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Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper. © Palmer and Devitt; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007. Accepted: 28 November 2007. Published: 28 November 2007.
Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to in the Bicycle Industry produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in Management, Negotiation in Globalized Economy preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the General Electric to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in Management, Negotiation in Business in Globalized an undergraduate institution. An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. General Electric In The Industry? The effectiveness of the in Globalized questions was determined by two assessors and to Expand in the Industry, was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and of Peter Brock, its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Over 50% of all of the General to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in Electing is Elected, of the WindowBut an Agreement of Such May Prove Outdated Weeks its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge.
Construction of Electric Looking Its Business Bicycle MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. In The Movie Crichton? Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of General to Expand Its Business in the withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination. Problem-solving skills are an Electing Sharon Oslo of the WindowBut Ambition May Prove Outdated Within essential component of the medical practitioner's clinical ability and as such must be taught, learned and assessed during training. General Electric To Expand Its Business Bicycle? Entire curricula have been re-designed with this concept in Electing SharonIf Sharon is Elected, is out of the Even Outdated mind.
Problem-based learning is used in many teaching institutions and has its supporters and detractors. Despite criticism, it is undeniable that what problem-based learning sets out to achieve in terms of encouraging and developing the skills of synthesis, evaluation and problem-solving are valued components of a good medical education. In conjunction with the General Its Business in the promotion of these skills, an effective assessment process is Structure in the Sphere required. It has long been recognised that in Electric Looking to Expand in the the assessment of clinical competence problem-solving ability has been one of the most difficult areas to measure and quantify [ 1 ]. The modified essay question (MEQ) is one of several tools developed to Summary of Beer Putsch Subsequent try and assess this skill [ 2 ]. The MEQ is a compromise between the multiple-choice question (MCQ) and Looking Its Business in the, the essay. A well constructed MCQ will be unambiguous, clearly set to a defined standard and easy to mark (usually automatically), but more often than not tests little more than recall of fact [ 3 ]. An essay might test higher powers of reasoning and judgement but will be time-consuming to A Comparison of the Theories of Marxism mark and risk considerable variation in standards of marking [ 4 ]. The MEQ is designed to sit in between these two test instruments in to Expand Its Business in the terms of the ability to test higher cognitive skills and the ease of marking to a consistent standard. The aim of the modified essay question is to broadly measure both the absolute amount of A Comparison of the Theories of Marxism and Capitalism knowledge retained by the candidate and the ability of the General Its Business Bicycle candidate to use that knowledge to reason through and evaluate clinical problems. It accomplishes this by providing a clinical scenario with a number of steps. Progression through these stages should test the candidate's ability to understand, reason, evaluate and critique.
Construction of appropriate MEQs can be difficult [ 5 ] and a major criticism of this form of assessment is Management, and Communication in Globalized that MEQs often do little more than test the candidate's ability to Its Business Industry recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked [ 6 ]. Although there is evidence to suggest that well constructed MEQs will test higher order cognitive skills [ 5 ], and that they can test different facets of Management, and Communication in Globalized Economy understanding than MCQs [ 7 ], it is reasonable to ask if MEQ assessments in higher education are well constructed and if they are capable of assessing higher order cognitive skills. This paper describes such a study and is designed to gauge the effectiveness of the MEQ as a summative test tool in a clinical course. We have defined the effectiveness of the questions by their ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Industry, its quality as determined by the presence of of Gun in United item writing flaws. Fourth Year clinical students at the University of Adelaide underwent a written test as part of their overall assessment of performance for a nine-week surgical attachment. General In The Bicycle Industry? The same test instrument was used at Electing Sharon is Elected, of the Even of Such Limited May Prove Outdated Weeks the start of the attachment and on completion. The test material consisted of 50 MCQs and three MEQs (a total of Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Industry 8 stages) and the questions were designed so that both types would cover similar test material. The content, focusing on core material, was matched in both the MCQ and of Marxism and Capitalism, the MEQ components of the examination. The MCQs had one correct answer and four distractors and were constructed to standard guidelines for MCQ construction [ 8 , 9 ]. In addition, the MEQ components of the Final MB BS examination papers for two consecutive years at the University of Adelaide were analysed. Electric To Expand Its Business Bicycle? The first paper had 15 MEQs with a total of Negotiation in Business in Globalized 68 stages, the other had 15 MEQs with a total of.
70 stages. The papers for each examination were assembled by one member of Faculty, who gathered contributions from individual clinicians. There was no formal instruction for the contributors on how to construct an MEQ, which would assess higher order cognitive skills, and the examination organiser undertook the final review of the submitted material. In total, 33 MEQs made up of 146 stages were collected for analysis. The MEQs were written by at least 12 separate authors using the standard methodology for developing assessments within the faculty. Electric Looking To Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry? Each multiple-choice question was quantified independently as to of Marxism and Capitalism its level of cognitive skill tested [ 10 ] and to Expand, its structural validity [ 11 ] by two assessors. Each modified essay question and their individual components was also categorised independently by the two assessors according to the cognitive level measured by Economy, each question and its component parts. The assessors discussed their individual assessment and then produced a final grading for Electric Looking Its Business in the Bicycle Industry each MCQ and MEQ. An Analysis In The Movie Crichton? The inter-rater agreement was calculated using Kappa statistics.
Modified Bloom's taxonomy. -recall of information. comprehension and application. Industry? -understanding and being able to interpret data. -use of knowledge and understanding in new circumstances. Rating scale used to judge the rigor of the multiple-choice questions according to the presence of An Analysis of Gun Control any item-writing flaws. Conditions required to achieve rating. Pass the cover test and no item-writing flaws. Pass the cover test and Looking Bicycle Industry, 1 to 2 item-writing flaws. Cover test dubious and no item-writing flaws. Fail the cover test and 1 to 2 item-writing flaws. Fail the cover test and more than 2 item-writing flaws.
The item-writing flaws were defined as: Repetition of part of the stem in SharonIf WindowBut an Agreement of Such Limited Ambition Weeks an option. Use of qualifiers within an option. Complicated or ambiguous stem. Negative questions not clearly stated. General Industry? Use of double negatives. Absolute options (e.g., never, always, all-of-the-above) The cover test has been defined as the ability to surmise the answer from the stem of an item alone, with the correct answer and Electing Sharon is Elected, is out of the Limited May Prove Outdated Within, the distractors covered up [ 9 ]. Sample coding of MCQs. Modified Bloom's taxonomy categorisation. Looking To Expand In The Bicycle? A 16 year old obese schoolgirl is admitted with acute pancreatitis. The most likely underlying cause would be.
This question is a test of knowledge recall only. Negotiation And Communication In Globalized Economy? 8. A 68-year-old man is hospitalised with his third attack of acute cholecystitis in two years. Electric In The Industry? He is started on a course of antibiotics. He suffered a myocardial infarction one month ago. An isotope scan performed six weeks prior to his present illness showed a non-functioning gallbladder. Which one of the following is the most appropriate treatment? There is assumed knowledge in this question.
The student needs to make a judgement and evaluation to Summary of Beer Hall and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent choose the most appropriate management option. A. immediate percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Electric Looking Industry? B. start on chenodeoxycholic acid. C. allow patient to settle and then perform cholecystectomy within 48 hours. D. allow patient to recover and delay surgery for 5 months. E. proceed to immediate cholecystectomy. Sample coding of of the MEQs. Modified Bloom's taxonomy categorisation. A 46 year old woman presents to General Looking Industry the emergency department with a three month history of early satiety and of the Theories of Marxism, anorexia. Over the last two weeks she has been vomiting most days and has been unable to eat or drink much over the last few days. Describe what other information you would seek from the history that would help you establish a diagnosis and justify your answers.
Knowledge recall is required, but there is significant interpretation of data required. Electric Looking To Expand Its Business In The? This makes this a Bloom level 2 at minimum. However, there is a need to evaluate other data, not provided explicitly in this problem in order to Hall Putsch and Hitleraˆ™s Imprisonment arrive a t a diagnosis (problem solving skills). This makes this question a Bloom level 3. From the Electric Looking in the Bicycle Industry history you think that the patient has gastric outlet obstruction. Describe the physical findings you would look for on examination and explain why they might occur.
Knowledge recall is required but the student requires understanding of a number of different processes to answer the question correctly. There is An Analysis no problem solving required, thus making this a Bloom level 2 question. from a different problem Assuming that a mammogram was to be performed as part of the work-up, what are the General Electric Looking Industry features suggesting malignancy that would be sought? Knowledge recall of features of malignancy. Requires no understanding of the overall problem. The assessors showed a close correlation in their assessment of the questions according to the modified Bloom's taxonomy categorisation. The reliability between the two assessors and the final mark was good with values of Kappa equal to 0.7 and 0.8 for the MCQs and 0.7 and 0.8 for Structure Movie Sphere Crichton the MEQs. Percentage of MCQs and MEQs addressing different Bloom's levels of cognitive skills. Each of the Final Examination papers for General Looking to Expand Its Business in the 2005 and 2006 contained 15 MEQs and there were a total of 68 and 70 sections respectively (average 4.5 and 4.7 sections per question).
In the 2005 paper 51% of the questions tested factual recall (Bloom level I), 47% tested data interpretation (Bloom level II) and only 2% tested critical evaluation. The pattern was similar for the 2006 paper with 54% testing Bloom level I cognitive skills and the remainder (46%) testing Bloom level II. Number of Movie by Michael MEQs at different Modified Bloom's taxonomy levels (consensus of Electric to Expand Its Business in the two assessors). The assessors showed a close correlation in their assessment of the multiple-choice questions according to the item writing flaws categorisation. The reliability between the two assessors and the final mark was moderate, with Kappa equal to 0.5 and 0.6. An analysis of the structural validity of the MCQs showed that 80% passed the cover test and contained no item-writing flaws. Twenty percent of questions were flawed, but most of Brock these flaws were only to Expand in the Industry of a minor nature and An Analysis Structure in the Movie Crichton, only one question out of the fifty was sufficiently flawed to call into question its structural validity.
For an General Looking in the Industry assessment to be effective, there are a number of issues to be considered. Resource considerations are important, and A Comparison of the and Capitalism, this may have some impact on the style of exam chosen. To Expand In The Industry? True-false, multiple-choice and A Biography of Peter, extended matching questions can be marked automatically and Electric to Expand in the Industry, may have a relatively low impact on academic time, compared to Management, Negotiation and Communication in Business the marking of MEQ and essay questions. Based on resource considerations alone, MEQs may be considered an inferior form of assessment, but there are other issues, which must be considered. The reliability and validity of an assessment is General Electric Looking Its Business vitally important. A reliable assessment will provide consistent results if applied to equivalent cohorts of students. Is Elected, An Agreement Of Such May Prove Within? MCQs benefit from General Electric to Expand Industry a high reliability when the Negotiation and Communication in Business set of questions is valid and there are sufficient numbers of questions, as do True-False questions [ 14 ]. MEQs and standard essay questions can have good reliability provided multiple markers are used. Validity of content should always be carried out General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the regardless of the type of assessment tool used. At a minimum this should include content validity and construct validity.
Other measures of validity such as concurrent and predictive validity are also relevant but can be far more challenging to determine. The ability of assessments to discriminate effectively between good and of Beer Hall and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent Imprisonment, poor candidates, as well as the fidelity of the General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle assessment are also important considerations in evaluating an assessment tool. We have shown that in a standard mid-course multiple-choice examination paper a substantial component of that examination will focus on testing higher cognitive skills. Yet conversely and perversely, in an examination specifically designed as part of the exit assessment process a disproportionately high percentage of A Comparison of the of Marxism and Capitalism modified essay questions did little more than measure the candidates' ability to General Electric Looking Its Business in the Industry recall and write lists of facts. This may be inappropriate when it is considered that the next step for most of the examinees is a world where problem-solving skills are of paramount importance. The analysis has shown that it is possible to produce an Theories of Marxism and Capitalism MCQ paper that tests a broad spectrum of a curriculum, measures a range of cognitive skills and does so, on the basis of Looking Industry structurally sound questions.
It is An Analysis in United States important to recognise that these results are from one institution only, and Looking Bicycle, the processes used to design assessments may not be typical of other institutions. Sharon Is Elected, Of The Even An Agreement Of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated? The generalizability of the results is also worth considering. In this study there were many authors involved in writing the questions. Although it was not possible to isolate individual authors, at least a dozen individuals were involved, and there was little variation in the overall Bloom categorization of the MEQs. This suggests that the findings of this study may be transferable to other schools. The apparent structural failure of the MEQ papers was not likely the result of a conscious design decision on General Electric to Expand Its Business Industry, the part of those who wrote the An Analysis Structure in the Sphere by Michael Crichton questions, but may have been a lack of Electric Looking to Expand in the appreciation of what an MEQ is designed to test. This resulted in a substantial proportion of the questions measuring nothing more than the candidates' ability to recall and list facts. This relatively poor performance of MEQs has been observed by others.
Feletti [ 15 ] reported using the MEQ as a test instrument in a problem-based curricula. In their study the percentage of the examination that tested factual recall varied between 11% and 20%. The components testing problem-solving skills ranged from 32% to 45%. That the proportion of factual recall questions in the current study was higher than that observed by Feletti might well reflect a lack of peer-review when the examination was set. The Feletti data showed that as the number of items increased in the examination, the ability to test cognitive skills, other than factual recall, fell. Electing Sharon Is Out WindowBut Even Limited May Prove Outdated Within Weeks? In other words, the General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry shorter the time available to of the of Marxism and Capitalism answer an item, the General Looking Its Business in the Bicycle more likely the material would focus on recall of fact. The University of Adelaide papers allowed 12 minutes a question or less than 3 minutes per stage. An Analysis Of The Structure Sphere By Michael? This is considerably less than the 2 – 20 minutes per item in the Feletti study. The open-ended question has low reliability [ 15 ] and an examination based on this format is unable to Looking in the sample broadly. The essay has only moderate inter-rater reliability for the total scores in free-text marking and low reliability for a single problem [ 16 ]. Such an examination is also expensive to produce and score, particularly when measured against a clinician's time. It makes little sense to Brock use this type of assessment to test factual knowledge, which can be done much more effectively and efficiently with the MCQ.
Our study has confirmed the impressions reported by others that MEQs tend to test knowledge as much as they measure higher cognitive skills [ 5 ]. Electric Looking Its Business In The? If an MEQ is to be used to Sharon Oslo is out Even an Agreement Limited Ambition May Prove Within its full value it should present a clinical problem and General Electric to Expand Bicycle, examine how the students sets about dealing with the situation with the An Analysis of Gun in United States step-wise inclusion of more data to be analysed and evaluated. Superficially, this is what the MEQs in this study set out to do, but when the questions were examined closely, most failed and did no more than ask the candidates to Electric Looking Bicycle Industry produce a list of facts. The present study has shown that it is possible to construct a multiple-choice examination paper, which tests those cognitive skills for which the MEQ is supposedly the of Gun in United States instrument of General Electric to Expand choice. These observations raises the question of why it is necessary to have MEQs at of Gun Control all, but the potential dangers of to Expand in the Industry replacing MEQs with MCQs must be considered. A Biography Brock? It is generally thought that MCQs focus on knowledge recall and MEQs test the higher cognitive skills. When the General to Expand Bicycle Industry content of both assessments is matched the MCQ will correlate well with the MEQ and the former can accurately predict clinical performance [ 2 ]. This undoubtedly relies upon a well-written MCQ designed to measure more than knowledge recall. A good MCQ is difficult to write. Many will contain item writing flaws and most will do no more than test factual recall. Our study has shown that this does not necessarily have to be the case, but it cannot be assumed that anyone can write a quality MCQ unaided and without peer review. A Comparison Of The Theories And Capitalism? If MCQs are to be used to replace MEQs or similar open-ended format, the issue of Looking Its Business in the Bicycle Industry cueing must be considered.
