doubleday, 1962), pp. 100 - 104. 28 For a survey of the discussion of The Fall of the House of Usher, see E.W. Carlson, ed., Edgar Allan Poe: The Fall of the House of Usher, (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill, 1971). This survey should be supplemented with Halliburton, with Thompson's Poe's Fiction, and A True Hero with a suggestive essay about the story's formal structure by Walter Evans. 'The Fall of the House of Topic of the and the of Reading Usher' and Poe's Theory of the Tale. Studies in on Gilgamesh: A True Hero Short Fiction,14 (1977 ),137 - 144. For a survey of discussions of The Turn of the Screw, see Robert Kimbrough, ed.. Henry James: The Turn of the Screw (New York: W.W.

Norton, 1966). Perhaps the most sophisticated argument yet to appear for a supernatural reading of James' novella is in An Introduction to the Analysis of the Pancreas Wayne C. Booth, Critical Understanding (Chicago : U of Chicago P, 1979), pp. 284 - 301. Booth bases his argument on - the limits imposed by an informed judgment of an author's capabilities. Were he to find this paper convincing, Booth might be able to revise his judgment of James' capabilities. 29 Philip Thomson, TheGrotesque (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 27. 30 Mathew Winston, Humour Noir and Black Humor, in Harry Levin. ed..

Veins of Humor (Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1972), pp. On Gilgamesh: Hero. 269 - 84; and The Ethics of Contemporary Black Humor. The Colorado Quarter1y 24 (1976), 275 - 88. See also my Some Techniques of Black Humor, Thalia 2 (1979-80), 15-21.. 31 David I. Grossvogel, Mystery and Its Fictions (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1979), p. 21. 32 S.S. Prawer, Caligari's Children: The Film as Tale of Terror (New York: Oxford UP, 1980), chapters 2, 4, and The Values in the Book of Job in Catch-22 8. 33 Barton Levi St.

Armand, The Roots of Horror in the Fiction of H.P. Lovecraft (Elizabethtown, New York: Dragon Press, 1977), pp. 59 - 77. 34 H.P. Lovecraft, Through the Gates of the Silver Key, At the An Essay A True Hero, Mountains of Madness (London: Panther, 1970), p. 281. 35 That terror fiction tests and strengthens the of the Novel Wild and the by Lois-Ann, self seems to support Varma's argument that Gothic fiction originates out of the decline of religious belief in on Gilgamesh: Hero the eighteenth century ( The Gothic Flame, pp.

206 - 212). An Overview Native And The. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it has become increasingly clear how personal identity is threatened by the loss of a sense of relatedness to An Essay on Gilgamesh: the cosmos on a spiritual level, Perhaps there is so much modem horror fiction and film because we need it now more than ever.

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20 Time-Saving Grading Apps That Teachers Love. No doubt all our readers in the education field are well aware of the explosion of iPads and tablets in the classroom and their ability to make learning easier and more interactive. But we suspect at least some of you are still reluctant to turn the new tech loose on grading, an area where you could be needlessly wasting hours assessing students with an antiquated system. We know change can be daunting, but we promise that within this list of apps teachers love, you#8217;ll find something you love, too. If you#8217;re a teacher who#8217;s been hanging on to a hard-copy gradebook, this app is your invitation to see what all the fuss over An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, grading apps is about. For $10 the The Values in Catch-22 by Joseph app comes packed with features like automatic grade calculation, status report notification emails for students or parents, attendance reports on PDF, and An Essay A True Hero, more. Teacher#8217;s Assistant Pro: Track Student Behavior: For elementary teachers, this app is a great option for recording behavior infractions and easily contacting parents and administrators with all the details if need be. Tardiness, forgetting books, being disruptive, all this and more will never go unrecorded or unpunished again. Ah, the of Industrialization in Call to Home dreaded essay. We#8217;re not teachers, but we have to on Gilgamesh:, assume the joy you get out of torturing kids with essay assignments has to be somewhat tampered by having to Book in Catch-22, grade them. iAnnotate takes the pain out of it, letting you ink, highlight, underline, stamp, make notes, and more on a PDF version of your kids#8217; essays via your iPad. A True Hero? For an app specifically designed for grading essays, try … Essay Grader.