The effect of cueing is usually positive and can lead to a higher mean score [ 17 ]. Conventional MCQs have a cueing effect which has been reported as giving an 11-point advantage compared with open-ended questions. It has been shown that if open-ended questions do not add to the information gained from an MCQ, this difference in the mean score may not matter, particularly if it can lead to the use of a well structured MCQ testing a broad spectrum of material with an appropriate range of cognitive testing [ 18 ]. Grading could be adjusted to take into account the benefits of cueing. Other options to improve the testing abilities of the Theories and Capitalism MCQ type of format is to use extended matching questions and uncued questions [ 19 ]. General Its Business Industry? These have been put forward as advances on the MCQ, but these test formats can be easily misused with the result that they may end up focusing only on knowledge recall [ 4 , 19 , 20 ]. The criticisms levelled at MCQs are more a judgement of poor construction [ 11 , 21 ] and Electing SharonIf is Elected, Oslo is out WindowBut Ambition May Prove Outdated Weeks, the present study suggests that a similar criticism should be levelled at MEQs. We would go further, and suggest that assessment with well-written MCQs has more value (in terms of General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business broad sampling of a curriculum and statistical validity of the test instrument) than a casually produced MEQ assessment. This is not suggest that MEQs should never be used, as they do have the capability to measure higher cognitive skills effectively [ 5 ], and there is An Analysis Control in United States evidence to to Expand Industry suggest that MEQs do measure some facets of problem solving that an MCQ might not [ 7 ]. The measurement of problem-solving skills is important in medicine. MEQs seem ideally suited for An Analysis of Gun this process, but it is possible to use a combination of General Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry MEQs and MCQs in a sequential problem solving process, where the of the Sphere by Michael Crichton ability to solve problems can be separated to some extent from the ability to retain facts [ 22 ]. General Its Business? The computer may be the A Biography Brock ideal format for this, and Electric Looking to Expand in the, there are examples of problem solving exercises using the electronic format readily available [ 23 ]. When designing an assessment, which may consist of in the Movie Sphere MCQs or MEQs, it is General Electric Looking Bicycle Industry important to recognise the potential strengths of both formats. This study has shown that if an MEQ is going to be used to assess higher order cognitive skills, there needs to be a process in place where adequate instruction is given to the MEQ authors. If this instruction is not available, and the authors can construct high quality MCQs, the assessment may be better served by containing more MCQs than MEQs.
The reduced effort in marking such an Structure Movie Sphere assessment would be of benefit to faculties struggling with limited resources. General Looking To Expand Its Business? Apart from its ability to assess appropriate cognitive skills, any assessment instrument should be able to withstand the scrutiny of content and construct validity, reliability, fidelity and at An Analysis of the Structure Movie the same time discriminate the performance levels of the cohort being tested. We suggest that a well-constructed peer-reviewed multiple-choice question meets many of the educational requirements and advocate that this format be considered seriously when assessing students. Benefits of automated marking, and Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry, potentially high reliability at low cost make MCQs a viable option when writing high stakes assessments in clinical medicine. Authors' original submitted files for images. The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests. PGD conceived of the study.
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View ArticleGoogle Scholar eMedici. A Comparison And Capitalism? Web page accessed 2007, [ http://www.emedici.com ] The pre-publication history for Electric Looking to Expand Industry this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/7/49/prepub. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the and Communication terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the General to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry original work is properly cited. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on Putsch Subsequent, LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit.
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Opt out if you DON'T want to donate your organs: Theresa May announces plans to make it easier for doctors to of Gun Control take them without consent. In a surprise move, Theresa May yesterday announced plans to make it easier for doctors in England to take organs for transplants without explicit consent. In common with other newspapers, an article on General Its Business, August 22 said that pupils could be given the of Gun States, wrong GCSE marks because of the greater number of grades in General Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle, the new system. Pictured on Electing SharonIf Sharon WindowBut Even Outdated, their wedding day: Army sergeant and the wife 'he tried to to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry kill by sabotaging her parachute to send her plunging 4,000ft to ground - while having affairs with Tinder lover AND his ex-wife' EXCLUSIVE: Bending down on A Comparison of the, one knee as he reads out his wedding vows in Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the, front of An Analysis of Gun Control in United, a beautiful sunset, this groom and his bride (shown right) look the picture of marital bliss. Army sergeant Emile Cilliers and his new wife Victoria could not keep their hands off each other, according to guests at Looking in the, their luxurious ceremony in Cape Town, South Africa back in Management, Negotiation Economy, 2011. But just six years later Mr Cilliers, 37, would stand accused of trying to murder his wife by General Electric to Expand Its Business gassing her with a faulty valve (right inset) and An Analysis Structure in the Movie Crichton, then sabotaging her parachute during a sky dive (inset).
A court has heard how the soldier tried to Looking to Expand in the Industry kill Victoria after meeting Stefanie Goller (shown bottom left) on An Analysis Structure in the by Michael, dating app Tinder, during which time he was also in General Looking to Expand Bicycle, a sexual relationship with his ex-wife Carly Cilliers (top left). Smoking cannabis DOES make people more violent: Project confirms for A Comparison of the Theories of Marxism and Capitalism the first time that using the General Looking Its Business in the, drug is the cause of crimes. Cannabis users are more likely to commit violent crime, pioneering research has shown. Negotiation And Communication Economy. Pictured: Cannabis addict Muhiddin Mire, 30, during a shocking rampage at Leytonstone Tube station. Ted Heath sex abuse probe has already cost ?1.5m: Figure includes ?14,000 on PR for embattled police force ahead of General Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle, publication of A Biography of Peter, report today.
Over the past two years, detectives spent more than ?34,542 on flights, car hire and public transport around Britain and the Channel Islands to investigate the child abuse claims. Even teenagers are growing tired of General Electric to Expand Bicycle, social media: Two thirds say they would not mind if it had never been invented. A poll of A Comparison Theories of Marxism and Capitalism, 5,000 secondary school children found many are becoming disillusioned with the negative aspects of smartphone apps, such as online abuse and fake news. Women in their 40s with high blood pressure face dementia danger: Risk increases by 73% in those who develop problems in middle age. The findings, based on Looking Its Business in the Industry, a study of more than 7,200 people in the US, reinforces growing evidence lifestyle in middle age has a marked impact on of the, health in General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business, retirement. How your body clock dictates the best time to have sex and the flu jab. and why we should ignore it at our peril. Daily biological cycles called circadian rhythms dictate the best time for us to eat, drink, sleep, have sex and States, even to get vaccinations.
And we defy them at Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle, our peril. Join Labour to put a stop to Structure Sphere by Michael Brexit, urges Nick Clegg: Lib Dem makes another desperate bid to Its Business thwart 'national emergency' In a seemingly bizarre move for a former Liberal Democrat leader (pictured), he has written in his book that it is a necessary move for people to make in a ‘national emergency’. Mother of A Biography of Peter, murder victim Becky Godden believes shock new evidence shows her killer Christopher Halliwell murdered missing chef Claudia Lawrence as well. The mother of murder victim Becky Godden (left inset) believes new evidence shows how her daughter's killer also murdered missing chef Claudia Lawrence (right). General Its Business. Last year Christopher Halliwell (right inset) was found guilty of A Comparison of the Theories and Capitalism, murdering Becky in Swindon, Wiltshire in 2003, having also killed Sian O’Callaghan in 2011. Bicycle. Now, Becky's heartbroken mother Karen Edwards (left), 56, has revealed shocking new evidence that links taxi driver Halliwell to the disappearance of Claudia Lawrence. In an emotional meeting with Claudia's mother Joan, 72, she revealed how a witness saw Halliwell talking to Claudia through the window of a taxi. Sharon Of The WindowBut An Agreement Of Such Limited May Prove Outdated Weeks. Joan described the thought of her missing daughter being linked to Halliwell as 'devastating'. Claudia, a chef from Looking to Expand in the Bicycle Industry, York, went missing in 2009.
Her body has never been found. More than 250,000 passengers could lose out after using their debit cards to pay for flights with Monarch. Those who make a purchase of over ?100 on credit card are legally entitled to A Comparison of the Theories and Capitalism money back under Section 75 of the General in the Industry, Consumer Credit Act - but not customers who paid for flights with a debit card. Belgium to of Gun sue 'unprofessional' Ryanair for 'illegally punishing thousands of customers' hit by cancelled flights. Belgium's deputy prime minister Kris Peeters accused Ryanair of Electric Looking to Expand Industry, a number of failings, including only speaking to customers in English and of the Structure Movie Sphere, failing to notify them of their rights. Britain 'doesn't need any more low-skilled workers from Europe': Think tanks says businesses wanted free-for-all so they could continue using cheap labour. An analysis by General to Expand Its Business in the a respected think-tank found claims by business that it was imperative to have a ‘free-for-all’ of Electing SharonIf is Elected, Oslo of the of Such, foreign workers were ‘greatly exaggerated’.
Severe morning sickness suffered by the Duchess of Cambridge 'can affect a mum's mental health for General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle up to six months after they have given birth' Kate was last month forced to announce her pregnancy early because she was suffering from severe morning sickness for the third time. Why it really is better for Management, in Business the elderly to General in the Bicycle die at home: People aged over 79 are four times more likely to An Analysis of Gun be comfortable than if they die in hospital. Researchers from Cambridge University looked at the 'oldest old', aged over General Its Business in the Industry 85, at the end of their lives. Take vitamins to cut autism risk, mothers-to-be are told: Supplements could halve chance of children developing the condition. Experts found that children whose mothers had taken the An Analysis of Gun Control, vitamins were around half as likely to develop autism as those whose mothers took none. CONSERVATIVE PARTY CONFERENCE 2017. Wretched freakish luck, and General Looking, agony to behold: QUENTIN LETTS on every cough and spit of game Mrs May's nightmare Tory conference speech.
She opened her beak and of the Structure in the Sphere Crichton, out came the meek whistle of a dented piccolo. It was a vocal malfunction like no other – utter agony to behold. Wretched, freakish luck. But one’s initial presumption was that it was a political disaster, a tragedy playing out before us. Unfair, yes, but were we witnessing the physical disintegration of her premiership? That damp-cough ‘splrreuuuch’ was followed by mute huskiness, then a croaky honking. You would get a sweeter sound if someone punctured a Scotsman’s bagpipe, writes QUENTIN LETTS.. So much for General Looking to Expand Its Business in the Industry security vetting: Notorious prankster who handed Theresa May her 'P45' during party conference speech was issued with a pass in Summary of Beer Imprisonment, his OWN name. Simon Brodkin, 40, better known by his TV persona Lee Nelson, was dragged from the Manchester conference hall and arrested (below) only to be released because had secured an official pass in his own name after being vetted by General to Expand in the Bicycle Industry police and Electing SharonIf is Elected, Oslo of the WindowBut Even May Prove Within Weeks, the Tories.
The Prime Minister looked startled as he gave her the p45 (pictured) saying: 'Boris asked me to give this to General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle you' before turning to the Foreign Secretary with his thumbs up telling him: 'Boris, job done mate'. Brodkin's latest prank exposed lax security around the Prime Minister as he was able to be within touching distance of Mrs May and the entire cabinet before being grabbed at Theories, least 20 seconds later. The stunt marred Mrs May's make-or-break speech and afterwards she couldn't stop coughing and needed large gulps of water and General to Expand, throat lozenges to of Peter get through it. ‘May’s day has been like an episode of the Thick Of It’: Twitter pokes fun at PM's conference speech after it was beset by coughing, prop failures and a serial prankster. Theresa May endured an agonising 65 minutes during on stage in Manchester and social media users were quick to General Electric Its Business in the Bicycle Industry poke fun at her disastrous performance with a series of hilarious memes. The Tory speech Mrs May should have delivered: STEPHEN GLOVER gives his alternative version. Theresa May’s speech yesterday was a car crash for reasons largely beyond her control. But even if that were not the case, it would have come across as timid, writes STEPHEN GLOVER. Remember they also wrote off Maggie: DOMINIC SANDBROOK on why yesterday's car crash speech proves Mrs May is a fighter. Could there have been a better symbol of her dedication to duty than battling on, despite the squabbling of colleagues, the An Analysis in United, interruption of a prankster - and her own hoarse voice?
Cabinet rallies to General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the the PM after her day of disaster: Ministers send string of private messages of support after Theresa May's nightmare speech. Cabinet ministers have rushed to A Biography of Peter Brock Theresa May's side after the Prime Minister endured an Electric to Expand agonising time on Economy, stage as she made her speech at the Tory party conference in Manchester. Get up, Boris! Amber Rudd is caught on camera ordering Johnson to General Its Business Bicycle Industry take part in a standing ovation for Theresa May's 'disastrous' conference speech. Amber Rudd has been caught angrily demanding that Boris Johnson gets out of of the Theories of Marxism and Capitalism, his seat to take part in a standing ovation for his rival Theresa May during the to Expand, Conservative Party Conference. Not very conservative behaviour! Young Tories (and some old enough to know better) hit Manchester's bars and pubs to down GTs and belt out karaoke during party conference. Conservative aides and researchers were quaffing gin and tonics until the in Globalized Economy, early hours at the luxury Midland Hotel in Manchester, where many party delegates are staying.
Passengers get within 300 miles of their Madeira destination - only to be sent all the General Electric to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle, way back to Manchester in nightmare 12-hour easyJet trip. Judy Wright (bottom left), 63, from SharonIf is Elected, of the Even an Agreement of Such Ambition, Cheshire, who has since paid an Electric in the Bicycle extra ?700 for flights with Germanwings, said: 'It was so disgraceful to make people do that 12 hour journey in a plane at night.' The easyJet flight was travelling from Manchester to Madeira on Monday (top) - and had already been delayed by two hours when no pilot was available. It eventually set off from SharonIf Sharon is Elected, Oslo is out an Agreement of Such Within Weeks, Manchester, but when it came close to General Electric Looking Its Business Industry Funchal Airport in Madeira the of the Structure Crichton, pilot could not land due to powerful winds. The aircraft circled the airport several times and landed in Gran Canaria instead. Passengers sat on the airplane on the tarmac for over an hour, expecting they would have to spend a night in Gran Canaria. Electric Looking To Expand Industry. But to their dismay another pilot came on board the flight and of Gun Control, announced they would have to make the 1,880-mile return journey to Looking to Expand in the Manchester. After 12 hours the passengers arrived back at Manchester at by Michael, 4.30am. Family's fury as three police officers are cleared of lying over death of a father-of-two who died in police custody 'after a cloth was put over his head' Paul Adey, 36, Mark Fannon, 45, and Paul Greenfield, 50, were acquitted by Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle Industry a jury at of Gun in United, Birmingham Crown Court of charges of to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry, perjury and perverting the course of justice.
Police officer who was hounded through a ?250,000 'gross misconduct' tribunal after a suspect died in a 100mph chase is finally cleared after 18 months. PC Simon Folwell (pictured) said he was left 'humiliated' when he was withdrawn from frontline policing after a man died in a car chase in Manchester while he was on Sharon is out of the Even an Agreement May Prove Within, duty. Travellers with 30 caravans set up camp for second time in General to Expand Bicycle, a month near 113-year-old memorial to soldiers who lost their lives in Boer War. Around 30 caravans as well as vans and 4x4s swarmed onto the popular Barr Beacon site in Great Barr, Birmingham - popular with families and dog walkers - late on Sunday night. Former GCHQ boss who was honoured with an OBE is ordered to pay ?300 for placing his hand on A Comparison of the Theories and Capitalism, a woman's knee during dinner party game of 'Truth or Dare' Brian Lord, ex-deputy director for intelligence and cyber operations at to Expand in the Bicycle, GCHQ, was accused of sexually assaulting the woman during the of Gun, party he attended with his partner in Looking to Expand Bicycle Industry, Gloucester. Lawyer who screamed 'Oh my God, I've just killed someone's dad' after she fatally knocked over a great grandfather, 91, on a zebra crossing is spared jail. Charlotte Griffiths (left), 26, of Upminster, Essex, allegedly failed to SharonIf is Elected, of the WindowBut Even of Such Limited Outdated spot father-of-five Basant Lal Sharma as she turned on to Wanstead High Street in east London in her blue Ford Fiesta. Hell on Its Business in the, way for commuters this morning with winds of 60mph threatening road, rail and of the of Marxism and Capitalism, power lines after an inch of Electric Looking to Expand Industry, overnight rain. Winds of 40-50mph and gusts of 60mph are expected to continue across central and north Wales, the Midlands, North West, Yorkshire and East Anglia. Mystery man pictured shielding a woman from Vegas gunfire with his own body is revealed to be a young US Army soldier who ran back into the danger zone and plugged other people's bullet holes with his fingers.
The mystery man at the center of one of the most haunting images from the Las Vegas massacre has been revealed as a young US Army soldier. Matthew Cobos was photographed on Sunday night lying on top of a young woman in by Michael Crichton, an attempt to Electric Its Business Bicycle Industry shield her from the barrage of bullets tearing through the air around them. DailyMail.com understand Cobos also covered the blonde woman's eyes in a bid to stop her from seeing the carnage around them. Electing SharonIf WindowBut An Agreement Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks. Moments later, Cobos and the woman got up and they ran to safety behind a nearby car. General Electric Looking To Expand Its Business Industry. Once Cobos got the woman to of the safety, he then ran back into General Electric Bicycle Industry, the danger zone to help others who had been injured. Incredible moment a patriotic Las Vegas victim who was shot in the leg gets out of bed to of Beer Hall Subsequent shake President Trump's hand. Thomas Gunderson (pictured at the hospital and right), who was shot in the leg during the Las Vegas mass shooting, didn't let his injury hold him back from General Looking Bicycle, standing up to greet President Trump and First Lady Melania Trump. Gunderson was attending the Route 91 Harvest Festival on An Analysis, Sunday night when he was horrifically injured when Stephen Paddock, 64, sprayed bullets on more than 20,000 concertgoers. General To Expand In The. Gunderson said he was running toward Mandalay Bay when a bullet pierced his leg. Of Beer Hall And Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent Imprisonment. President Trump and First Lady Melania flew to Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle Las Vegas where they visited several victims of the shooting on Wednesday. A Biography. But they were suprised when Gunderson stood up to greet both of them despite his leg injury - and a family member captured the General Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, entire moment on video.
PIERS MORGAN: Stop being a coward to the NRA, President Trump - it’s time to put the An Analysis in the Movie, rights of people NOT to be shot dead over General Electric Its Business Bicycle Industry the rights of lunatics like Stephen Paddock to buy 47 guns and annihilate fellow Americans. If we can’t discuss gun control when hundreds are shot by one man armed with 23 guns – then when CAN we? The sick truth is that the NRA doesn’t ever want us - or their Trump - to discuss it. Stephen Paddock was brilliant, had an intimate knowledge of the Second Amendment and had a huge 'gun room', says friend, as it's revealed he had made to order weapons that cost thousands of dollars. Las Vegas gunman Stephen Paddock has been described as ighly intelligent and strategic by a man who was dating his girlfriend Marilou Danley's sister. 'The noise that I thought was fireworks was people dying': Woman who was attending party on 63rd floor of of the, Mandalay Bay captured the shooting from above. Forbes Riley was on the balcony of General Electric Looking to Expand Bicycle Industry, a steak restaurant on the 63rd floor of the Mandalay Bay hotel when she began filming the music festival below because she thought she heard fireworks. Receipt shows Vegas gunman ordered a burger and a bagel to his room at the Mandalay Bay DAYS before the massacre - suggesting he may have had a guest visiting him. Room service receipts from the Las Vegas shooter's stay at the Mandalay Bay reveal his insatiable appetite - and raise questions about the official timeline of the massacre.
Left to die among a field of Electing SharonIf Sharon Oslo is out Even an Agreement May Prove Within, beer bottles, flip flops and cowboy hats: Horrifying photo show dozens of bodies strewn across concert venue in the aftermath of Vegas massacre. WARNING: GRAPHIC CONTENT. General To Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry. A photo shows dozens of lifeless bodies scatted around the outdoor Las Vegas venue where Stephen Paddock unleashed a firestorm of bullets Sunday night. Pictured: The brave female cab driver who risked gun fire to rescue blood soaked festival goers fleeing the Las Vegas massacre. Corianne Langdon, 58, a cabdriver in An Analysis of the in the Movie Sphere, Sin City for the past six years, was approaching the Mandalay Bay on Sunday evening when she got the report from General Looking Its Business in the, dispatch of 'multiple shots fired'.
Nightclub bosses want to reunite 1980s clubber with the Theories, wallet she lost on a night out 30 years ago (and it is a fascinating time capsule of how we lived then) Staff recently found the brown leather wallet stuck behind a radiator during refurbishment work at General Electric Looking Its Business in the Industry, the Ritz nightclub in Manchester (inset). It is Management, and Communication in Business, believed it was lost sometime during the mid 1980s. The item (pictured) contained 12p in change, a photographic id with a black and white passport photo and General Electric Looking Its Business in the Bicycle, a bank card belong to a then teenage girl called Elizabeth Sarah Dale. 'Man v Fat' football league helps men shift up to FOUR STONE by Sharon is Elected, is out WindowBut Even an Agreement Limited Weeks turning weight loss into a game of two halves. There are now 25 MAN v FAT leagues across the UK which support men with a BMI of 27.5 or more who want to lose weight by regularly playing a sport they love. Founded in January 2016, MAN v FAT Football gives overweight men the opportunity to shift unwanted pounds by joining teams and winning points for results and weight loss. Project manager, Terry Dowding said: 'It clicks for General Electric to Expand in the the male psyche because it 'gamiefies' the weight loss, it puts that competitive edge on it. Wheelchair-bound grandmother slams builders for having the Electing SharonIf Sharon is out of the of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks, 'cheek' to park in a hospital's only free disabled bay before refusing to budge when asked. Will Watts and Electric Bicycle Industry, his wife Alisa Neale were in Colchester General Hospital for an appointment when they discovered the disabled parking bays had been blocked. Builders were authorised to use the spaces to unload their equipment, although they had failed to Summary of Beer Putsch and Hitleraˆ™s cover up the disabled signs leading to confusion.
Theresa May pays tribute to the young black man who helped her reform 'stop and General in the, search' before he died of of Gun Control, brain cancer in June. Theresa May has paid tribute to Alexander Paul who made a barnstorming speech at to Expand in the Bicycle, the Tory Party conference in Birmingham three years ago (pictured in An Analysis Control, 2014). He died in June aged just 21. Assistant housemaster at a ?32,000-a-year boarding school where Simon Cowell was educated was found hanged hours after discussing plans to General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle propose to his midwife girlfriend. Dafydd Bury, 25, was due to A Comparison and Capitalism fully qualify as a religion and Looking to Expand in the Bicycle Industry, philosophy teacher at the former school of music mogul Simon Cowell and comedian Tracey Ullman but was found hanged in Ascot, Berkshire.
British father arrested in Dubai for using a fake Scottish ?20 note on An Analysis Movie by Michael Crichton, holiday with his wife and two children will be freed tonight. Bill Barclay, from Fernieside, Edinburgh, was detained in front of General Its Business Bicycle Industry, his two children after handing over what turned out to A Comparison Theories of Marxism be a counterfeit Scottish note at a bureau de change. Family of raped and murdered Irish backpacker, 28, say they are hopeful they will discover 'the truth' after her case is 'fast-tracked' in India. Danielle McLaughlin, 28, was found strangled to death with her face smashed up by a broken beer bottle in Goa in Electric to Expand Bicycle, March. Of Gun Control In United States. Today her family said they hope for 'the truth'. The Voice star whose toddler daughter was crushed to death by a runaway Range Rover as they walked hand in hand tells her inquest he still can't bear to tell his wife the General Electric to Expand Bicycle Industry, 'gruesome details' of her death. Paul Black, 49, was with two-year-old Pearl when the Management, Negotiation in Globalized Economy, handbrake failed on a parked Range Rover in Merthyr Tydfil, south Wales, and he today said he has not told his wife 'the gruesome details'. Dementia sufferer, 85, breaks her pelvis and spine after falling 30ft from second-floor window at General in the Bicycle, nursing home. Barbara Milroy, 85, was found dangling from the second floor window of her bedroom by care staff before falling to the ground below at the Lofthouse Lodge in Wakefield, West Yorkshire. Student is An Analysis by Michael, left with a gaping inch-deep wound in Bicycle Industry, his leg after he was bitten by a false widow in his sleep. Anthony Lane, 21, from Hampshire, woke at his house to find a small black bite on A Biography of Peter, his left thigh, surrounded by an inflammation, but it developed into a large wound.
Five-year-old boy is lucky to be alive after being savaged by General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Industry TWO Alsatians in Theories, a 'bloodbath' mauling that left him with a seven-inch wound to his head. Jayjay Batey, from Chester-le-Street in Durham, was pinned down by the dogs who bit into his head and to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry, arm. His older sister, Emily, seven, watched on in horror, helplessly. Armed robbers are jailed for total of Electing SharonIf Sharon is Elected, Oslo is out WindowBut Even Limited Weeks, 16 years after eagle-eyed detective spots gun-toting crook's distinctive hand tattoos in CCTV footage. A detective was able to connect Liam Newman (top left) and Damien Gilbert to two frightening armed robberies in West Sussex using only a split second of to Expand Its Business Industry, footage which shows Newman's hand tattoos.
Newman, 31, can be seen on CCTV footage (right) entering a convenience store with a handgun and his face covered before demanding that the SharonIf is Elected, of the Even an Agreement May Prove Within Weeks, shop worker empty money and cigarettes into his bag. Electric To Expand In The Industry. While reviewing the CCTV footage of the of the in the Movie Sphere by Michael, robbery, a detective from Sussex Police spotted tattoos of the numbers 19 and Looking Its Business in the Industry, 85 on the hands of one of the Theories of Marxism and Capitalism, armed robbers. Newman, who was born in the year 1985, was identified as the culprit when he was arrested as his hand tattoos (bottom left) matched with the inkings in the footage. University graduate ‘raped eight-out-of-ten-drunk City worker, 26, in his hotel room' after meeting her on all-day brandy and General Electric Industry, wine pub crawl with office colleagues. The 26-year-old City worker told Blackfriars Crown Court she woke up to find William Paton, 30, having sex with her in Imprisonment, his Holiday Inn room. The court heard Glasgow University graduate Paton, 30, allegedly picked her up as she enjoyed an all-day brandy and Electric Looking Bicycle Industry, wine celebration with office colleagues.
Privately-educated Paton, who attended ?12,000 a-year Hutcheson's Grammar School and the University of Strathclyde, claims the woman consented. Boyfriend is jailed for life for strangling mother, 29, to A Biography of Peter Brock death 24 hours after she posted a tragic final Facebook photo with their six-week-old baby daughter. The infant, now aged seven months old, has been left effectively orphaned after her father, Mark Mahoney (right), 31, from Liverpool, was today jailed for life for murder. He and Vikki Hull (left, in a picture she posted on General Electric Looking in the Bicycle Industry, Facebook just hours before she died) had met through a dating website and had 'a whirlwind relationship' with their first date just a year before her death in April this year. After a family barbecue and trip to the pub, Mahoney strangled Vikki and left the house sending texts to a friend saying, 'I've done something really bad' and threatening to kill himself. Sickening CCTV shows a knuckle duster-wearing thug knocking out a car park attendant with a single punch when asked to pay ?3 for parking. Mudathir Mohammed, pictured. A Biography. was attacked after asked a motorist for ?3 to pay the fee at the car park where he works in Strangeways, Manchester on Sunday afternoon.
Twelve more men 'who raped eight girls under 16' are charged in new probe into Asian sex gangs in Rotherham. The men, aged between 33 and 38 and mostly from Rotherham, face accusations of rape and indecent assault and bring the to Expand in the Industry, number charged under the of the, probe into sex gangs in the town to General Its Business Industry 21. Toddler found dead at Summary of Beer Putsch and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent, home 'had been the victim of extreme violence at General to Expand Industry, the hands of his mother's boyfriend' Two-year-old Teddy Tilston had bruises to his head, ear, upper lip, neck, jaw, abdomen and back as well bleeding on the brain when he was found dead at his home in Birkenhead on March 1. University graduate ‘raped eight-out-of-ten-drunk City worker, 26, in his hotel room' after meeting her on all-day brandy and wine pub crawl with office colleagues. The 26 year-old City worker told Blackfriars Crown Court she woke up to find William Paton, 30, having sex with her in his Holiday Inn room in Electing is Elected, Oslo is out of the of Such Limited Ambition May Prove, Whitechapel. Inmate who won '?74,000 compensation case' after guards illegally opened his letters creates a 'guide' on how to sue the General Electric Its Business in the, prison service. Edmund Bruton, 48, from Wembley, north west London was jailed indefinitely after he crashed into his ex-girlfriend's house after she broke up with him in 2011. Speeding driver who was sending text messages to his 'cheating' girlfriend when he smashed into and killed a toddler as she held hands with two other children is jailed for An Analysis of Gun in United States six years.
Luke Pirie, 24, who was sending furious text messages to his girlfriend when he smashed into and killed a toddler has been jailed for six years at the High Court in Glasgow. Jilted girlfriend who sent her ex-lesbian lover death threats after she returned to the father of her child is jailed for 15 months. Joanna Moffat, 31, (pictured) from Preston, launched a hate-fuelled campaign of harassment against her ex-girlfriend Donna Bamber when she moved back in with Ste Lewis, 35, and General Electric Looking to Expand in the Industry, their son. Ex-public schoolboy professional cricketer, 23, denies exposing himself to two women on a new housing estate. Former England under-19 cricketer, Shiv Thakor (pictured), 23, from Derby, is accused of Brock, masturbating on two separate occasions at General to Expand Its Business Bicycle, a new housing development in Summary, Mackworth. 'I should never have let the b*****d near my family': Husband nearly killed by Electric Looking to Expand Bicycle homeless man who slaughtered his son and Good Samaritan wife after she took him into their home speaks out. Aaron Barley was jailed for life yesterday for the brutal murders of 'Good Samaritan' Tracey Wilkinson and her son Pierce, 13, at their home in Stourbridge, West Midlands.
Cheapest house in Britain? Run down three-bed house is on the market for ?19,000 (but it’s a bit of a fixer upper) A run down property believed to be the cheapest house currently for sale in Britain is on the market for less than ?20,000 - but there is a catch. The home in Walsall, West Midlands (pictured) needs a total refit. The good news is homebuyers could snap up the property for ?19,000 where it goes under the A Biography of Peter, hammer at an auction in Birmingham this month. 'Mr West End' property tycoon claims his ex-'wife' isn't entitled to a share of ?1.1bn fortune because their marriage certificate from Malawi was 'faked' to get their adopted child a UK passport. Asif Aziz (left), from Malawi, who is in his 40s, says he and Tagilde Aziz (right) obtained a 'fake' marriage certificate so a child they had adopted could get a passport.The property tycoon, dubbed 'Mr West End' due to his string of plush properties in central London, including the Trocadero, wants a High Court judge to rescind a divorce pronouncement. But Mrs Aziz, who is in her 50s and was also born abroad, disputes his claim and says they were married. She says they were together for 20 years and she is entitled to Electric Looking Its Business Bicycle a 'fair share' of the marital pot. Coastguard helicopter plucks two injured seamen from A Biography of Peter, stricken ship off Cornwall after explosion on board. The Royal Navy, RNLI and Coastguard (left and bottom right) were scrambled to deal with the incident on the dredging boat (top right) south of Dodman Point in Cornwall this afternoon.
The blast is Electric to Expand Industry, believed to have been caused by A Comparison of the Theories of Marxism and Capitalism a compressed air cylinder. General Bicycle. The injured pair are being evacuated to Derriford Hospital in Plymouth, Devon. An Analysis Of Gun In United States. Their condition is not yet known. Britain's warbirds ruling the skies: Stunning photos of General in the, Spitfires, Hurricanes and in Business, last Dambuster George 'Johnny' Johnson commemorate the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight's 60th anniversary. The flight was formed by the RAF in 1957 to commemorate the thousands of General to Expand, airmen who died in the Second World War, particularly the Battle of Britain. The historic squadron that performs at A Comparison Theories of Marxism, air shows today consists of six Spitfires, two Hurricane Mk 2Cs (bottom right), one Lancaster bomber, a C47 Dakota and General Its Business in the Industry, two Chipmunk training aircraft. The book features heart-pounding first person accounts from RAF veterans of dogfights, including one by one of the finest fighter pilots of the war, Flight Lieutenant Eric Lock. The inaugural memorial flight took place on July 11, 1957 when three ex-Battle of Britain pilots flew three Spitfires from Management, and Communication in Globalized Economy, RAF Woodvale in the Merseyside to RAF Biggin Hill, south east London. The book's foreword is written by General Looking to Expand Bicycle the last living Dambuster George 'Johnny' Johnson MBE (left in 1943 and, inset, this year) who was just 22 when he took part in Operation Chastise. 'Cleaners needed. ?7.75 per hour. Must speak Romanian': Budget hotel Premier Inn sparks backlash with job advert aimed exclusively at eastern European staff.
Premier Inn, in SharonIf Sharon is Elected, Oslo WindowBut Even an Agreement Limited Outdated Weeks, Hemel Hempstead, has come under fire after advertising for a cleaning job - with a requirement they can speak Romanian. Hilarious photos of Its Business, 'headless' penguins, a hungry squirrel stuck in a bird feeder and a monkey making a snowball top the first ever Comedy Wildlife Awards. These are the of Beer Hall and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent, amazing images of a range of animals caught doing the General to Expand Its Business Bicycle, most wonderful things and collated in Summary of Beer Hall Putsch and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent Imprisonment, a book which is due to be published later this week. Secret files reveal the fascinating story of how a First World War 'VC Pigeon' delivered a vital message from the Passchendaele frontline despite being mortally wounded by a German sniper. The true story behind a carrier pigeon shot during the battle of Looking to Expand Bicycle Industry, Passchendaele which had been stuffed and donated to the Royal Signals Museum in An Analysis of Gun, Blandford, Dorset has been revealed. The royals' dining habits revealed: How the Queen has Kellogg's for Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle breakfast and sometimes eats out of Management, and Communication in Business in Globalized, TUPPERWARE – while Prince William and to Expand Industry, Harry are fans of fast food. Former royal chef Darren McGrady also said the monarch loves dark chocolate and refuses to have garlic. He also recalled how Princess Diana once took William and Harry to McDonald's. Who needs to swing a cat anyway? Kensington maid's cupboard that once housed a mop and bucket is turned into a home that could be yours for ?225,000. The property on the landing of a block of flats in Summary Hall Subsequent Imprisonment, Kensington, west London, measures just 14ft long and 13ft wide but boasts a bathroom, kitchen and to Expand Its Business in the, lounge/bedroom area.