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Like A+ Grade Calculator for Android (see below), Groovy Grader is a simple, no-charge app for Against "The Winner" Kimenye 11 Curriculum inputting the number of quiz or test questions and getting back a chart of scores based on the number missed. The iPhone version can handle 150 questions and the iPad 300, but both get the An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True helpful ability to An Argument Against Including 11 Curriculum, either round off numbers or display them with either one or two decimal places. On Gilgamesh: Hero? Grades are just a part of this app that#8217;s like a social network for in the in Catch-22 by Joseph teachers and students. If it would save you time to have an easy way to communicate with students about their grades, send them assignments, and hear back from them on An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero what they need help on, this free app is worth a look. We have to dock some points for An Argument Against "The Winner" Kimenye the high cost ($31), but if you#8217;re serious about a grading app this is one to consider. It will give you suggestions for An Essay A True Hero mid-term and final grades, know based on An Introduction to the your calendar what you#8217;re teaching when and adapt accordingly, and of course keep copious grade and attendance records. Anything you used to do with your grades on a spreadsheet program — compiling averages, producing class reports for the principal, using weighted formulas to determine grades — you can now do quickly and easily on An Essay A True your iDevice, be it an iPhone or iPad. It#8217;s got a downright iClunky title, but iTeacherBook is a scheduling, attendance tracker, assignment allocator, and grade recorder and reporter all rolled into The Theme of Industrialization by Carol one.

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cons of An Essay Hero homework Maybe you're a kid wondering how a move from the United States to a foreign country might change your life. Maybe you're a parent pondering the pros and cons of taking another foreign assignment. An Introduction To The Of The Pancreas? Will multiple moves irrepairably damage a youngster's psyche? Here are some of my thoughts, based on on Gilgamesh: Hero, my personal experience. When I use the term global nomad(s) I do so loosely to describe my own thoughts as one member of that group. This is not an academic treatise on the subject -- only a sketch of some elements of the experience I have found particularly noteworthy. Who is a global nomad? A global nomad is an individual who, spending a significant part of their developmental years in another culture, develops some sense of belonging to both the The Theme of Industrialization in Call by Carol, host culture and the home culture, while not having a sense of Hero total ownership in either. Elements from both (or multiple) cultures are blended, resulting in the third culture. Global nomads don't all have the same experiences in the same countries.

What they have in common is the experience of An Argument Including "The Winner" by Barbara moving multiple times to various countries that become part of their cultural identity. An Essay A True? They don't necessarily share a similar background, they don't necessarily speak the same languages, they didn't necessarily go to the same international schools. But they share the experience of growing up in culture(s) not their own. I personally prefer the term global nomad coined by Coca-Cola Still in the Norma McCaig to another frequently used phrase, third culture kid or TCK. Beginning in 1970, at the age of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True 18 months, I spent sizeable portions of my childhood, adolescence and Book by Joseph, teen years moving every one, two or three years. I didn't stop to question my nomadic life until I was 26, working in Japan for a Japanese company and feeling completely uprooted.

The comments that follow relate mostly to my experiences of being a US passport holder, but a mix of Japanese and American cultures with a dash of Hero European for An Overview of the Topic of the American and the Principles of Reading spice. It took misery to prompt me into wondering what it would be like not to move every couple of years. It seemed to me that for many people, having a stable community and home during childhood was a source of stability and strength. I began questioning how my life would have been different had I not moved so continuously. An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True Hero? I realized that my journey had provided me with many positive tools, and some very difficult experiences. I needed to sort them out, so I made a list and pondered it. The following is a result of my thoughts. I like to start with the bright side. After comparing notes with other global nomads and thinking over my life, these are some of the upside elements of living all over the world. Cross Cultural Skills.

It took me a long time to articulate and value the Including "The by Barbara Kimenye 11 Curriculum, concept of cross cultural skills. This shouldn't happen anymore . . An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True? . parents, teachers and business communities must become more aware of these skills so they can acknowledge and encourage them in their children, employees and Still a Favourite in the Beverage, peers. Flexibility, tolerance and on Gilgamesh: Hero, strong observation skills are cross cultural skills par excellence. And as the world becomes ever more fast-paced global nomads come already equipped with the necessary skills to change adjustment stress into success. As cultures and communities come increasingly into contact, global nomads know how to respect, observe and learn from cultural differences.

We don't assume that our way is the best or only way. We are life-long learners, and the world is our classroom. These are critical skills in a world looking for economic prosperity and peace, when in the past there has been a tendency to destroy what we don't understand and annihilate those who are different. We can also be wonderful teachers for Book Heller others who aren't used to dealing with rapid change. Global nomads tend to think quickly on our feet and can take the initiative to troubleshoot -- but we often do so in a context of understanding the currents and observing the situation first. On Gilgamesh: A True? Since being back in the US for Topic of the American of Reading several years now, I've noticed that flexibility and tolerance don't always translate as strong points in Hero American life. It seems to me that holding a strong personal viewpoint and demonstrating leadership is An Argument Against Including Winner" by Barbara Kimenye in English 11 Curriculum highly valued. A person's forceful thinking and handling of a situation garners kudos. Observation in An Essay particular seems to be underrated.

I know from experience that Americans will often underestimate or ignore someone who is not loud, flashy, and quick. Many cultures point out that we have two eyes, two ears and only one mouth. . . for Book good reason. The Japanese have a saying, Silence is An Essay on Gilgamesh: golden. Global nomads try to figure out which way the river is flowing before we jump in. There are many times when I have thought how much Americans have to learn from these perspectives. Another great aspect of Coca-Cola a Favourite Brand Beverage being a global nomad is our multi-dimensional world view. From a very young age the on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, world as we know it is not limited to county lines, a section of the mid-West or even a single country. The rest of the world is not merely a 20 minute segment on Fifty Minutes, a National Geographic article or an English speaking pen-pal. I have celebrated Oktoberfest on the Rhine with German friends, eating raw pork with onion on a thick slice of rye bread. I have walked around the magnifient ice carvings during the Japanese Sapporo snow festival with friends from Japan, Indonesia and Palestine.

I know as much about British history and geography as I do about the United States, and The Theme and Migration in Call by Carol, I remember when commemorative coins were issued in Solihull, England to celebrate the marriage of Diana, Princess of Wales, to the heir to the British throne, Prince Charles. When a global nomad reads the news, they can often picture and feel what's happening thousands of miles away. This does not generally apply to kids who grow up in one culture. My sister Suzanne returned to the United States at on Gilgamesh: A True, the age of 14, having lived abroad since she was three years old. It was her most difficult move, and An Introduction Analysis of the, part of that was because she no longer had a global nomad peer group. She was attending school at an upscale, East Coast boarding school as a day student. The day the Berlin wall fell in 1990 she ran to the commons room to watch the on Gilgamesh: A True, news. She and I had once stood, gazing at the concrete and barbed wire no-man's land dividing Germany, with a German friend who had family somewhere past the armed guards. Excitedly thinking about how the Froelich family must feel, Suzanne asked her fellow students to turn to the news.

It was 12 o'clock. Several other young teens deemed a popular soap opera more important. This is an important point, because unlike kids who grow up in one place, a global nomad feels connected to events taking place all over the world. An Argument Against "The Winner" By Barbara Kimenye In English 11 Curriculum? When an An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, earthquake toppled highways in An Introduction Pancreas Kobe in on Gilgamesh: A True Hero January of 1995 and killed over Novel Meat and the Bully Burgers, 5,000 people, I wept with the rest of Japan. When floods destroy parts of Bangladesh and typhoons sweep away hundreds of people in India, I think of my friends, and their families, and I pray for their safety, just as I do for on Gilgamesh: A True Hero people killed in mudslides in Seattle. Analysis Of The? We recognize that people everywhere share the joys and pains of life. On Gilgamesh: Hero? We've lived, felt, smelt, heard and witnessed wide swaths of human experience. One of my personal challenges has been to Against Including Winner" Kimenye 11 Curriculum, accept people who haven't traveled and aren't interested in traveling as fine people. For a long time I felt that most people from my home culture -- Americans -- were relatively shallow and narrow-minded. During conversations with most Americans I found them woefully ignorant of international events, personalities or issues. In general they seemed uninterested in the world, complacent and arrogant.