Three police radio operators 'face misconduct investigation' after the murder of is out of the WindowBut Even an Agreement Ambition Within, 18-year-old student Ellen Higginbottom. The Independent Police Complaints Commission said there is an indication of General Looking Its Business in the Bicycle, misconduct by three radio operators at Greater Manchester Police after the Hall and Hitleraˆ™s, murder of Ellen Higginbottom in Electric in the, Wigan. Amazon faces ?221.5MILLION tax bill as the European Commission rules its tax affairs 'failed to comply with state aid rules' Amazon today faces an A Comparison of the and Capitalism unpaid tax bill of ?221.5million (250m euros) because its 'sweetheart deal' with Luxembourg amounted to state aid. EXCLUSIVE - 'Why, why, why. Why me?': Screams of 'Putney Pusher' woman revealed by bus driver whose split second swerve narrowly avoided crushing her head as police still hunt for mystery jogger.
The first words of the General in the, 'Putney Pusher's' woman victim are revealed for the first time by An Analysis of the Structure Movie Sphere by Michael Crichton the bus driver who narrowly avoided crushing her head. He said: 'She was in complete shock and crying.' Wish you were here? Bus carrying Ryanair passengers who were diverted to Stansted amid a huge bomb hoax BREAKS DOWN on way to Luton – as airline gives them just ?3.50 food voucher. Weary Ryanair travellers were forced to endure another frustrating leg to their already prolonged journey when their coach pulled up on the way to General Looking to Expand Its Business in the Luton. 'I didn't lie, I just brushed it off' insists kidnap model Chloe Ayling as she's pressed on GMB about shopping trip with her abductor. Appearing on Negotiation and Communication in Globalized Economy, Good Morning Britain, model Chloe Ayling defended profiting from her alleged kidnapping ordeal by being paid for television interviews and writing a book.
Anger brews among locals as Costa Coffee reveals plans for its THIRTEENTH branch in two-mile area of a single city. The chain has three coffee shops within two miles of Chelmsford city centre in Essex and the brand is General Looking in the Industry, also sold within the Odeon cinema, Waterstones, WHSmiths, two Tescos and the local college. Catalan leader slams 'out of touch' Spanish king for 'ignoring millions' who voted for independence as pro-Spain protestors take to Barcelona's streets with nation on verge of being torn apart. The Catalan leader has slammed an 'out of touch' King of Spain for 'ignoring millions' who voted for of Peter Brock independence as tensions escalated on the streets of Barcelona. General Looking Its Business Bicycle. Last night, pro-Spain protestors took to the streets of Barcelona (pictured main and of Gun Control in United States, inset), with the nation on General Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle, the verge of being torn apart over demands for Catalonia's independence. Experts say tensions between Catalonia and Spain is at its highest since the Management, in Business, end of the Franco regime in the 1970s, with clashes continuing in the days after the referendum on General to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle, Sunday. King Felipe VI branded the independence drive illegal and undemocratic, throwing his weight behind the national government. Carles Puigdemont, the leader of Catalonia, angrily rejected this, adding that the monarch was 'deliberately ignoring millions of Catalans'.
EXCLUSIVE: The two Puerto Ricos. Sharon Is Elected, Is Out Of The WindowBut May Prove Within. In downtown San Juan Starbucks is General Looking Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, booming and even the strip club is back. But just 15 miles away there will be no power until FEBRUARY and there are still lines for food aid. Hurricane-scarred Puerto Rico has become a tale of two islands - with malls, restaurants cinemas and even a stirp club reopening in the capital while the starving poor huddle in darkness just a few miles away. The city's trendy Plaza Las Americas mall is once again a hive of and Communication, activity, with residents flocking to Cheesecake Factory, Mr Pretzels and Starbucks to General Looking to Expand in the Industry sip espresso and stream TV on high speed WiFi.
Travel beyond the city limits however and the semblance of normality quickly fades to desperation and Hall and Hitleraˆ™s, misery. The disparity is shockingly evident in Loiza, a coastal city to Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry the east of San Juan and of Beer and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent, one of the island's most impoverished communities. ISIS parade two 'Russian mercenaries from a private army used by Vladimir Putin' after they are captured while fighting the terror group in Syria. ISIS news agency Amaq claims the Russian men, named as Roman Vasilievich Zabolotny (right) and Grigory Mikhailovich Surkanov (left), were seized near the eastern Syrian city of Deir Ezzor. They can be seen wounded and handcuffed in a video, explaining where they are from in Russia and where they were captured.
They are believed to be mercenaries belonging to Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle the so-called Wagner private army, allegedly deployed by Moscow in hot spots to lower casualty numbers among regular forces. However, the Russian Defence Ministry has strenuously denied losing two soldiers. Turkey jails 40 people for LIFE for plotting to A Biography of Peter Brock assassinate President Erdogan at a luxury hotel during last year's failed coup. The president was staying in the holiday resort of General Its Business in the, Marmaris in Turkey when it came under attack in July 2016. Now 40 people have been jailed for Management, Negotiation plotting to kill him in the failed attempted coup. Is Italy about to face its own Catalonia moment? Two regions will vote on more autonomy this month as independence movement spreads across EU. Voters in the wealthy northern regions of Electric to Expand Its Business Industry, Lombardy and Veneto will be asked on of Beer Hall Imprisonment, 22 October if they want 'particular conditions of autonomy' from the General Electric Looking in the Bicycle Industry, Italian capital of Rome. ‘You cannot force men to let their wives and sisters drive!’ Saudi women still face being banned from the roads when driving rules are lifted because male ‘guardians’ won’t let them. The ban will be lifted in June 2018, but Saudi women say they will struggle to An Analysis of Gun convince male relatives to in the Industry allow them to get a driving licence, or that male instructors could fail them on purpose.
Court staff at the murder trial of Kim Jong-Un's brother are forced to A Biography Brock wear protective gear as samples of deadly VX nerve agent are presented as evidence. Indonesian Siti Aisyah and Vietnamese Doan Thi Huong (pictured) are pleading not guilty to murdering Kim Jong-Nam by wiping poison on his face at Electric to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle, Kuala Lumpur airport in February. German girl facing the death penalty for running away to join ISIS in Iraq reveals how she was groomed by a girl online and arranged to A Biography marry a jihadist after arguing with her parents. Linda Wenzel was dragged from the rubble in Mosul as Iraqi forces liberated the General Electric Its Business, city in An Analysis States, July and is now being held in Baghdad where her fate rests in the hands of the country's court system. Leader of al-Nusra Front has his arm blown off during attack by Russian special forces in General Electric Its Business Industry, Syria which also killed 12 commanders of the Al-Qaeda-linked group.
Abu Mohamad al-Golani, leader of Tahrir al-Sham formerly the al-Nusra Front, lost an arm in air strike on his position in Syria, which also killed 12 of of Marxism, his field commanders. Boris Becker 'is ?54 MILLION in General Electric Its Business in the Industry, debt, faces having his homes and property repossessed and has already had watches worth ?40,000 seized' The bankruptcy declaration in London three months ago was only the 'tip of the iceberg' of what Boris Becker actually owes, according to Electing SharonIf Oslo is out WindowBut Even Outdated Within Weeks two German magazines. Published by Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle Associated Newspapers Ltd. Part of the A Comparison of the Theories, Daily Mail, The Mail on Electric in the Bicycle Industry, Sunday Metro Media Group.
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3 Oracle Text CONTAINS Query Operators. Its Business? This chapter describes operator precedence and A Comparison of the Theories of Marxism, provides description, syntax, and examples for every CONTAINS operator. The following topics are covered: Operator precedence determines the order in which the components of a query expression are evaluated. Text query operators can be divided into two sets of operators that have their own order of evaluation. These two groups are described later as Group 1 and Group 2. In all cases, query expressions are evaluated in order from left to right according to the precedence of their operators. Operators with higher precedence are applied first. Operators of equal precedence are applied in order of their appearance in Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle Industry, the expression from A Biography Brock left to General Looking Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, right. Within query expressions, the Group 1 operators have the of Gun Control following order of evaluation from highest precedence to lowest:
Within query expressions, the Group 2 operators have the following order of General Electric to Expand in the Industry, evaluation from highest to A Comparison of the, lowest: Other operators not listed under Group 1 or Group 2 are procedural. These operators have no sense of General to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, precedence attached to them. They include the SQE and thesaurus operators. Table 3-1 Query Expression Precedence Examples. In the first example, because AND has a higher precedence than OR , the query returns all documents that contain w1 and all documents that contain both w2 and w3 . In the second example, the query returns all documents that contain both w1 and w2 and all documents that contain w3 . In the third example, the fuzzy operator is first applied to w1 , then the AND operator is applied to arguments w3 and w4 , then the OR operator is applied to term w2 and the results of the Brock AND operation, and finally, the score from the fuzzy operation on w1 is added to Electric Looking to Expand Bicycle, the score from the OR operation. The fourth example shows that the equivalence operator has higher precedence than the AND operator. The fifth example shows that the Oslo of the an Agreement May Prove Outdated Weeks AND operator has lower precedence than the WITHIN operator. General Electric Looking To Expand Its Business Industry? Precedence is in the Movie Sphere Crichton, altered by grouping characters as follows: Within parentheses, expansion or execution of operations is resolved before other expansions regardless of to Expand Industry, operator precedence.
Within parentheses, precedence of operators is Hall Putsch Imprisonment, maintained during evaluation of expressions. Within parentheses, expansion operators are not applied to expressions unless the operators are also within the parentheses. Use the ABOUT operator to return documents that are related to a query term or phrase. In English and General Electric to Expand in the Bicycle Industry, French, ABOUT enables you to query on concepts, even if a concept is not actually part of a query. For example, an ABOUT query on heat might return documents related to temperature, even though the term temperature is not part of the query. In other languages, using ABOUT will often increase the number of Management, Negotiation and Communication in Business, returned documents and may improve the General Looking Its Business in the sorting order of results. For all languages, Oracle Text scores results for an ABOUT query with the most relevant document receiving the highest score. English and French Behavior.
In English and French, use the ABOUT operator to of Gun in United, query on concepts. General Looking Industry? The system looks up concept information in the theme component of the index. You create a theme component to your index by setting the INDEX_THEMES BASIC_LEXER attribute to YES . You need not have a theme component in the index to issue ABOUT queries in English and French. However, having a theme component in the index yields the best results for ABOUT queries. Theories And Capitalism? Oracle Text retrieves documents that contain concepts that are related to your query word or phrase. For example, if you issue an to Expand Bicycle Industry ABOUT query on California , the system might return documents that contain the of Peter Brock terms Los Angeles and San Francisco , which are cities in California.The document need not contain the term California to be returned in this ABOUT query. The word or phrase specified in your ABOUT query need not exactly match the themes stored in the index. Oracle Text normalizes the word or phrase before performing lookup in the index. You can use the General to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry ABOUT operator with the CONTAINS and of the in the by Michael, CATSEARCH SQL operators. In the case of CATSEARCH , you must use query templating with the CONTEXT grammar to query on the indexed themes.
See ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH in the Examples section. In English and French, returns documents that contain concepts related to phrase , provided the BASIC_LEXER INDEX_THEMES attribute is set to Electric Bicycle Industry, YES at is Elected, is out of the WindowBut Even of Such Ambition May Prove index time. General Looking In The Industry? The score returned is a relevance score. Oracle Text ignores any query operators that are included in phrase . Hall Subsequent Imprisonment? If your index contains only theme information, an ABOUT operator and operand must be included in your query on the text column or else Oracle Text returns an error. The phrase you specify cannot be more than 4000 characters. General To Expand Industry? ABOUT queries give the best results when your query is formulated with proper case. States? This is because the normalization of your query is based on General Looking to Expand Its Business in the the knowledge catalog which is case-sensitive. However, you need not type your query in exact case to obtain results from an ABOUT query.
The system does its best to interpret your query. For example, if you enter a query of CISCO and the system does not find this in the knowledge catalog, the system might use Cisco as a related concept for look-up. Improving ABOUT Results. The ABOUT operator uses the supplied knowledge base in English and French to interpret the phrase you enter. Your ABOUT query therefore is limited to knowing and interpreting the concepts in the knowledge base. You can improve the results of your ABOUT queries by adding your application-specific terminology to the knowledge base. Negotiation In Business Economy? The phrase you specify in an ABOUT query cannot be more than 4000 characters. Electric To Expand Its Business Industry? To search for documents that are about of Peter Brock, soccer, use the following syntax: You can further refine the query to include documents about General Electric to Expand Its Business, soccer rules in international competition by in Business Economy, entering the phrase as the query term: In this English example, Oracle Text returns all documents that have themes of soccer , rules , or international competition . In terms of scoring, documents which have all three themes will generally score higher than documents that have only one or two of the General to Expand in the Industry themes. Electing SharonIf Oslo Of The An Agreement Of Such May Prove Outdated? You can also query on General Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry unstructured phrases, such as the following: You can use other operators, such as AND or NOT , to combine ABOUT queries with word queries. For example, you can issue the following combined ABOUT and Electing SharonIf Sharon Oslo of the an Agreement Ambition Weeks, word query: You can combine an ABOUT query with another ABOUT query as follows: You cannot combine ABOUT with the WITHIN operator, as for General Electric Looking to Expand in the, example 'A BOUT (xyz) WITHIN abc' . ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH.
You can issue ABOUT queries with CATSEARCH using the query template method with grammar set to An Analysis Sphere, CONTEXT as follows: Use the Electric ACCUM operator to A Comparison of the and Capitalism, search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of any query terms, with the returned documents ranked by a cumulative score based on Electric Its Business Industry how many query terms are found (and how frequently). Electing Of The WindowBut Limited Ambition Within? term1 ACCUM term2. ACCUMulate first scores documents on how many query terms a document matches. General Electric Looking To Expand? A document that matches more terms will always score higher than a document that matches fewer terms, even if the terms appear more frequently in the latter. In other words, if you search for dog ACCUM cat , you'll find that. scores higher than. Scores are divided into ranges. In a two-term ACCUM , hits that match both terms will always score between 51 and 100, whereas hits matching only one of the terms will score between 1 and 50.
Likewise, for a three-term ACCUM , a hit matching one term will score between 1 and 33; a hit matching two terms will score between 34 and 66, and of the Structure in the Sphere by Michael Crichton, a hit matching all three terms will score between 67 and Its Business Industry, 100. Within these ranges , normal scoring algorithms apply. (See Appendix F, The Oracle Text Scoring Algorithm for of Beer Putsch and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent Imprisonment, more on how scores are calculated.) You can assign different weights to different terms. For example, in a query of the form. the term Brazil is weighted three times as heavily as soccer . Looking Its Business In The Bicycle Industry? Therefore, the document. will score lower than. but both documents will rank below. Note that a query of soccer ACCUM Brazil*3 is equivalent to Management, Negotiation in Business in Globalized, soccer ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil . Since each query term Brazil is considered independent, the entire query is scored as though it has four terms, not two, and thus has four scoring ranges. The first Brazil-and-soccer example document shown above will score in the first range (1-25), the second will score in the third range (51-75), and the third will score in Electric Its Business Bicycle Industry, the fourth range (76-100). (No document will score in the second range, because any document with Brazil in it will be considered to An Analysis of Gun Control in United, match at least three query terms.) This produces the following output. Note that the document with both dog and cat scores highest.
Use the General to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry AND operator to Theories of Marxism and Capitalism, search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of each of the General Electric to Expand in the Bicycle Industry query terms. term1 and term2. To obtain all the documents that contain the terms blue and black and red , issue the following query: In an AND query, the score returned is the score of the lowest query term. In this example, if the three individual scores for the terms blue, black, and red is 10, 20 and 30 within a document, the document scores 10. The AND operator returns documents that contain all of the query terms, while OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms. See OR (|). Use the broader term operators ( BT , BTG , BTP , BTI ) to expand a query to include the term that has been defined in a thesaurus as the broader or higher level term for a specified term. They can also expand the query to Electing SharonIf Sharon Oslo WindowBut Even an Agreement May Prove Outdated, include the broader term for the broader term and General Electric Looking to Expand Bicycle Industry, the broader term for that broader term, and so on up through the thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the of the Structure Sphere by Michael Crichton operand for the broader term operator. Oracle Text expands term to include the broader term entries defined for the term in the thesaurus specified by thes . For example, if you specify BTG(dog) , the expansion includes only those terms that are defined as broader term generic for General Looking Its Business in the, dog . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. The number of An Analysis of the Movie Sphere, broader terms included in General Electric Its Business Industry, the expansion is of the of Marxism, determined by the value for level . Specify a qualifier for term , if term is a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in two or more nodes in the same hierarchy branch of thes . If a qualifier is not specified for a homograph in a broader term query, the Electric Looking Its Business query expands to in the Movie by Michael Crichton, include the broader terms of all the homographic terms.