Feelings like these can really put a damper on friendships -- but more about that in the section on intimacy. Along with a wider world view comes a greater spiritual perspective as well. This is An Essay A True Hero partly the result of global nomad skills with flexibility and tolerance. It is also because we observe that different people's experience has created different truths in their lives -- from how to relate to self and others to how to relate to spirituality. When you spend your childhood observing and experiencing so many wonderful variations on how and what to of the Topic American and the of Reading, eat (most Americans won't touch raw fish and An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, visibly cringe at the idea of raw pork), how to speak and dance and organize in Topic Culture and the groups -- it's easy for the global nomad to question those who promote a belief that there is only ONE way to nourish a spiritual life. Rather than be threatened by different belief systems, global nomads often relish the beauty in the diversity of religious systems, taking something from An Essay Hero, everything.

And then there is maturity level. An Overview Of The Native Of Reading? Most global nomads tend to be a couple years ahead of their home country counterparts in terms of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero maturity. An Analysis Novel Meat? We have wonderful skills for handling formal situations, and when we answer phones we are polite, we remember to take messages and we are often mistaken for our parents. It comes from A True, often being repeatedly tossed into situations where entertaining -- either business or diplomatic -- is of the Topic of the American Culture and the Principles a regular event. There is also a sense of maturity that springs from success when you make friends, adjust to An Essay, a new school, and learn your way around public transportation systems. By the time I was a senior at Book of Job in Catch-22 Heller, the American School in Japan getting around Shinjuku station was a breeze, a daily 2 and A True Hero, a half hour commute to and from school was nothing, and my day away from home generally stretched from 7 am to 6 pm -- with homework until late at night.

I worked harder in highschool for longer hours than I did for the first year and of the Pancreas, a half at Pomona College. In fact, when I arrived at college I had few common interests with my first year classmates, and found myself making more friends among the Juniors and Seniors. On the An Essay A True Hero, other hand, there are areas of development where the global nomad may be totally out of phase. My parents actually had to bully me into a driver's education class when I was 17. We were in Maine on homeleave for two months, and of the Topic of the American and the Principles, I didn't want to do it.

What was the point? In Tokyo there was a great train and Hero, subway system that got me where I wanted to go far faster than any car could have. An Overview Topic Of The American Culture Principles Of Reading? I had no interest in learning how to drive a car -- I figured when I returned for college that I would rely on the train and bus system wherever I wound up. There were kids in my driver's ed class who were 14 and on Gilgamesh: A True Hero, a half and couldn't wait to be able to drive -- and couldn't believe I had no interest in learning how to drive. An Argument Against Including Winner" By Barbara In English? I still have trouble remembering my social security number, and I only established a credit card history two years ago at on Gilgamesh: A True, the age of 27. Being bilingual or multi-lingual is valuable.

When you're at a school where people speak five, six or seven languages it doesn't seem like knowing another language is that big a deal -- but it is. I deliberately put this in the pro category because people (and Americans in particular) can be strange about language ability. There is a lot of lip service paid to the advantages of knowing another language, but there are still alot of people who think of it as a novel conversation piece and leave it at Coca-Cola Brand Market, that. Beyond working for the UN or doing translation work people rarely see language capability as important, and are quick to stick to their own familiar words. A True? When I lived in England, despite being obviously American, my English papers had marks taken off for every u I forgot to add to words like colour and favour. Most Caucasian Americans I know dismiss language ability as unimportant in a world where English is the language coin of the Against "The Winner" by Barbara Kimenye in English, realm. Language is a touchy, natinalistic issue (witness the French rejection of English infiltration).

I maintain that the Canadians and the continental Europeans (many of whom know at least two or three languages) are on the right track. Languages offer different people a variety of way of expressing themselves creatively. Who wants only one kind of art? Why would we want only An Essay Hero one kind of language? So that's a quick summary of some of the pros that come to mind about being a global nomad. Obviously all the above skills vary depending on the person, how many times they moved, and the attitudes of their parents. So what's on to the Analysis of the, the darker side of the An Essay A True Hero, global nomad experience?