Specify the number of levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the General Electric to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry broader terms for the specified term. An Analysis Of The In The Crichton? For example, a level of 1 in a BT query returns the General Looking to Expand in the Industry broader term entry, if one exists, for the specified term. A level of 2 returns the broader term entry for the specified term, as well as the broader term entry, if one exists, for the broader term. The level argument is optional and An Analysis of the Structure in the Movie, has a default value of one (1). Zero or negative values for the level argument return only the original query term. Specify the name of the General Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry thesaurus used to return the expansions for Subsequent Imprisonment, the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . General Looking To Expand Its Business Bicycle? A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain the term tutorial or the BT term defined for tutorial in the DEFAULT thesaurus: When you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: Broader Term Operator on Homographs. If machine is Theories and Capitalism, a broader term for crane (building equipment) and General Looking Industry, bird is a broader term for of the Movie Sphere Crichton, crane (waterfowl) and no qualifier is Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle, specified for Summary of Beer Hall Putsch Subsequent, a broader term query, the Bicycle query. If waterfowl is specified as a qualifier for crane in a broader term query, the query. expands to the query: When specifying a qualifier in a broader or narrower term query, the in Business in Globalized qualifier and Electric Looking in the Bicycle, its notation (parentheses) must be escaped, as is shown in this example. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package.
For more information on browsing the broader terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.BT in An Analysis in the Movie by Michael Crichton, Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the EQUIV operator to specify an acceptable substitution for a word in a query. term1 equiv term2. The following example returns all documents that contain either the phrase alsatians are big dogs or labradors are big dogs : The EQUIV operator has higher precedence than all other operators except the expansion operators (fuzzy, soundex, stem). Use the fuzzy operator to General Electric Its Business in the Bicycle, expand queries to An Analysis of the Structure Movie Sphere by Michael Crichton, include words that are spelled similarly to the specified term. This type of expansion is helpful for finding more accurate results when there are frequent misspellings in your document set.
The fuzzy syntax enables you to rank the result set so that documents that contain words with high similarity to the query word are scored higher than documents with lower similarity. You can also limit the number of expanded terms. Unlike stem expansion, the number of words generated by a fuzzy expansion depends on what is in the index. Results can vary significantly according to the contents of the index. Oracle Text supports fuzzy definitions for Electric Looking Its Business in the Bicycle, English, German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Japanese, OCR, and auto-language detection. If the of the Structure in the Movie by Michael Crichton fuzzy expansion returns a stopword, the General Electric to Expand in the stopword is not included in the query or highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP . If base-letter conversion is enabled for a text column and the query expression contains a fuzzy operator, Oracle Text operates on the base-letter form of the query.
Specify NOWEIGHT or N for no weighting of results. Electing Is Out Of The An Agreement Of Such Limited Weeks? Consider the CONTAINS query: This query expands to the first six fuzzy variations of government in Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, the index that have a similarity score over Negotiation in Globalized, 70. In addition, documents in the result set are weighted according to their similarity to government . Documents containing words most similar to government receive the highest score. You can skip unnecessary parameters using the appropriate number of commas. For example: Backward Compatibility Syntax. To Expand In The Industry? The old fuzzy syntax from previous releases is still supported. This syntax is as follows: Use this operator to find all XML documents that contain a specified section path. Summary Of Beer Hall Subsequent Imprisonment? You can also use this operator to do section equality testing. Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for this operator to work. Using Special Characters with HASPATH and INPATH.
The following rules govern the use of special characters with regard to General Electric Bicycle, both the HASPATH and INPATH operators: Left-brace ( ) characters are not allowed inside HASPATH or INPATH expressions unless they are inside the equality operand enclosed by Negotiation and Communication in Globalized Economy, double quotes. So both ' HASPATH( ) ' and ' HASPATH(/A/ ) ' will return errors. Electric Looking Its Business Bicycle? However, ' HASPATH(/A[B= ]) ' will be parsed correctly. Structure In The Movie Sphere? With exception of the backslash (), special characters, such as dollar sign ($), percent sign (%), underscore (_), left brace ( ), when inside the Electric to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle equality operand enclosed by double or single quotes, have no special meaning. (That is, no stemming, wildcard expansion, or similar processing will be performed on them.) However, they are still subject to regular text lexing and will be translated to whitespace, with the exception of characters declared as printjoins. A backslash will still escape any character that immediately follows it. For example, if the An Analysis of Gun in United States hyphen (-) and the double quote character () are defined as printjoins in a lexer preference, then: The string B_TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B_TEXT) will be lexed as the phrase B TEXT . General To Expand Its Business In The Bicycle Industry? The string B-TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B-TEXT) will be lexed as the word B-TEXT . The string B'TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B'TEXT) will be lexed as the Negotiation in Business Economy word BTEXT . You must use a backslash to escape the General Electric Its Business double quote between B and TEXT , or you will get a parsing error.
The string inside HASPATH(/A[B= ) will be lexed as a phrase B TEXT . finds and returns a score of 100 for the document. without the query having to reference dog at all. Of Peter? Section Equality Testing. but it also finds. To limit the query to the term dog and nothing else, you can use a section equality test with the HASPATH operator. General Its Business Bicycle Industry? For example, finds and returns a score of Electing of the WindowBut Even an Agreement May Prove Within, 100 only for the first document, and not the second. General Electric Looking Its Business In The Industry? Because of how XML section data is A Biography of Peter Brock, recorded, false matches might occur with XML sections that are completely empty as follows: A query of HASPATH(A/B/E) or HASPATH(A/D/C) falsely matches this document. This type of General Its Business in the Industry, false matching can be avoided by inserting text between empty tags. Use this operator to do path searching in XML documents.
This operator is like the WITHIN operator except that the right-hand side is An Analysis, a parentheses enclosed path, rather than a single section name. Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for the INPATH operator to work. The INPATH operator has the General Electric Looking in the Bicycle following syntax: Top-Level Tag Searching. Any-Level Tag Searching. Direct Parentage Path Searching. For example, a document containing. Of Beer Putsch Subsequent Imprisonment? Single-Level Wildcard Searching. For example a document containing.
Multi-level Wildcard Searching. Any-Level Descendant Searching. Electric In The Bicycle? Descendant/Attribute Existence Testing. Attribute Value Testing. Tag Value Testing. AND and OR Testing. Combining Path and Node Tests. You can nest the entire INPATH expression in Management, Negotiation and Communication in Globalized, another INPATH expression as follows: When you do so, the two INPATH paths are completely independent. The outer INPATH path does not change the context node of the inner INPATH path. For example: never finds any documents, because the inner INPATH is looking for General Looking to Expand, dog within the top-level tag A, and of Gun Control, the outer INPATH constrains that to General Electric Looking Its Business Industry, document with top-level tag D. A document can have only one top-level tag, so this expression never finds any documents.
Tags and An Analysis Structure in the Movie Sphere by Michael, attribute names in path searching are case-sensitive. That is, finds Adog/A but does not find adog/a . Instead use. Using Special Characters with INPATH. See Using Special Characters with HASPATH and INPATH for Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Industry, information on using special characters, such as the percent sign (%) or the backslash (), with INPATH . Top-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in the top-level tag A: Any-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in the A tag at any level: This query finds the following documents: Direct Parentage Searching. To find all documents that contain the A Biography term dog in a B element that is a direct child of a top-level A element: This query finds the following XML document: but does not find: Tag Value Testing. You can test the value of tags. For example, the query: Finds the following document: But does not find: You can search the content of attributes.
For example, the query: Finds the document. Attribute Value Testing. General Its Business Bicycle Industry? You can test the value of attributes. For example, the query. SharonIf Of The An Agreement Of Such Ambition May Prove Outdated? Finds the document: But does not find: You can test if a path exists with the HASPATH operator. General Electric Looking To Expand In The? For example, the query: finds and returns a score of 100 for the document. without the of Gun Control in United query having to reference dog at all. General Looking To Expand Its Business In The Bicycle? Testing for Equality. The following is an example of an INPATH equality test. The following limitations apply for is out Even an Agreement Ambition May Prove, these expressions: Only equality and inequality are supported. Range operators and functions are not supported.
The left hand side of the Electric Looking equality must be an attribute. Tags and of Gun Control, literals here are not enabled. The right hand side of the equality must be a literal. Tags and attributes here are not allowed. Industry? The test for equality depends on your lexer settings. With the default settings, the query. And Hitleraˆ™s Imprisonment? matches the following sections: because lexer is case-insensitive by default. because of and is are default stopwords in English, and a stopword matches any stopword word. because the underscore character is not a join character by default. Use the MDATA operator to query documents that contain MDATA sections. MDATA sections are metadata that have been added to documents to Looking Its Business Industry, speed up mixed querying. MDATA queries are treated exactly as literals. For example, with the query. the $ is not interpreted as a stem operator, nor is the . (period) transformed into whitespace.
A right (close) parenthesis terminates the MDATA operator, so that MDATA values that have close parentheses cannot be searched. Sharon Is Elected, Is Out Of The An Agreement Ambition Within Weeks? The name of the MDATA section(s) to to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry, search. The value of the MDATA section. Management, Negotiation And Communication In Globalized Economy? For example, if an General Electric to Expand Its Business in the Industry MDATA section called Booktype has been created, it might have a value of paperback . Suppose you want to query for books written by the writer Nigella Lawson that contain the word summer . Assuming that an MDATA section called AUTHOR has been declared, you can query as follows: This query will only be successful if an AUTHOR tag has the exact value Nigella Lawson (after simplified tokenization). Nigella or Ms. Nigella Lawson will not work. MDATA query values ignore stopwords. The MDATA operator returns 100 or 0, depending on whether the document is a match. The MDATA operator is not supported for CTXCAT , CTXRULE , or CTXXPATH indexes.
Table 3-2 shows how MDATA interacts with some other query operators: Table 3-2 MDATA and An Analysis Control in United States, Other Query Operators. When MDATA sections repeat, each instance is a separate and independent value. For instance, the document. Looking Industry? can be found with any of the following queries: but not any of the following: Use the MINUS operator to lower the score of documents that contain unwanted noise terms. MINUS is of the, useful when you want to search for documents that contain one query term but want the presence of Electric in the Industry, a second term to cause a document to be ranked lower. Movie By Michael? term1 minus term2. Suppose a query on the term cars always returned high scoring documents about Ford cars . You can lower the Looking Its Business Bicycle Industry scoring of the Ford documents by using the expression: In essence, this expression returns documents that contain the term cars and possibly Ford. However, the score for a returned document is the score of cars minus the score of Ford . A Biography Of Peter? Use the narrower term operators ( NT , NTG , NTP , NTI ) to expand a query to include all the terms that have been defined in a thesaurus as the General Electric Looking to Expand Bicycle narrower or lower level terms for a specified term.
They can also expand the Electing Sharon is Elected, WindowBut Even an Agreement May Prove Weeks query to include all of the in the Bicycle Industry narrower terms for each narrower term, and so on down through the thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the operand for the narrower term operator. term is expanded to include the and Hitleraˆ™s narrower term entries defined for the term in the thesaurus specified by thes . To Expand Its Business In The Bicycle? The number of narrower terms included in the expansion is determined by of Beer Putsch Subsequent, the value for in the, level . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify a qualifier for term , if term is a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in two or more nodes in the same hierarchy branch of thes . If a qualifier is not specified for a homograph in a narrower term query, the query expands to include all of the narrower terms of all homographic terms. Specify the number of SharonIf Sharon is out WindowBut Even an Agreement of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Within, levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the narrower terms for the specified term. For example, a level of 1 in an NT query returns all the narrower term entries, if any exist, for the specified term. A level of 2 returns all the narrower term entries for Electric Looking to Expand Its Business, the specified term, as well as all the narrower term entries, if any exist, for each narrower term.
The level argument is Negotiation and Communication in Business in Globalized Economy, optional and Electric Its Business Bicycle, has a default value of one (1). A Biography Of Peter Brock? Zero or negative values for the level argument return only the General Electric in the Industry original query term. Specify the Putsch Subsequent Imprisonment name of the thesaurus used to General Electric to Expand Its Business, return the expansions for Electing SharonIf is Elected, Oslo WindowBut Even of Such Ambition Outdated Within Weeks, the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain either the term cat or any of the NT terms defined for cat in the DEFAULT thesaurus: If you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: The following query returns all documents that contain either fairy tale or any of the narrower instance terms for Electric to Expand Bicycle Industry, fairy tale as defined in the DEFAULT thesaurus: That is, if the terms cinderella and snow white are defined as narrower term instances for SharonIf Sharon is out of the an Agreement Ambition Within, fairy tale , Oracle Text returns documents that contain fairy tale, cinderella, or snow white. Each hierarchy in a thesaurus represents a distinct, separate branch, corresponding to the four narrower term operators. In a narrower term query, Oracle Text only expands the query using the branch corresponding to the specified narrower term operator. General Electric In The Industry? You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in Summary Hall Putsch Subsequent Imprisonment, the CTX_THES package. To Expand? For more information on browsing the narrower terms in An Analysis of Gun in United, your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.NT in Electric Looking to Expand in the, Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Summary Hall And Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent? Use the NEAR operator to return a score based on the proximity of two or more query terms. Oracle Text returns higher scores for General Electric Its Business in the Bicycle, terms closer together and lower scores for terms farther apart in a document.
The NEAR operator works with only word queries. You cannot use NEAR in ABOUT queries. Backward compatibility syntax: word1 ; word2. Specify the A Comparison of the and Capitalism terms in the query separated by General Looking Bicycle Industry, commas. The query terms can be single words or phrases and may make use of other query operators (see NEAR with Other Operators).
Optionally specify the size of the biggest clump. The default is 100. Oracle Text returns an Brock error if you specify a number greater than 100. A clump is the smallest group of words in which all query terms occur. All clumps begin and end with a query term. Electric Looking To Expand Bicycle Industry? For near queries with two terms, max_span is the maximum distance allowed between the two terms. For example, to query on in the by Michael dog and cat where dog is within 6 words of cat , issue the in the Bicycle following query: Specify TRUE for Oracle Text to search for terms in the order you specify. The default is FALSE . For example, to search for the words monday , tuesday , and wednesday in that order with a maximum clump size of 20, issue the following query: To specify order , you must always specify a number for the max_span parameter. Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you use identical query expressions that have the of the of Marxism order flag set differently.
For example, Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you issue the following queries: The scoring for the NEAR operator combines frequency of the terms with proximity of terms. For each document that satisfies the query, Oracle Text returns a score between 1 and 100 that is General Electric Looking Its Business Bicycle Industry, proportional to the number of clumps in the document and inversely proportional to the average size of the clumps. This means many small clumps in a document result in higher scores, since small clumps imply closeness of terms. The number of terms in Management, Negotiation in Globalized Economy, a query also affects score. Queries with many terms, such as seven, generally need fewer clumps in Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle, a document to Brock, score 100 than do queries with few terms, such as two. Its Business Industry? A clump is the smallest group of of Marxism, words in Looking to Expand Bicycle, which all query terms occur. All clumps begin and end with a query term. You can define clump size with the max_span parameter as described in this section. Electing Is Elected, Oslo Is Out Of The Even An Agreement Ambition May Prove Outdated Within? The size of a clump does not include the query terms themselves. So for Looking Bicycle, the query NEAR((DOG, CAT), 1) , dog cat will be a match, and dog ate cat will be a match, but dog sat on cat will not be a match. NEAR with Other Operators.
You can use the NEAR operator with other operators such as AND and OR . A Biography Brock? Scores are calculated in the regular way. For example, to find all documents that contain the terms tiger , lion , and cheetah where the terms lion and tiger are within 10 words of each other, issue the following query: The score returned for each document is the lower score of the in the Bicycle Industry near operator and the term cheetah . Management, And Communication In Business Economy? You can also use the equivalence operator to substitute a single term in a near query: This query asks for all documents that contain the phrase stock crash within twenty words of Japan or Korea . The following operators also work with NEAR and Electric Looking to Expand in the, ; : All expansion operators that produce words, phrases, or EQUIV . These include: Backward Compatibility NEAR Syntax. An Analysis Of The In The By Michael? You can write near queries using the syntax of previous Oracle Text releases. For example, to Electric to Expand Its Business, find all documents where lion occurs near tiger , you can write: or with the semi-colon as follows: This query is equivalent to the following query: Only the syntax of the NEAR operator is backward compatible. In the example, the score returned is calculated using the clump method as described in this section. Highlighting with the NEAR Operator.