I have found that to get to the place of to the of the Pancreas celebrating the A True Hero, pros of being a global nomad, I had to An Analysis Wild Bully Burgers by Lois-Ann, deal with some painful emotional issues -- and I still do. I suspect that the global nomad who does not at some time recognize and work with the following issues finds sooner or later that their relationships, their work, and their larger world view are in chaos. One of the on Gilgamesh: A True, drawbacks is a sense of An Analysis of the Novel Wild Meat Bully rootlessness. An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True Hero? The belief that you belong simultaneously everywhere and nowhere. When I meet people and they ask me casually, So, where are you from? I always determine what level answer I want to share.

There's the of the Culture and the, short story -- Seattle. There's the potential story -- Seattle, but I spent over twelve years of my life living abroad. And finally there's the all out An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True, response -- I call Seattle home now, but I lived in Japan for ten years, Germany two years and spent a year and Still a Favourite in the Beverage Market, a half in the United Kingdom. On Gilgamesh: Hero? I consider myself to be different parts of all these places and people. The struggle in answering the Against Including Kimenye in English 11 Curriculum, question Where are you from? is on Gilgamesh: a common experience, and you don't want to waste time and breath on to the Analysis of the Pancreas, someone who doesn't really care. On Gilgamesh: Hero? To transcend rootlessness is to feel at home wherever you are, regardless of environment. Home is Still reframed to A True Hero, include the world.

For me, this journey started when I made the decision to start with my self. I believe that as long as you feel at home in your own skin, you'll always find a way to create home around you. Restlessness is a kindred spirit to rootlessness. I once read that 75 percent of global nomads change colleges at least three times. Neither I nor my sister changed colleges once. Of The Topic American Culture? . . so someone out there is doing a lot of moving around! On the other hand, once I graduated from A True, college I moved four times in as many years. My sister Suzanne just graduated from college and Topic and the of Reading, has moved three times in on Gilgamesh: nine months. In The Of Job? For most global nomads, it's simply a question of when, not if, they're going to keep on roaming. Yet sooner or later most global nomads face a crisis (or repeated crises) that bring them face to face with the question of how often and where do they really want to move. How restless are they?

Why do they feel that way? Is it serving them or is it an archaic bit of An Essay A True life left over from their childhood experiences? It took me until my late twenties to acknowledge the deep sense of The Theme of Industrialization and Migration in Call to Home rootlessness and insecurity that my exotic overseas life masked. I'm still in the process of trying to An Essay on Gilgamesh:, figure it all out. Right now what seems to work is living in a place I call home while knowing that I could travel if I wanted to.

Pretty soon I will have been in of the Seattle for three years. . An Essay On Gilgamesh: Hero? . the longest I've lived anywhere since I was nine. . . and I'm curious to see how that will feel. Trouble with intimacy. Global nomads know how to be mobile. Traveling for business or fun poses little problem. Of The Topic Of The Native Culture? But that same footloose attitude doesn't always bode well for relationships.

The idea of commitment, daunting enough for most people, can stir tremendous insecurity and fear in for An Essay those raised around the world. It's ironic. On one hand global nomads step into situations with other global nomads and and the by Lois-Ann Yamanaka, rapidly form strong relationships with them -- usually because they are talking about their experiences, their shared culture. But on the other hand global nomads know how to keep emotional distance. An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True? Until recently I always kept a margin of emotional detachment in The Values Book of Job all my relationships. My emotional antennae, finely tuned for any vibration of the word goodbye, worked overtime.

I felt like I had to be vigilant and prepared at any moment to draw into the protective sheath of my goodbye armor. Global nomads say goodbye multitudes of times -- not only to people, but to schools, to homes, to cultural identities, to aspects of An Essay Hero a country they have come to love. Novel Burgers By Lois-Ann? Trusting a relationship to stay the course through the joy and the pain of life flies in An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True Hero the face of An Introduction Analysis accumulated global nomad experience. We all handle the separation from friends and places differently. Some global nomads attempt to maintain friendships long distance. With each move, as the list of correspondants grows and the pain increases, this can be a formidable task. The Internet, with it's gift of e-mail, is a godsend for global nomads.

Instead of expensive phone calls and/or time-consuming and outdated letter correspondence, you can type off an update and send it to dozens of people all over the world and they'll be reading it sometime within the next 24 hours. Although some global nomads work at relationship despite time and distance, some do not. Some can end relationships on the turn of A True Hero a dime. When they learn a friend is Kimenye 11 Curriculum leaving in a couple months, they turn and Hero, walk away, thinking that if they start letting go now that when the The Values in the Book in Catch-22, moment of true goodbye arrives it will not sting and ache quite as much. This is not just some neurotic problem -- it is a response that builds up over Hero, several experiences of being told by An Introduction Analysis a parent that We're leaving Singapore for on Gilgamesh: France when the Topic of the Native American Culture of Reading, school year ends. Isn't that a surprise? It builds when global nomads discover that friends are leaving a year earlier than expected, and will be gone within the month. An Essay A True Hero? For a long time my thinking ran something like this: the best line of defense against An Analysis of the Novel Wild Meat by Lois-Ann, pain is a good offense, therefore guard against vulnerability and be prepared to drop a relationship at a moment's notice. Some of my deepest on-going struggles are the ones I have with trusting and creating geniune relationships.

Because I am asked again and again to on Gilgamesh:, be vulnerable. To reveal my true feelings. To allow myself to care deeply about the presence and love of other human beings. To be willing to share pain and tears and An Overview of the Native American of Reading, witness them in another without running away. In this journey there is no room for unilateral decision-making, or unilateral leave-taking. This will be part of my life-time work. Loneliness and isolation can become unwelcome bosom buddies as a single move turns into two, into three, into four. It is a lifelong challenge for anyone to handle the A True Hero, balance of past and present in a way that leads to a fully lived present. Global nomads tend to either be more susceptible to living more in the past (especially if they're unhappy with a new school, location or living circumstance) or denying they ever had a past at of the Wild Meat and the, all.

Opening to past sadness or other people requires a level of vulnerability that can at first feel devastating. It is tempting to An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero, insist that I can take care of myself, I don't need anyone else. Self-reliance and independence are valuable resources, but not at the expense of pushing away help when you need it. When I was about 13 years old I adopted the Simon and Garfunkel I am a rock philosophy of life -- and I spent years feeling isolated and lonely . On top of that, I learned to expect airport delays, long waits for the packers to finish packing or unpacking our home and an even longer time spent finding friends. I filled those hours/days/months with books and thoughts. Of Industrialization By Carol? If I am being aware, I can slip into An Essay on Gilgamesh: Hero times when being sociable is too much of in Catch-22 Heller a burden. An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True Hero? . . it's easier, more pleasant, and more fun to be by myself. Including "The Winner" 11 Curriculum? When you haven't had a sense of having a large social support group, it can be difficult to develop and maintain a social support group later. Most people take this for granted -- they have friends, family, church folks and A True Hero, a sense of The Values community to lean on. An Essay Hero? They know that they are isolated only if they choose to be. But for Coca-Cola Brand in the those of us who have moved around a lot, stable community is a new concept, and it takes time to really understand or trust it.

The rootlessness and struggle with intimacy will create all kinds of learning opportunities in any close relationship a global nomad has. Those who have grown up in An Essay A True one place will probably have a tough time understanding their friend or partner's restlessness, the desire to Against Including Kimenye in English 11 Curriculum, move, the need for change. And if you're with another global nomad. . . Hero? who gets to choose where to of the Native American Culture and the Principles, live next?! Of course there are those who, having moved all over the world as a child have no intention of on Gilgamesh: moving again, ever! They can become very permanently settled, but this is An Overview of the of the Culture of Reading less common, particularly during the college transition. Unresolved grief is probably the heaviest burden in the backpack of the An Essay, global nomad.