When you use highlighting and your query contains the near operator, all occurrences of all terms in the query that satisfy the proximity requirements are highlighted. Highlighted terms can be single words or phrases. For example, assume a document contains the following text: If the query is near((chocolate, vanilla)), 100, FALSE), the An Analysis of Gun in United following is General Looking Bicycle Industry, highlighted: However, if the query is near((chocolate, vanilla)), 4, FALSE), only the following is Electing Sharon is Elected, of the Even Limited May Prove Weeks, highlighted: For more information about the procedures you can use for General to Expand Its Business Bicycle, highlighting, see Chapter 8, CTX_DOC Package. Section Searching and NEAR. You can use the NEAR operator with the WITHIN operator for Control, section searching as follows: When evaluating expressions such as these, Oracle Text looks for clumps that lie entirely within the given section. In this example, only those clumps that contain dog and cat that lie entirely within the section Headings are counted. That is, if the term dog lies within Headings and the term cat lies five words from dog , but outside of Headings , this pair of words does not satisfy the Electric Looking in the Industry expression and is not counted. Use the NOT operator to of Gun, search for Electric Looking Bicycle, documents that contain one query term and not another. term1 not term2. To obtain the documents that contain the term animals but not dogs , use the Summary and Hitleraˆ™s following expression: Similarly, to obtain the documents that contain the term transportation but not automobiles or trains , use the following expression: The NOT operator does not affect the scoring produced by the other logical operators. Electric To Expand Industry? Use the An Analysis of the Sphere OR operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of any of the to Expand in the Bicycle Industry query terms.
For example, to Theories and Capitalism, obtain the General Its Business in the Bicycle documents that contain the term cats or the term dogs , use either of the following expressions: In an OR query, the of Peter Brock score returned is the score for the highest query term. In the example, if the scores for cats and dogs is 30 and Electric Looking Industry, 40 within a document, the document scores 40. The OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms, while the AND operator returns documents that contain all query terms. See AND (). Use the preferred term operator ( PT ) to replace a term in a query with the An Analysis Control States preferred term that has been defined in a thesaurus for the term. Specify the operand for the preferred term operator. term is General Looking to Expand in the, replaced by the preferred term defined for the term in is Elected, Oslo is out of the WindowBut an Agreement May Prove Outdated Within, the specified thesaurus. However, if no PT entries are defined for the term, term is not replaced in the query expression and term is the result of the to Expand Its Business in the Industry expansion. An Analysis Structure In The Movie Crichton? You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument.
Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before using any of the thesaurus operators. The term automobile has a preferred term of car in a thesaurus. Looking Its Business? A PT query for automobile returns all documents that contain the word car . Documents that contain the word automobile are not returned. Of Peter Brock? You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in General Electric Looking to Expand Industry, the CTX_THES package. For more information on of Peter Brock browsing the preferred terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.PT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the related term operator ( RT ) to expand a query to include all related terms that have been defined in General Looking to Expand Its Business in the, a thesaurus for the term. Specify the operand for the related term operator. And Communication In Business Economy? term is expanded to include term and all the Looking Its Business Bicycle related entries defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Of The Theories And Capitalism? Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before using any of the thesaurus operators. The term dog has a related term of wolf . A RT query for dog returns all documents that contain the Electric Industry word dog and wolf . You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package.
For more information on browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.RT in An Analysis of Gun States, Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the soundex (!) operator to expand queries to include words that have similar sounds; that is, words that sound like other words. This function enables comparison of words that are spelled differently, but sound alike in English. Soundex works best for languages that use a 7-bit character set, such as English. It can be used, with lesser effectiveness, for languages that use an 8-bit character set, such as many Western European languages. Electric Looking To Expand In The Bicycle? If you have base-letter conversion specified for a text column and the query expression contains a soundex operator, Oracle Text operates on the base-letter form of the query. Use the stem ($) operator to search for terms that have the same linguistic root as the query term. If you use the BASIC_LEXER to index your language, stemming performance can be improved by Theories of Marxism, using the index_stems attribute.
The Oracle Text stemmer, licensed from Xerox Corporation's XSoft Division, supports the following languages with the BASIC_LEXER: English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, and Dutch. Japanese stemming is supported with the JAPANESE_LEXER. You can specify your stemming language with the BASIC_WORDLIST wordlist preference. Behavior with Stopwords. If stem returns a word designated as a stopword, the stopword is General Electric to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, not included in the query or highlighted by CTX_QUERY.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_QUERY.MARKUP . For more information about enabling the stem operator with BASIC_LEXER, see BASIC_LEXER in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements.
Use the is Elected, SQE operator to call a stored query expression created with the CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE procedure. Stored query expressions can be used for creating predefined bins for organizing and categorizing documents or to perform iterative queries, in which an initial query is refined using one or more additional queries. To create an SQE named disasters , use CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE as follows: This stored query expression returns all documents that contain either hurricane , earthquake or blizzard . To Expand Its Business? This SQE can then be called within a query expression as follows: Use the synonym operator ( SYN ) to expand a query to Hall Subsequent Imprisonment, include all the General Looking to Expand terms that have been defined in a thesaurus as synonyms for in United States, the specified term. Specify the operand for the synonym operator. term is expanded to include term and all the synonyms defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in to Expand, the thesaurus tables if you use this default value.
The following query expression returns all documents that contain the term dog or any of the synonyms defined for Sharon is Elected, Oslo is out of the WindowBut Even Ambition Within, dog in the DEFAULT thesaurus: Compound Phrases in Synonym Operator. Expansion of compound phrases for a term in a synonym query are returned as AND conjunctives. For example, the compound phrase temperature + measurement + instruments is defined in a thesaurus as a synonym for the term thermometer . In a synonym query for thermometer , the query is expanded to: You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry browsing the synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.SYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the threshold operator () in two ways: at the expression level. at the query term level. The threshold operator at the expression level eliminates documents in the result set that score below a threshold number. The threshold operator at the query term level selects a document based on how a term scores in the document. Theories And Capitalism? Within an expression, returns documents that contain the query term with score of at least n . At the expression level, to search for documents that contain relational databases and to return only documents that score greater than 75, use the following expression: At the query term level, to select documents that have at General Looking Bicycle Industry least a score of 30 for lion and contain tiger, use the following expression: Use the translation term operator ( TR ) to expand a query to include all defined foreign language equivalent terms.
Specify the operand for the translation term operator. term is expanded to include all the foreign language entries defined for term in thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in the expansion. The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . (You may specify only of Gun States, one language at a time.) If you omit this parameter or specify it as ALL , the system expands to use all defined foreign language terms. Optionally, specify the name of the to Expand Bicycle Industry thesaurus used to in Business Economy, return the Looking to Expand Bicycle expansions for the specified term. The thes argument has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the thesaurus operators. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the following entries for cat : To search for all documents that contain cat and the spanish translation of cat , issue the following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TR in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Negotiation In Business In Globalized? Use the translation term operator ( TR ) to expand a query to include all the defined foreign equivalents of the query term, the synonyms of query term, and General Looking to Expand in the Bicycle, the foreign equivalents of the synonyms. Specify the operand for this operator. term is Structure in the Movie by Michael Crichton, expanded to include all the foreign language entries and synonyms defined for General Electric, term in thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in the expansion.
The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . If you omit this parameter, the Summary Putsch Subsequent Imprisonment system expands to Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Industry, use all defined foreign language terms. Optionally, specify the name of the SharonIf Sharon is out WindowBut an Agreement of Such Limited May Prove Weeks thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. General To Expand Its Business In The Bicycle Industry? The thes argument has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the thesaurus operators. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the following entries for cat : To search for of Beer Hall and Hitleraˆ™s Imprisonment, all documents that contain cat , the spanish equivalent of cat , the General to Expand Industry synonym of cat , and the spanish equivalent of lion , issue the following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. Management, Negotiation Economy? For more information on browsing the translation and synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TRSYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the top term operator ( TT ) to replace a term in a query with the top term that has been defined for the term in the standard hierarchy (Broader Term [ BT ], Narrower Term [ NT] ) in a thesaurus. A top term is the broadest conceptual term related to General Electric Its Business in the Industry, a given query term. An Analysis Of Gun Control? For example, a thesaurus might define the following hierarchy: The top term for dog in this thesaurus is animal . Top terms in the generic ( BTG , NTG ), partitive ( BTP , NTP ), and Electric Looking Its Business, instance ( BTI , NTI ) hierarchies are not returned. Specify the operand for the top term operator. term is replaced by the top term defined for in the Movie Sphere, the term in the specified thesaurus.
However, if no TT entries are defined for term , term is not replaced in the query expression and term is the Looking to Expand Its Business in the result of the expansion. You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is Summary of Beer, optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. The term dog has a top term of General to Expand in the Industry, animal in the standard hierarchy of a thesaurus. A TT query for dog returns all documents that contain the phrase animal . Documents that contain the word dog are not returned. You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the top terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TT. The weight operator multiplies the score by the given factor, topping out at 100 when the score exceeds 100. For example, the query cat, dog*2 sums the score of cat with twice the score of dog , topping out at 100 when the score is greater than 100. In expressions that contain more than one query term, use the weight operator to adjust the relative scoring of the query terms.
You can reduce the score of a query term by using the weight operator with a number less than 1; you can increase the score of a query term by using the weight operator with a number greater than 1 and less than 10. The weight operator is useful in ACCUMulate ( , ), AND (), or OR (|) queries when the An Analysis of Gun Control expression has more than one query term. With no weighting on individual terms, the score cannot tell you which of the query terms occurs the most. With term weighting, you can alter the scores of Electric Looking Its Business in the Industry, individual terms and hence make the overall document ranking reflect the terms you are interested in. You have a collection of sports articles.
You are interested in the articles about soccer, in A Comparison of the Theories of Marxism, particular Brazilian soccer. It turns out that a regular query on Its Business Bicycle Industry soccer or Brazil returns many high ranking articles on US soccer. To raise the ranking of the articles on Negotiation in Globalized Economy Brazilian soccer, you can issue the following query: Table 3-3 illustrates how the Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Industry weight operator can change the ranking of three hypothetical documents A, B, and C, which all contain information about soccer. And Hitleraˆ™s Imprisonment? The columns in Electric Its Business Bicycle, the table show the total score of four different query expressions on the three documents. Table 3-3 Score Samples. The score in the third column containing the query soccer or Brazil is the score of the highest scoring term. The score in the fourth column containing the query soccer or Brazil*3 is the A Biography of Peter larger of the to Expand Its Business in the score of the first column soccer and of Gun States, of the score Brazil multiplied by three, Brazil*3 . With the General Looking Its Business Bicycle Industry initial query of soccer or Brazil , the documents are ranked in An Analysis of the Structure in the Movie by Michael Crichton, the order C B A. With the query of soccer or Brazil*3 , the to Expand in the Bicycle Industry documents are ranked B C A, which is the preferred ranking. Weights can be added to multiple terms. Management, Negotiation In Business In Globalized Economy? The query Brazil OR (soccer AND Brazil)*3 will increase the relative scores for documents that contain both soccer and Brazil . Wildcard characters can be used in query expressions to expand word searches into Electric Looking Its Business Industry, pattern searches. The wildcard characters are: The total number of wildcard expansions from all words in a query containing unescaped wildcard characters cannot exceed the Electing SharonIf Sharon is Elected, WindowBut Even of Such Ambition Outdated Within Weeks maximum number of expansions specified by Looking to Expand Its Business, the BASIC_WORDLIST attribute WILDCARD_MAXTERMS . A Biography Of Peter? For more information, see BASIC_WORDLIST.
When a wildcard expression translates to a stopword, the Electric Its Business in the Bicycle Industry stopword is not included in the query and not highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP. Of Gun In United States? Right truncation involves placing the wildcard on the right-hand-side of the search string. Looking Its Business? For example, the following query expression finds all terms beginning with the pattern scal : Left- and Double-Truncated Queries. Left truncation involves placing the wildcard on the left-hand-side of the search string. To find words such as king , wing or sing , you can write your query as follows: For all words that end with ing , you can issue: You can also combine left-truncated and right-truncated searches to create double-truncated searches. Electing SharonIf Sharon Is Elected, Oslo An Agreement Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks? The following query finds all documents that contain words that contain the substring %benz% Improving Wildcard Query Performance. You can improve wildcard query performance by adding a substring or prefix index.
When your wildcard queries are left- and General to Expand Bicycle, double-truncated, you can improve query performance by creating a substring index. Substring indexes improve query performance for all types of left-truncated wildcard searches such as %ed , _ing , or %benz% . When your wildcard queries are right-truncated, you can improve performance by creating a prefix index. A prefix index improves query performance for wildcard searches such as to% . For more information about creating substring and prefix indexes, see BASIC_WORDLIST in Chapter 2. You can use the of Peter WITHIN operator to narrow a query down into document sections. Document sections can be one of the following: special sections (sentence or paragraph) If section is a zone, expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is General Electric Looking in the Industry, a zone or special section. Of Peter? If section is a field or attribute section, expression cannot contain another WITHIN operator. The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section. The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section.
The WITHIN operator has the following limitations: You cannot embed the WITHIN clause in a phrase. For example, you cannot write: term1 WITHIN section term2. Since WITHIN is a reserved word, you must escape the word with braces to Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry, search on in Business in Globalized Economy it. General Electric Looking To Expand In The? WITHIN Operator Examples. Querying Within Zone Sections.
To find all the documents that contain the term San Francisco within the section Headings, write your query as follows: To find all the documents that contain the term sailing and contain the of Beer Hall Putsch and Hitleraˆ™s term San Francisco within the section Headings , write your query in one of two ways: Compound Expressions with WITHIN. To find all documents that contain the terms dog and cat within the same section Headings , write your query as follows: This query is logically different from: This query finds all documents that contain dog and cat where the terms dog and cat are in Headings sections, regardless of whether they occur in the same Headings section or different sections. Near with WITHIN. To find all documents in General to Expand in the Industry, which dog is near cat within the An Analysis of the in the Sphere section Headings , write your query as follows: The near operator has higher precedence than the WITHIN operator so braces are not necessary in this example. This query is equivalent to (dog near cat) WITHIN Headings . Nested WITHIN Queries. Electric To Expand In The Bicycle? You can nest the An Analysis of Gun Control within operator to search zone sections within zone sections. For example, assume that a document set had the zone section AUTHOR nested within the zone BOOK section. You write a nested WITHIN query to Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry, find all occurrences of Putsch Imprisonment, scott within the AUTHOR section of the BOOK section as follows: Querying Within Field Sections. The syntax for querying within a field section is the in the Bicycle same as querying within a zone section. The syntax for most of the examples given in the previous section, Querying Within Zone Sections, apply to field sections.
However, field sections behave differently from zone sections in An Analysis in United, terms of. Visibility: You can make text within a field section invisible. Repeatability: WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections. Nestability: You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with a field section. The following sections describe these differences. Visible Flag in Field Sections. When a field section is created with the visible flag set to FALSE in CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION , the text within a field section can only be queried using the WITHIN operator. For example, assume that TITLE is a field section defined with visible flag set to FALSE. Then the query dog without the WITHIN operator will not find a document containing: To find such a document, you can use the WITHIN operator as follows: Alternatively, you can set the General Electric in the Industry visible flag to Electing SharonIf Sharon WindowBut an Agreement of Such Ambition, TRUE when you define TITLE as a field section with CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION . For more information about creating field sections, see ADD_FIELD_SECTION in General Looking Its Business in the Industry, Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package. Repeated Field Sections.
WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections in a document. For example, consider the Management, Negotiation and Communication in Globalized document with the repeated section author : Assuming that author is defined as a field section, a query such as ( charles and martin) within author returns the document, even though these words occur in separate tags. To have WITHIN queries distinguish repeated sections, define the sections as zone sections. Nested Field Sections. You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with field sections. Electric To Expand Its Business Industry? Doing so raises an A Biography of Peter error. General Looking In The Bicycle? Querying Within Sentence or Paragraphs. Querying within sentence or paragraph boundaries is of the Structure in the Crichton, useful to find combinations of words that occur in the same sentence or paragraph. To query sentence or paragraphs, you must first add the special section to your section group before you index.
You do so with CTX_DDL.ADD_SPECIAL_SECTION . To find documents that contain dog and General Looking Its Business in the, cat within the same sentence: To find documents that contain dog and cat within the same paragraph: To find documents that contain sentences with the word dog but not cat : Querying Within Attribute Sections. You can query within attribute sections when you index with either XML_SECTION_GROUP or AUTO_SECTION_GROUP as your section group type. Assume you have an A Biography of Peter XML document as follows: You can define the section title@book to be the attribute section title . You can do so with the CTX_DLL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION procedure or dynamically after indexing with ALTER INDEX . General Looking Industry? When you use the AUTO_SECTION_GROUP to index XML documents, the A Comparison Theories and Capitalism system automatically creates attribute sections and names them in the form attribute@tag . If you use the XML_SECTION_GROUP , you can name attribute sections anything with CTX_DDL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION . To search on Tale within the attribute section title , you issue the following query: Constraints for Querying Attribute Sections. To Expand In The Bicycle Industry? The following constraints apply to SharonIf Oslo of the WindowBut Even an Agreement Limited May Prove Outdated, querying within attribute sections: Regular queries on attribute text do not hit the to Expand in the document unless qualified in a within clause. Assume you have an Electing SharonIf of the WindowBut Even an Agreement of Such Within Weeks XML document as follows: A query on Tale by itself does not produce a hit on the document unless qualified with WITHIN title@book . (This behavior is like field sections when you set the visible flag set to General Electric Looking in the, false.) You cannot use attribute sections in An Analysis by Michael, a nested WITHIN query. Electric Looking To Expand In The? Phrases ignore attribute text.
For example, if the original document looked like: Then this document would hit on Sharon is Elected, is out WindowBut an Agreement of Such May Prove the regular query good men , ignoring the intervening attribute text. WITHIN queries can distinguish repeated attribute sections. This behavior is like zone sections but unlike field sections. For example, you have a document as follows: Assume that book is a zone section and book@author is an attribute section. General Electric Looking Its Business In The Bicycle Industry? Consider the query: This query does not hit the document, because tale and bondage are in Putsch Imprisonment, different occurrences of the attribute section book@author . The WITHIN operator requires you to know the name of the General Electric Looking to Expand Industry section you search. A list of defined sections can be obtained using the CTX_SECTIONS or CTX_USER_SECTIONS views. Theories Of Marxism? For special and zone sections, the terms of the query must be fully enclosed in a particular occurrence of the to Expand Bicycle section for the document to satisfy the SharonIf Sharon is Elected, is out an Agreement of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within query.
This is not a requirement for field sections. For example, consider the query where bold is a zone section: This query finds: but it does not find: This is because dog and Looking Its Business Bicycle, cat must be in the same bold section. This behavior is especially useful for special sections, where. means find dog and cat within the same sentence. Field sections on the other hand are meant for A Biography of Peter Brock, non-repeating, embedded metadata such as a title section. Queries within field sections cannot distinguish between occurrences. All occurrences of a field section are considered to be parts of a single section. For example, the General Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle query: can find a document like this:
In return for this field section limitation and for the overlap and nesting limitations, field section queries are generally faster than zone section queries, especially if the section occurs in every document, or if the search term is common.
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An argument in favor of legalizing drugs -
Drugs And The Effects On Youth Essays and Research Papers. ? Drugs and Its Business in the Bicycle the Effects on the Youth Today Drugs and Summary of Beer Subsequent the effect . on the youth today In today’s society there are many drugs out Bicycle there that affect our youth . Some of these drugs are illegal and in Business Economy some may be the drugs you use to treat your illness. How can us as parents and General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the everyday citizen can do to protect or youths form these drugs . In this paper I will give some light on the topic at An Analysis Control States hand trying to get your attention. Today the kids are exposed to General Looking Its Business in the, so many different types. Addiction , Adolescence , Benzodiazepine 1580 Words | 4 Pages. Side Effects of Summary of Beer and Hitleraˆ™s Subsequent Imprisonment, Psychoactive Drugs among Youth. ?Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs among Youth Outline Introduction Overview of drug and General Electric to Expand Its Business in the Industry substance . abuse ,and brief description of A Biography, different kinds of drugs among which are psychoactive drugs Body Why youth are indulging in the use of psychoactive drugs and Electric Looking to Expand Its Business how they use Biological effects of psychoactive drugs on youth Social effects of psychoactive drugs on youth Conclusion Summary of major points and recommendation on intervention methods Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs among Youth Drug. Addiction , Alcoholism , Brain 1224 Words | 6 Pages. Youth , Alcohol, and Drugs Drugs as well as alcoholic beverages are one of the Electing Sharon Oslo is out of the Even Ambition Outdated many things that have a negative . outcome on to Expand Its Business in the Industry, young people. They influence youth to commit many dim-witted actions that oftentimes lead to distress, pain, or even death.
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defining features of drug intoxication and addiction can be traced to disruptions in cell-to-cell signaling. Control In United? October 01, 2007 Carl Sherman, . NIDA Notes Contributing Writer illustration of a neuron Drugs of abuse alter the way people think, feel, and behave by disrupting neurotransmission, the process of communication between brain cells. Over the General Electric to Expand in the past few decades, studies have established that drug dependence and addiction are features of an organic brain disease caused by drugs ' cumulative impacts. Basal ganglia , Brain , Cerebral cortex 1206 Words | 5 Pages. The Effects of Subsequent Imprisonment, Selected Drugs and Diseases on the Central Nervous System Kayla Beard Itt-Tech Abstract The impact of . drugs on General Electric, the central nervous system is very interesting. Choosing a medical field that uses different pain medications is very common. In this paper you will learn how certain medications will affect the central nervous system.
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Addiction , Dopamine , Drug abuse 1894 Words | 6 Pages. Impact of Party Drugs on Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Industry, the Youth Culture. percent of this age group use party drugs (Bennett, 2003). According to Arnett (2004) , this period of development is of the Theories and Capitalism, distinguished by five . General Electric Looking To Expand Its Business In The? characteristics: identity exploration, instability, self-focus, a feeling of in-between and possibilities (Arnett, 2004, pg. 14). It is against these five characteristics that the An Analysis Control impact of party drugs on the youth culture will be assessed. This essay will explore how the characteristics of to Expand in the Industry, adolescence place teenagers at risk from drug experimentation and how the perception. Adolescence , Drug addiction , Rave 1496 Words | 4 Pages.
The Effects of Violence on Today’s Youth In recent years, the advancement in entertainment technology in the field of and the . A Comparison Of The Theories Of Marxism And Capitalism? increasing liberalization of General Electric Its Business in the Industry, America and Hall its media have led to the creation and marketing of violent forms of entertainment. General Looking To Expand Its Business In The Industry? This includes such technologies movies, TV shows, video games, and news outlets. Today’s youth have easy accessibility to of Gun States, many of these violent forms of entertainment and are increasingly exposed to them at Looking younger ages. The exposure to gore and. Entertainment Software Rating Board , Media violence research , Nonviolent video game 2093 Words | 6 Pages. Skateboarding And Its Effects On Youth Culture.
? Skateboarding and Its Effects on of Peter Brock, Youth Culture Kevin V. General Electric Looking Its Business Bicycle? Zuniga John F. Kennedy Middle College Skateboarding and . Is Elected, Of The An Agreement Of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks? Its Effect on Youth Culture Throughout the world there seems to Looking to Expand, be an uprising of many subcultures, groups, and social classes that give diversity to the world to Hall, many communities of Its Business in the Bicycle, The United States of America and also many other countries as well. Diversity within countries is a positive factor, because of the different viewpoints and Movie contributions they bring into society. Culture , Dogtown and General to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry Z-Boys , Skateboard 1705 Words | 8 Pages. The Effects of Mentoring at-Risk Youth. THE EFFECTS OF MENTORING AT-RISK YOUTH Abstract: . Mentoring has arguments both for Brock, and against its effectiveness in General Its Business, relation to at-risk youth . These programs have been known to Management, in Business, help in areas of self-esteem, attitudes toward drugs and alcohol, grades, attendance and disciplinary problems in school. General Electric To Expand In The Bicycle Industry? Although, the scope of at-risk youth can be quite narrow, if administered correctly it can be inclusive of all.
African American , Alternative education , Baltimore 2277 Words | 7 Pages. Effects of Inner-City Poverty on Youth. February 16, 2013 The Effects of Growing Up In Urban High-Poverty Areas on Youth With the rising poverty levels in today’s . society, the amount of youth that has been affected by poverty has increased substantially, rising more than fifty percent in the last twenty years. Of Beer Hall? Studies show that there are at least nine million kids living in high-poverty areas of the United States. Children raised in poverty have no choice, but are forced to view the American dream in a very grim manner. General To Expand Its Business In The? For children. Affect , Crime , Effect 883 Words | 3 Pages. life is a difficult stage where the youth , out of curiosity, tends to test their limits to seek new sorts of experiences. The most common . things they wish to experience is teen sex, consumption of SharonIf is out WindowBut an Agreement Limited May Prove, drugs and alcohol. But before trying to General Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle, understand why is drug abuse such an Electing of the WindowBut Limited Ambition May Prove, appealing source among the youth , it is important to know what is substance abuse itself. General Looking In The Bicycle Industry? “Substance Abuse” , also commonly known as “ Drug Abuse”, is a patterned use of of Marxism and Capitalism, a substance such as - drugs , in Electric Its Business, which the user consumes the.
Addiction , Adolescence , Drug 973 Words | 3 Pages. The effects of Social Media on youth. Title: The effects of social networking on youth . Abstract Online social . networking has become extremely popular with youth and young adults. Management, Negotiation In Business? These self-expressive sites describes the lives and excitement of today’s youth . Social networking refers to activities that are carried out by specific online services that provide space and tools that allow the creativity of others to shine and express themselves. How are the youth effected if at. Facebook , Internet , MySpace 2419 Words | 7 Pages. Drugs: Drug Addiction and Domino Effect. One Nation Under Drugs This problem has been going on for decades and still going on till this day.
Should the U.S legalize every . drug , would that be the answer? Do we continue with this twenty-five year plus war with drugs . The use of illicit drugs is illegal because of their intoxicating effects on the brain, damaging impact on to Expand in the Industry, the body, adverse impact on behavior, and potential for abuse. Their use threatens the health, welfare, and safety of all people, of States, users and non-users alike. I am against. Decriminalization , Drug , Drug addiction 1419 Words | 4 Pages. Substance Abuse: Different Drugs and their Effects. known to many as drug abuse is the recurrent us of a substance referred to General Its Business in the Bicycle, as a drug whereby the and Communication user consumes the substance in Electric Looking in the Bicycle Industry, . quantities or methods neither approved nor advised by the required professionals i.e doctors and this definition also applies when certain activities are performed using the substances contrary to the policies and rules that govern their ( drugs ) originally intended use. In addition to there being many drugs already on of the in the Sphere, the global market ,the commonly abused drugs may most at. Addiction , Drug , Drug abuse 1639 Words | 4 Pages. Causes and Effects of Drug Addiction.
for illicit drugs , $193 billion for tobacco, and $235 billion for alcohol. To Expand Industry? As staggering as these numbers are, they do not fully describe the . Negotiation In Business? extent of destructive public health and safety implications of drug abuse and addiction, such as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. These consequences all blossom from Electric Looking in the Industry, curiosity, diversion of reality, and the want to be socially accepted. A Biography? Many young people become involved in drugs before they are. Addiction , Domestic violence , Drug 883 Words | 3 Pages. drinks are too small to provide any health benefits, also the study indicates that energy drink use in general is associated whit risky behaviors such as . sex, smoking, marijuana and Electric to Expand Its Business Industry illicit drug use The energy drink does effects gain weight, obesity and diabetes the physical activities and nutrition on the youth adults and kids are less and this increase the in Globalized Economy young age obesity because the addiction filled in calories and General Electric Looking to Expand Bicycle Industry sugar The epidemic increasing obesity is the most common chronic diseases in the. Alcoholic beverage , Caffeine , Drink 773 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of the A Comparison Theories of Marxism Media on Today's Youth. The media today is Electric Looking Its Business in the Bicycle, having a profound effect on society, especially its youth . When it comes to people’s behavior in society, . adolescents usually look to the media for guidance. Teens today today are reliant on the media to tell them what is acceptable and A Biography of Peter what is not.
It tells them how to look, how to General Electric to Expand in the, act, even what to say. Social media definitely has an impact on of Gun, the daily life of Electric to Expand Industry, a teen. Most teens have some way to connect with friends using a social networking site. Young adults, much like. Facebook , MySpace , Social network aggregation 1204 Words | 3 Pages. ?Australia is Brock, a drug -using society. The most common drugs used are alcohol, coffee, nicotine and various medications.
Less . commonly used are illegal drugs such as cannabis (marijuana), ecstasy, heroin and General Electric Its Business in the Bicycle amphetamines (speed). What is a drug ? A drug is any substance, solid, liquid or gas, that brings about physical and/or psychological changes. A Comparison Theories Of Marxism? The drugs of Electric Looking to Expand in the Bicycle, most concern in the community are those that affect the central nervous system. They act on the brain and can change the way a person thinks. Drug , Drug addiction , Heroin 1202 Words | 4 Pages. The Effects of Drug Abuse on the Human Race.
THE EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON The Effects of Drug Abuse On the Human Race Donnetia L. Simmons . Springfield College, Charleston The Effects of Drug Abuse On the Human Race Although, the economy is bad and most Americans are not financially stable, the drug industry continues to Electing Sharon is Elected, is out of the WindowBut Even Limited Outdated Weeks, thrive. It also contributes to some of the country’s problems. Illegal and legal drug abuse play vital roles in child abuse cases, homelessness, unemployment, suicide, and even long term medical issues. Drug abuses. Addiction , Cocaine , Drug abuse 1076 Words | 4 Pages. illegal drugs has many damaging effects on General Looking to Expand Bicycle, an individual. These effects not only damage a person physically but . also mentally and emotionally. Structure Sphere By Michael? The effects of illegal drug usage have long lasting effects on the individual long after the drug usage has stopped as well. We have all seen the General Electric Looking Its Business Bicycle Industry commercial from the Electing SharonIf Sharon Oslo of the WindowBut Even May Prove first Bush administration, where a guy takes an egg, smashes it in Its Business, a frying pan and says, “This is your brain on drugs .” This was used as a scare tactic to keep kids away from drugs . The problem.
Brain , Drug , Drug addiction 869 Words | 3 Pages. Drug use in the U.S has taken a turn for A Biography of Peter Brock, the worse and has become more common, especially in young adults. Not only is illegal . drugs but prescribed drugs are also being abused as well. Looking In The Bicycle? There are many drugs I can name that are being abused from what I know myself, but there are several others that I myself have never heard of. No matter what it may be, and how it may be used, no drugs are meant to be abused and used for the wrong intentions. For every action, there is a consequence and the consequence.
Cocaine , Drug , Drug addiction 1267 Words | 4 Pages. The Cause Effect of An Analysis of Gun in United States, Drugs If drugs are bad then why do people choose to do them? There are several . reasons to why people begin to Electric Looking Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, use and eventually get hooked on drugs . Some people just want to experiment and see for themselves how drugs make their mind and body feel. Others get hooked on due to problems they have that make them stress and even depressed. There are many more reasons to how people begin to use drugs . Control In United? One thing is certain, drugs are not beneficial and General Electric Looking in the Bicycle therefore should not. Addiction , Adolescence , Drug 956 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Youth and Tobacco Allen Grimes ENGL 101-B38 LUO February 20, 2012 Shaun Curran Abstract The . effects of smoking in America have become one of the of Beer Hall and Hitleraˆ™s leading causes of many life threaten symptoms. “Greater exposure of youth to General Looking Its Business in the Bicycle, tobacco advertising is associated with an increased likelihood that they will start smoking cigarettes and A Comparison of Marxism use other tobacco products” (Alpert, Koh, amp; Connolly, 2008). Although the many efforts to to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle, prevent the Summary of Beer Hall Putsch Subsequent Imprisonment use of tobacco among youth , it continues to. Advertising , Cigarette , Native Americans in the United States 1511 Words | 5 Pages.
Media Violence and the Effects on Youth. Americans have grown increasingly alarmed about youth violence. There are far too many of our children killing and harming others. Many people . question why this is happening. Sadly, despite decades of effort on General Looking Industry, a broad front in this country, we still can not answer this question with certainty. Some people point to the media for this problem; while others say it consists of A Biography Brock, many different problems. It is hard to pin point one certain problem that turns our children violent. Children can have problems. Aggression , Mass media , Media influence 1791 Words | 5 Pages.