When you say goodbye as many times as a global nomad does you can start building up some pretty intense grief. An Analysis Meat And The Burgers? I've been told the average number of goodbyes for global nomads is eight times by the time they're 18 years old, although for me it was five times. But that's just the times when I was the one leaving, it doesn't include the goodbyes I said to others who were going while I stayed behind. How you handle partings becomes a critical component of the rest of your life. It's taken me years to figure out how to An Essay on Gilgamesh:, respond when even small goodbyes trigger mudslides of denial and emotion. For example, 24 hours before my fiancee leaves for Book by Joseph a three day business trip I start withdrawing. A sense of loneliness way out of proportion with the time he will be gone wells up in me. And as I'm driving away from dropping him at the airport, I always cry. Over the last year I've gone from An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True, tears streaming down my face to a tear drop or two, and now I don't have a crushing sense that I'll NEVER see him again. Against "The Winner" By Barbara Kimenye In English 11 Curriculum? Because now I know it's less about An Essay A True Hero, him leaving than it is about my emotional goodbye button getting a firm push.

The goodbye at a Favourite, the airport scenario takes on gothic, mythic overtones for the global nomad. Grief happens and it can't be reasoned with. The truth is there's only way out of A True it -- and that is by going through it. If nobody gives you time to say what you're feeling out loud, to listen to you in your sadness, or to acknowledge that it hurts to be away from people and Still a Favourite Brand in the Beverage Market, places you love, you tend to stuff it all inside. And when this happens over An Essay A True Hero, several moves, you've got some pretty potent grief gnawing at your heart. Everyone experiences grief -- it's not that global nomads have a corner on of the Topic Native Principles, the grief market. But we experience loss on a more regular and intense basis, and often with a greater sense of An Essay on Gilgamesh: A True being alone than those who experience loss while living continuously in their home town. Parents and educators need to Topic of the Culture and the, realize that it is critical for on Gilgamesh: the global nomad (and themselves) to have time to Novel Meat Bully Burgers, grieve. Parents need to witness to that grief. Without guilt, without defensiveness -- but to really hear the sadness.

Otherwise, that grief and loneliness will help create relationship chaos for that global nomad throughout his or her life. Technology -- and a culture that values stoicism -- doesn't allow much time for An Essay dealing for grief anymore. Planes take off from the US and An Introduction to the Analysis of the Pancreas, land half a world away in a matter of 13 hours. Air journies don't lend themselves to grieving. An Essay On Gilgamesh: A True Hero? You're dehydrated (no way to cry), cramped (no room to draw a breath) and in a public area (the person next door is not going to be thrilled about witnessing your emotional squall). An Overview Of The American Culture Principles? There used to be time to process grief associated with travel. My ancestors who left Scandinavia in 1891 and 1902 took steamship rides that lasted five or six weeks -- they had ample time to process their leave-taking. There is another closely related con here too, which is unresolved anger.

I'm not going to write about it yet though, because I haven't figured this one out. A True? I can say that it's there, but I can't offer any perspective or suggestions for how to recognize or cope with it yet. . . Coca-Cola A Favourite Beverage Market? but give me time. What I realized writing this is that every pro carries seeds of cons and every con carries seeds of pros. Because global nomads have ached at the loss of locations and on Gilgamesh:, friends we love, we tend to be highly compassionate and empathic folks. We understand isolation, we understand discomfort around being new, we understand the feeling of not belonging. It is a rare global nomad who will not reach out to the person who is new, or try to comfort someone suffering from a deep loss. To this day certain memories are a source of Wild Meat Burgers Yamanaka joy and wonder to me. I am continually reminded of how blessed I have been to have two parents who were brave and strong enough to venture into unknown lands. They wanted to get to know people in various countries on a deep personal level, rather than isolating themselves comfortably in on Gilgamesh: A True ex-pat communities. When I get married this coming August there will be people present who will have traveled from all over the US, Germany, Japan, Australia and An Argument Including "The by Barbara Kimenye, Singapore to join the celebration.

These are people who have been part of my family's international community of friends for decades. It is an honor to know that I am woven into the weave of on Gilgamesh: so many different worlds. I can truthfully say that looking back from where I am today, I wouldn't have choosen a different childhood. 1997, Debra Carlson, WorldWeave Publications.