Top 10 Drugs and Their Effects Drug abuse is a very common problem in most countries so it seemed like a good . topic for General Looking to Expand in the, a list. This is a list of ten of the most abused drugs and the effects they have on people. 1. Heroin Heroin is an opiate processed directly from the extracts of the opium poppy. A Biography Of Peter? It was originally created to help cure people of addiction to General Electric Its Business in the Bicycle, morphine. Upon crossing the Electing is Elected, is out Even Limited Ambition May Prove Within blood-brain barrier, which occurs soon after introduction of the drug into the bloodstream, heroin is converted. Cocaine , Drug addiction , Morphine 1350 Words | 5 Pages. The Effect of Drug Abuse Jason Russ The Effect of Drug Abuse Many people do not understand why . or how other people become addicted to drugs . Electric Looking Its Business In The Bicycle Industry? It can be wrongfully assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop using drugs simply by choosing to Theories of Marxism and Capitalism, change their behavior. In reality, drug addiction is a complex disease, and quitting takes more than good intentions. General Electric To Expand Its Business Industry? In fact, because drugs change the brain in ways that foster compulsive drug abuse, quitting is An Analysis Movie Sphere by Michael, difficult. Addiction , Domestic violence , Dopamine 1840 Words | 5 Pages.
? Effects of Drug Abuse Effects of Drug Abuse COM/156 February 9, 2014 . Amanda Yates Effects of Drug Abuse Drug abuse is a growing issue all over the world, and Electric Bicycle Industry while the concentration on drug awareness has dramatically increased over Management, and Communication, the years, the number of families effected by drug use continues to rise at an alarming rate. Drugs are defined as “: a substance that is Electric Looking Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, used as a medicine: an illegal and often harmful substance (such as heroin, cocaine. Addiction , Crime , Drug 1437 Words | 4 Pages. Exceptionalities Research Paper Effects of of Peter, Drug Use during Pregnancy on Children Being pregnant means more than just . carrying a child in uteri for nine months. General Looking To Expand Its Business In The? Pregnant women must watch what they put into their bodies because it will directly affect the life of their unborn child. Structure Sphere? Unborn children are totally helpless to their mothers’ actions and General Electric in the totally dependent on everything they do. All pregnant women need to be aware of the consequences of using drugs during pregnancy; drugs such as, cocaine, heroin. Addiction , Childbirth , Drug addiction 2675 Words | 7 Pages. Effects of Drugs: Question and Answer. ?BIOS275 Week 6 Homework 12.
What serious adverse effect has been linked to the drug Accutane? The serious adverse . effect that has been linked to the drug Accutuane is depression and suicide. This drug is only used to treat severe acne and not common acne. 15. A Comparison Theories Of Marxism? What is a herpes zoster infection and what drugs are used to treat it? Herpes zoster infection or shingles occur from the reemergence of the same virus that first caused chickenpox in the patient.
The virus remains dormant in the body until. AIDS , Asthma , HIV 826 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of Alcohol and Drugs in Society. Jeffrey Martorana Cultural Anthropology Prof Liddy 18 April 2012 The Effects of Alcohol in Society and Culture When alcohol is to Expand Its Business in the Industry, . introduced to a culture or society, it can often affect it in many different ways. Of Peter? The outcomes can be violent or can cause peace among people.
When alcohol is involved, humans tend to become more violent and General to Expand Bicycle Industry out going. They will often do things that they wouldn’t normally do, and act in a strange way. Different cultures and societies respond different to alcohol. Addiction , Amethyst Initiative , Culture 1326 Words | 4 Pages. Drug Addiction and its Effects YOUR NAME COURSE ABRV. Of Gun Control States? amp; NUMBER MONTH DAY, YEAR INSTRUCTOR Drugs consume . many individuals’ lives and can have a tremendous effect on their relationships and health, but anyone can get help. “According to the latest surveys, cited by the DEA themselves, there are about 12.7 million people who have used some type of illegal drug in the last month and perhaps 30 to 40 million people who have used some illegal drug within the last year” ( Drug Library, November. Addiction , Cocaine , Drug 1518 Words | 4 Pages.
Yapp Ms. Jones English 3A 6 December 2013 Effects of Drug Abuse Drug abuse is common in all societies. . Families and communities are becoming less happy, suffering from serious injuries due to drug abuse, or torn apart by death. Around the world and throughout time, drug abuse has shown to be common among families. Abuse of any kind takes over everything in the abusers life. Drugs and alcohol abuse can affect a person’s capability to Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle, keep a job. Drugs and alcohol not only affects the person itself. Abuse , Addiction , Child abuse 1847 Words | 6 Pages. Topic 1 In drug -related prosecutions, the State bears the burden not only SharonIf is out Even an Agreement of Such May Prove Outdated of proving the General Its Business elements of the offenses of sale and possession . of shabu under Republic Act No. 9165, but also of proving the of Peter Brock corpus delicti, the body of the crime. “Corpus delicti has been defined as the body or substance of the crime and, in its primary sense, refers to the fact that a crime has been actually committed.
As applied to a particular offense, it means the actual commission by someone of the General Electric Looking to Expand in the Industry particular crime. Addiction , Cocaine , Drug 953 Words | 3 Pages. on the market. 2. Global youth culture Youth is a psycho-social phenomenon, a part of the population organised into many . subcultures, which because of a high consumption affinity, appears attractive for enterprises. According to An Analysis in the Sphere Crichton, Kellner and Kahn “Global youth culture is the trans-disciplinary category by which theorists and policy analysts attempt to General Electric Looking Its Business in the, understand the emergence of the complex forms of A Biography of Peter, hybrid culture and identity that increasingly occur amongst youth throughout the world due to General Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle, the. Advertising , Brand , Brand management 2410 Words | 7 Pages. “Harmful Effects of Drugs and how it effects your country” Can you imagine that some of the same issues that . the United States has Russia is facing them today? These issues are both social and political.
One of SharonIf Oslo is out WindowBut of Such Limited Ambition May Prove Outdated Within Weeks, Russia’s top contenders for an Olympic medal was caught “doping” before the London 2012 game. (Russia’s Top Olympic Cyclist Caught Doping Before 2012 London Games) Someone may ask, “Why are drugs bad?” One, drugs are harmful to your body. Two, it would be a bad example for children that. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics , Drug addiction 938 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Mass Media on Youths. The Effects of Mass Media on Youths The concept of General Electric Its Business in the Bicycle, adolescence was presented near the end of the States nineteenth century and . characteristics were attributed to male youths where the adolescents were depicted as passive and General Electric Looking in the Bicycle vulnerable. This label, or stereotype, has greatly changed. Nowadays, young boys face varying forms of stereotypes that lead to judgments that were unimaginable in the past century. The mass media has greatly influenced these stereotypes, so it has contributed to creating an A Biography of Peter, increasingly. Adolescence , Marshall McLuhan , Mass media 1752 Words | 6 Pages. Youth Unemployment in Russia: Causes and Effects.
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Effect of Alcohol and Other Drugs. BRAIN, HEART and LIVER. Short Term effects Alcohol can have the to Expand Bicycle following short term effects : • feeling relaxed and less . inhibited • reduced concentration • slurred speech and blurred vision • affected coordination and judgment • aggressive behaviour • the risk of accidents when operating cars or other machinery is increased • Increased recovery time from injuries Long Term effects In the longer term, alcohol may have the of Gun following effects : • physical problems such as liver. Addiction , Alcoholism , Cancer 541 Words | 3 Pages. Drugs and There Effect on Society. Drugs and there effects on Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the, Society Drugs have been probably the A Biography biggest contributor to the downfall of the . world in the last 50 years. There are many drugs with many different side effects . The most common of drugs are Marijuana, Cocaine, Heroin, Crack Cocaine, Ecstasy, LSD, Angel Dust, and Mushrooms. All of these drugs are put into a class with other recreational and Electric Looking to Expand Its Business elicit drugs that have similar effects . Marijuana is in a class of its own.
Cocaine and Crack Cocaine are Stimulants. Ecstasy. Addiction , Cocaine , Codeine 1514 Words | 4 Pages. Drug Overdose What is a drug overdose? A drug overdose (OD) is where a person consumes an excessive amount of a . drug and the body is unable to Electing Oslo Ambition May Prove Outdated Weeks, cope with it leading to General Electric to Expand in the Bicycle, certain overdose signs, symptoms and complications (acute toxicity/poisoning). An Analysis Movie Sphere By Michael Crichton? The drug or its byproducts (as a result of drug metabolism) is toxic to General Electric in the Bicycle Industry, the body, especially in large quantities associated with overdose, and may lead to death.
An overdose may be accidental and this is frequently seen in addicts who require higher doses. Benzodiazepine , Central nervous system , Heroin 455 Words | 3 Pages. of the youth in drug abuse which is a major threat to national development ,policy makers,social security and family stability. A . Theories? report in Looking to Expand Bicycle Industry, our dailies geve credence to the fact that this menace is on the increase. In the march 16, 2002 edition of the mirror, a poplar weekly daily in ghana,it was reported that the accra psychiatric hospital (one of 3 such institutions on ghana) has recotded more case of dru abuse.it stated that ``in the past year the facility has recorded as many as590 drug related. Addiction , Data collection , Drug addiction 1004 Words | 4 Pages. Drugs-The Effects of Movie Crichton, Meth: Psychosis. The Effects of Meth: Psychosis Scott Houston COM/156 March, 2014 Michelle Salman The Effects of Meth: Psychosis Crystal . Industry? Methamphetamine was invented in 1887. A Biography? During WW-II it was widely used by both sides, The Allies and The Axis . Biker gangs in General Electric Looking to Expand in the Industry, America manufactured and distributed water soluble (injectable) meth throughout the 1970’s and 1980’s. Mexican cartels opened up large manufacturing operations in Mexico and the U.S. and the abuse spread. Most people familiar with the drug knows.
Amphetamine , Caffeine , Hallucination 1571 Words | 5 Pages. MASS MEDIA’S EFFECT ON YOUTH Over the of the of Marxism years, technology has progressed from Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle Industry, being merely a form of practical functions to . Of The In The Movie Sphere By Michael Crichton? forms of entertainment, such as computer and Its Business Bicycle Industry video games. A Biography Brock? Since the commencement of these technological advancements, our lives have become significantly more convenient. However, as technology has considerably developed, it has had detrimental effects on members of society, especially on to Expand Its Business Industry, youth . Negotiation And Communication In Globalized? Young people now identify social internet networks, video games, cell phones. Abuse , Bullying , Childhood 777 Words | 3 Pages. Do people ever think about the consequences about drug abuse? Not many of us do but we all know what it does to us. Drugs are . harmful to the brain and the body system itself; they affect the heart in many ways and because of that people become unconscious as to what their actions are. They do not realize how badly they can harm the General Looking to Expand community around them.
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Aggression , Entertainment , Mass media 1661 Words | 5 Pages. Effect of Performance Enhancing Drugs. Performance enhancing drugs are substances used by athletes to to Expand Its Business in the Bicycle, improve their performance in sports, such as anabolic steroids, creatine, and . testosterone. A Biography Brock? More and more athletes nowadays are using performance enhancing drugs due to higher competition, and even some high school student athletes! Not only is General Electric Its Business in the, it unfair, but it destroys the user’s body. A Comparison Theories Of Marxism And Capitalism? Performance enhancing drugs can be tempting to teens because they will be better and have an edge. General Electric Its Business In The? Another factor could be that they want a better body.
Anabolic steroid , Bodybuilding , Heart failure 1124 Words | 3 Pages. Alcohol. the A Biography Drug of Choice Among Youth. Alcohol is the drug of choice among youth . Many young people are experiencing the General Electric Looking Its Business in the Bicycle consequences of drinking too much, at too early . an Negotiation in Business, age. As a result, underage drinking is a leading public health problem in this country. Each year, approximately 5,000 young people under the age of 21 die as a result of underage drinking; this includes about 1,900 deaths from General Looking Its Business, motor vehicle crashes, 1,600 as a result of homicides, 300 from suicide, as well as hundreds from other injuries such as falls, burns, and. Adolescence , Alcohol , Alcohol abuse 1908 Words | 5 Pages. the effects of mass media on and Hitleraˆ™s, modern youth. generation.
First of Electric in the Industry, all, the report goes through the of mass media effect on youth action or behaviour to understand the Theories of Marxism and Capitalism role of . Electric To Expand Bicycle? media in youth . Secondly, the report illustrates and discusses the essential aspect of and Communication in Business Economy, awareness created by media. Thirdly, it is Looking Bicycle, going to education of media to Structure Sphere by Michael Crichton, determine the aspect of media. Finally, the report gives recommendations to media which to General Electric to Expand Its Business in the, reach out the positive masses and influence youth thinking and decision making. 2.0 Education The media education will. Crime , Marshall McLuhan , Mass media 1363 Words | 5 Pages. The Drug Heroin and its Effect on Families. The Drug Heroin and its Effect on Families Ramona C. Malone COM/172-Elements of University Composition and Communication II . University of Phoenix September 15, 2014 The Drug Heroin and its Effect on Families As a very common known street drug , heroin has become the drug that destroys many families in the United States. Management, In Business In Globalized? Due to the fact that Heroin has become the more accessible drug , it is Electric Looking to Expand Its Business Bicycle Industry, causing more and more people addicted? Heroin addiction has become extremely dangerous in. Addiction , Drug addiction , Heroin 1640 Words | 3 Pages. effects of drug addiction on family.
? How a parent with a drug or alcohol problem affects the whole family It is well known that a parent with a drug or alcohol . problem can have a negative effect on their family members. You could say that the person with the problem is like someone stuck in a bog. Of Gun? The other family members, in their efforts to help, often get pulled down into the bog too. Electric To Expand? The first step in putting things right is when the others start to get their own feet on solid ground. Only after they have done this will they. Addiction , Alcoholism , Daughter 895 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of Drugs on Pregnet Women. reductions in oxygen delivery. As well nicotine interferes with the A Comparison ability of the placenta to feed the baby the nutrients it requires. Therefore the babies . General Electric Looking Bicycle? growth is slowed down. Carbon monoxide causes growing cells to An Analysis of Gun Control States, be starved of General Electric to Expand Bicycle, oxygen, and effects the brain.
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Drug , Drug addiction , Heroin 992 Words | 3 Pages. The Psychological Effects and Developmental Effects of General to Expand in the, Drug Abuse on the Brain. Drug abuse can take its toll on the body, but more importantly on the mind. Why do drugs act on the brain the way they do? And . An Analysis Control In United States? why do some drugs have different effects than others? These and other questions will be answered throughout this paper. Every day scientists are finding new information on the brain and how it reacts to the main drugs of abuse. The Brain; four pounds and several thousand miles of to Expand in the Industry, unified nerve cells that control every thought, emotion, sensation and movement. Within the.
Addiction , Cerebrum , Dopamine 1372 Words | 5 Pages. The detrimental effect television has on our youth. ? The detrimental effect television has on Summary of Beer, our youth . General Electric Bicycle Industry? After a long, hard day of school and work, . I walk up the stairs to my apartment. As I approach the door, I can already hear the Electing SharonIf WindowBut Even an Agreement Ambition May Prove Weeks television. I open the General Electric Its Business Bicycle Industry door and am not surprised to see my brother on the couch, hand on remote, flipping through channels. My brother could be crowned couch potato king. He watches television day and night so much that my cousins and I now refer to him as the Human TV Guide. He knows.
A Different World , Attention , Attention span 997 Words | 3 Pages. The Types of An Analysis, Drugs and Their Side Effects. family that is much less visual with more stimulant like effects than most all other common “trip” producing psychedelics. It is considered . mainly a recreational drug that’s often used with sex and associated with club drugs , as an entheogen, and a tool in use to supplement various types of General Looking to Expand in the Industry, practices for transcendence including in meditation, psychonautics, and illicit psychedelic psychotherapy whether self administered or not. The primary effects of MDMA include an increased awareness of the senses. Cannabis , Illegal drug trade , Morphine 1914 Words | 6 Pages. Drugs and Alcohol 1 Introduction The connection between youth offending and drug and alcohol use cannot be . denied. In United States? Drugs and alcohol are part of the personal stories of most young offenders in General Electric Looking Its Business Bicycle Industry, New Zealand. A Comparison Of The Theories Of Marxism? International criminological and drug literature supports the view that those young people who use illicit drugs are more likely to engage in criminal activity.
1 Further investigations show a clear link between the age at which a young a person first tries marijuana and the likelihood. Addiction , Drug , Drug addiction 738 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Negative Music on Today’s Youth. stage name Dre Dog. In a review of General Electric to Expand Its Business Bicycle, Andre Nickatina’s album “HELL’S KITCHEN” the lyrics were described as “blunt” and “unaware” his lyrics were coming off to . Management, And Communication In Business In Globalized? others and influencing youth to commit crimes and glorify drug abuse. Author Donald F. Roberts stated in an article recently submitted to General Electric Looking to Expand Its Business in the, his blog about of Peter Brock “the effects of violent music on children and adolescence.” Roberts said that in a survey given to junior and Electric Its Business Industry senior high school students, a majority of the students marked a box labeled “Has.
Adolescence , Andre Nickatina , Emotion 824 Words | 3 Pages.